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ROUST, r[=oo]st, _n._ a current in the sea.--_v.i._ to drive strongly.

ROUSTABOUT, rowst'a-bowt', _n._ (_Amer._) a common wharf labourer: a shiftless vagrant.--Also ROUS'TER.

ROUT, rowt, _n._ a tumultuous crowd, a rabble: a large party: a fashionable evening assembly.--_n._ ROUT'-CAKE, a rich sweet cake for evening parties.--_adjs._ ROUT'ISH, clamorous: disorderly; ROUT'OUS. [O. Fr.

_route_, a band--Low L. _rupta_, thing broken--L. _rump[)e]re_, _ruptum_, to break.]

ROUT, rowt, _n._ the defeat of an army or body of troops: the disorder of troops defeated: a pack of wolves.--_v.i._ to assemble together.--_v.t._ to put to disorderly flight: to defeat and throw into confusion: to conquer: to drag out, or into the light.--PUT TO ROUT, to put to flight. [O. Fr.

_route_--L. _ruptus_, _rupta_, pa.p. of _rump[)e]re_, to break.]

ROUT, rowt, _v.i._ to roar like a cow: to snore: to howl like the wind.

[A.S. _hrutan_, to roar.]

ROUT, rowt, _v.t._ to root up, as a pig: to scoop out.--_v.i._ to poke about--also WROUT.--_n._ ROUT'ER, a sash-plane, as ROUT'ER-GAUGE, for inlaid work.--_v.t._ ROUT'ER, to cut out, leaving some parts in relief.--_ns._ ROUT'ER-PLANE, a plane for the bottoms of rectangular cavities; ROUT'ER-SAW; ROUT'ING-MACHINE', a shaping-machine for wood, metal, or stone. [_Root._]

ROUT, rowt, _n._ the brent goose. [Ice. _hrota_.]

ROUTE, r[=oo]t, _n._ a course to be traversed: a line of march: road: track.--_n._ ROUTE'-STEP, an order of march in which soldiers are not required to keep step.--STAR ROUTE, in the United States, a post route by means other than steam, the blank contracts for which have three groups of four stars. [Fr.,--L. _rupta_ (_via_), 'a broken way.']

ROUTH, rowth, _adj._ (_Scot._) plentiful, abundant--also _n._--_adj._ ROUTH'IE, plentiful, well filled.

ROUTIER, r[=oo]-ti-[=a]', _n._ a French brigand of the 12th century: any brigand or armed robber.

ROUTINE, r[=oo]-t[=e]n', _n._ course of duties: regular course of action: an unvarying round.--_adj._ keeping an unvarying round.--_adj._ ROUTI'NARY, customary, ordinary.--_ns._ ROUTINEER'; ROUTI'NISM; ROUTI'NIST. [Fr.]

ROUTLE, row'tl, _v.t._ (_dial._) to disturb: to root out.

ROUX, r[=oo], _n._ a mixture of melted butter and flour for soups, &c.


ROVE, r[=o]v, _v.t._ to wander over: to plough into ridges.--_v.i._ to wander about: to ramble: to range: to aim, as in archery, at some casual mark: to be light-headed: to be full of fun.--_n._ a wandering.--_ns._ R[=O]'VER, one who roves: a robber or pirate: a wanderer: an inconstant person: in archery, a person shooting with a long bow and arrow: an arrow used by a rover: an irregular point to be aimed at: in croquet, a ball that has gone through all the hoops; R[=O]'VERY; R[=O]'VING, the act of wandering.--_adv._ R[=O]'VINGLY.--_n._ R[=O]'VINGNESS.--SHOOT AT ROVERS, to shoot at random. [M. E. _rover_, a robber--Dut. _roover_, a pirate, _rooven_, to rob--_roof_. The verb _rove_ is from the noun _roof_, plunder.]

