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ROTE, r[=o]t, _n._ the mechanical repetition of words without knowledge of the meaning: a row or rank.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to learn by rote. [O. Fr.

_rote_, a track--Low L. _rupta_, a road--_rump[)e]re_, to break.]

ROTE, r[=o]t, _n._ a musical instrument with strings.--_n._ R[=O]'TOUR. [O.

Fr. _rote_, a fiddle (cf. Old High Ger. _hrot[=a]_), from Celt.; W.

_crwth_, Gael. _cruit_.]

ROTE, r[=o]t, _n._ the sound of the surf.

ROTELLA, r[=o]-tel'a, _n._ a disc, a round shield: a genus of gasteropods.

[Dim. of L. _rota_, a wheel.]

ROTHER, roth'[.e]r, _adj._ (_Shak._) roaring, lowing, denoting cattle generally, or horned or black cattle.--_n._ ROTH'ER-BEAST. [A.S. _hrther_, an ox, a cow; cf. Ger. pl. _rinder_, horned cattle.]

ROTHESAY HERALD, one of the six Scottish heralds.

ROTIFER, r[=o]t'if-[.e]r, _n._ one of a class of minute aquatic animals, popularly called wheel-animalcules, with an anterior equipment of cilia whose movements suggest a rapidly rotating wheel:--_pl._ ROTIF'ERA.--_adjs._ ROTIF'ERAL; ROTIF'EROUS; R[=O]'TIFORM, wheel-shaped: (_bot._) having a short tube and spreading limb. [L. _rota_, a wheel, _ferre_, to carry.]

ROTL, rot'l, _n._ an Arabian pound of twelve ounces.

ROTONDE, r[=o]-tond', _n._ a ruff worn during the beginning of the 17th century: a cope. [Fr.]

ROTOR, r[=o]'tor, _n._ a quantity having magnitude, direction, and position. [_Rotator._]

ROTTEN, rot'n, _adj._ putrefied: corrupt: decomposed: unsound: treacherous: fetid: friable, as rottenstone