ROVE, r[=o]v, _v.t._ to draw through an eye: to bring wool into the form it receives before being spun into thread: to ravel out thread: to undo what has been knit: to card.--_n._ a roll of wool or cotton drawn out and twisted.--_ns._ R[=O]'VING, the process of giving the first twist to yarn: a slightly twisted sliver of carded fibre; R[=O]'VING-FRAME, a machine for the manufacture of cotton and worsted; R[=O]'VING-MACHINE', a machine for winding on bobbins; R[=O]'VING-PLATE, a scraper used for giving a grindstone a true circular form; R[=O]'VING-REEL, a device for measuring a hank of yarn. [Prob. a variant of _reeve_ or of _rive_.]

ROVE-BEETLE, r[=o]v'-b[=e]'tl, _n._ a brachelytrous coleopterous insect, as the devil's coach-horse.--_n._ R[=O]'VER-BEE'TLE, a salt-water insect.

ROW, r[=o], _n._ a line: a rank: persons or things in a line.--_v.t._ to arrange in a line. [A.S. _raw_, _rawe_; Ger. _reihe_, Dut. _rij_.]

ROW, r[=o], _v.t._ to impel with an oar: to transport by rowing.--_v.i._ to work with the oar: to be moved by oars.--_n._ an excursion in a rowing-boat.--_adj._ ROW'ABLE.--_ns._ ROW'BOAT, a boat moved by rowers; ROW'ER; ROW'-PORT, a small square hole in small vessels near the water-line for the oars in a calm. [A.S. _rowan_; Ger. _rudern_, Ice. _roa_.]

ROW, row, _n._ a noisy squabble: uproar: an outbreak: a brawl.--_v.t._ to injure by wild treatment: to abuse, scold.--_v.i._ to behave in a riotous way.--_adj._ ROW'DY, noisy and turbulent, given to quarrelling.--_n._ a rough, disreputable fellow.--_n._ ROW'DY-DOW, a sustained noise or hubbub, a row.--_adjs._ ROW'DY-DOW'DY, given to raising rows, uproarious; ROW'DYISH.--_ns._ ROW'DYISM, the conduct of a rowdy or rough, turbulence; ROW'ER, one given to quarrels. [Put for _rouse_ (q.v.).]

ROW, row, _n._ (_Scot._) a form of _roll_.--_n._ ROW'-CLOTH, a folding cloak of warm cloth.

ROWAN, row'an, _n._ the mountain-ash, or quicken-tree, a British tree belonging to the natural order _Rosaceae_, whose acid fruit--ROWAN BERRIES--is sometimes used for preserves.--Also ROAN-TREE. [Scand., Sw.

_roun_, Dan. _ron_, Ice. _reynir_.]

ROWEL, row'el, _n._ the little wheel in a spur, set with sharp points: a little flat wheel or ring on horses' bits: a seton inserted in the flesh of an animal.--_v.t._ to put spurs on: to apply the spur to.--_ns._ ROW'EL-HEAD, the axis on which a rowel turns; ROW'ELING-NEED'LE, a needle used for inserting a rowel or seton; ROW'ELING-SCIS'SORS, a farrier's instrument for inserting rowels; ROW'EL-SPUR, a spur having several radiating points. [Fr. _rouelle_--Low L. _rotella_, dim. of L. _rota_, a wheel.]

ROWEN, row'en, _n._ the aftermath, or second crop of hay: (_prov._) a stubble-field.

ROWLOCK, r[=o]'lok, or rul'uk, _n._ a contrivance on the wale of a boat, to rest the oar in rowing.--Also ROLL'OCK, RULL'OCK. [Prob. A.S. _arloc_.]

ROWME, rowm, _n._ (_Spens._) room, space, place.

ROXBURGHE, roks'bur-[=o], _n._ a style of binding for books, with cloth or paper sides, plain leather back, gilt-top, other sides untrimmed, named from the Duke of _Roxburghe_ (1740-1804).

ROY, roi, _n._ (_obs._) a king. [O. Fr.,--L. _rex_, _regis_.]

ROYAL, roi'al, _adj._ regal, kingly: magnificent: illustrious: magnanimous: enjoying the favour or patronage of the sovereign: of more than common size or excellence.--_n._ a large kind of paper (19 by 24 in. for writing-paper, 20 by 25 for printing-paper): (_obs._) a royal person, a king: a gold coin: a sail immediately above the topgallant sail: one of the shoots of a stag's head: a small mortar: a tuft of beard on the lower lip, an imperial.--_n._ ROY'ALET, a petty king.--_v.t._ ROY'ALISE (_Shak._), to make royal.--_ns._ ROY'ALISM, attachment to kings or to kingly government; ROY'ALIST, an adherent of royalism: a cavalier during the English civil war: in American history, an adherent of the British government: in French history, a supporter of the Bourbons--also _adj._--_adv._ ROY'ALLY.--_n._ ROY'AL-MAST, the fourth and highest part of the mast from the deck, commonly made in one piece with the topgallant mast.--_adj._ ROY'AL-RICH (_Tenn._), rich as a king.--_n._ ROY'ALTY, kingship: the character, state, or office of a king: majesty: the person of the king or sovereign: fixed sum paid to the Crown or other proprietor, as on the produce of a mine, &c.: kingdom: royal authority: a royal domain: (_Scot._) the bounds of a royal burgh.--ROYAL BOUNTY, a fund from which the sovereign grants money to the female relatives of officers who die of wounds; ROYAL CASHMERE, a thin material of pure wool; ROYAL FERN (_Osmunda regalis_), the most striking of British ferns; ROYAL HORNED CATERPILLAR, a large bombycid moth of the United States; ROYAL HOUSEHOLD, the body of persons in the service of the sovereign.--THE ROYALS, a name formerly given to the first regiment of foot in the British army. [Fr.,--L. _regalis_, regal.]

ROYENA, roi'e-na, _n._ a genus of gamopetalous plants of the ebony family.

[From the 18th-century Dutch botanist Adrian van _Royen_.]

ROYNE, roin, _v.t._ to bite, to gnaw.--_adj._ ROY'NISH (_Shak._), scurvy, mangy: mean. [O. Fr. _rogne_, mange--L. _rubigo_, rust.]

ROYNE, roin, _v.i._ to whisper, mutter.--Also ROIN, ROWND. [Cf. _Round_, to whisper.]

ROYSTERER, roist'[.e]r-[.e]r, _n._ Same as ROISTERER.

ROYTISH, roi'tish, _adj._ (_obs._) wild: irregular.

RUB, rub, _v.t._ to move something over the surface of with pressure or friction: to clean, polish, or smooth, by passing something over: to wipe: to scour: to remove by friction (with _off_, _out_): to erase or obliterate (with _out_): to touch hard, fret: at bowls, to touch the jack with the bowl.--_v.i._ to move along with pressure, friction, or difficulty: to get through difficulties: to grate, to fret:--_pr.p._ rub'bing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ rubbed.--_n._ the act of rubbing: that which rubs: a collision: an obstruction: difficulty: a pinch: a joke: a sarcasm: a flaw: a rubber at cards.--_ns._ RUB'-A-DUB, the sound of the drum when beaten; RUB'-[=I]'RON, a wheel-guard, or wheel-guard plate; RUB'STONE, a whetstone: a coarse-grained sandstone used for sharpening instruments.--RUBBED WORK, work in stone smoothed by rubbing with gritstone; RUB DOWN, to rub from top to bottom; RUB IN, to force into the pores of by friction: to reiterate or emphasise; RUB OUT, to erase; RUB THE WRONG WAY, to irritate by opposition; RUB UP, to polish: to freshen the memory. [Most prob. Celt.; Gael. _rub_, W. _rhwbio_, to rub, to grind.]

RUBASSE, r[=oo]-bas', _n._ a beautiful variety of rock-crystal. [Fr.,--L.

_rubeus_, reddish.]

RUBATO, r[=oo]-ba'to, _adj._ (_mus._) in modified or distorted rhythm.

[It., pa.p. of _rubare_, to steal.]

RUBBER, rub'[.e]r, _n._ one who rubs down horses: one who practises massage: a coarse towel for rubbing the body: a piece of caoutchouc for erasing pencil-marks, india-rubber: a brush for erasing marks of chalk: the cushion of an electric machine: a whetstone, a file: an emery-cloth: an overshoe: a rub, as 'One who plays with bowls must expect to meet with rubbers': a contest of three games, as at whist--also the deciding game in such a series.--_adj._ made of caoutchouc or india-rubber.--_ns._ RUBB'ER-CLOTH, a fabric coated with caoutchouc; RUBB'ER-DAM, a sheet of caoutchouc used by dentists to keep saliva out of a tooth while being filled; RUBB'ER-GAUGE, a device for measuring the amount of india-rubber needed to make a given article; RUBB'ER-MOULD, a vulcanite mould used by dentists in shaping the plates for artificial teeth; RUBB'ER-MOUNT'ING, in saddlery, harness-mounting with vulcanite in imitation of RUBB'ERS, a disease in sheep, with great heat and itchiness.--_ns._ RUBB'ER-SAW, a circular rotatory knife for cutting india-rubber; RUBB'ER-STAMP, an instrument for stamping by hand with ink, the letters, &c., being in flexible vulcanised rubber; RUBB'ER-TYPE, a type cast in rubber; RUBB'ING, an application of friction: a copy of an inscribed surface produced by rubbing heel-ball or plumbago upon paper laid over it.--_ns._ RUBB'ING-MACHINE', a machine used in linen bleaching; RUBB'ING-POST, a stone or wooden post set up for cattle to rub themselves against; RUBB'ING-STONE, a gritstone for erasing the marks on a stone.

RUBBISH, rub'ish, _n._ waste matter: the fragments of ruinous buildings: any mingled mass: nonsense: trash: trumpery: litter.--_n._ RUBB'ISH-HEAP, a pile of rubbish.--_adj._ RUBB'ISHING, trashy: paltry.--_n._ RUBB'ISH-PULL'EY, a gin-block.--_adj._ RUBB'ISHY, worthless. [M. E.

_robows_, _robeux_--O. Fr. _robeux_, pl. of _robel_, dim. of _robe_, _robbe_, trash, whence also _rubble_; cf. It. _roba_, rubbish, spoil.]

RUBBLE, rub'l, _n._ the upper fragmentary decomposed matter of a mass of rock: water-worn stones: small, undressed stones used in coarse masonry.--_ns._ RUBB'LE-STONE (same as RUBBLE): also (_geol._) a kind of conglomerate rock; RUBB'LE-WORK, a coarse kind of masonry of stones left almost as they come from the quarry, or only dressed a little with the hammer.--_adj._ RUBB'LY. [O. Fr. _robel_, pl. _robeux_, dim. of _robe_, _robbe_, _rubbish_; cf. It. _roba_, and the cognate _rob_.]

RUBECULA, r[=oo]-bek'[=u]-la, _n._ a genus of birds, such as the robin redbreast. [L. _rub[=e]re_, to be red.]

RUBEDITY, r[=oo]-bed'i-ti, _n._ ruddiness.--_adj._ RUBED'INOUS. [L.

_rubedo_, redness--_rub[=e]re_, to be red.]

RUBEFACIENT, r[=oo]b-e-f[=a]'shent, _adj._ making ruby or red.--_n._ (_med._) an external application which stimulates and consequently reddens the skin.--_n._ RUBEFAC'TION, the effect or action of a rubefacient. [L.

_rub[=e]re_, to be red, _faciens_, _-entis_, _pr.p._ of _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

RUBELLA, r[=oo]-bel'a, _n._ a contagious disease, with rose-coloured eruption.--Also RUB[=E]'OLA, and _German measles_.

RUBESCENT, r[=oo]-bes'ent, _adj._ tending to a red colour.--_n._ RUBES'CENCE, a growing or becoming red: tendency to redness. [L.

_rubesc[)e]re_, to grow red--_ruber_, red.]

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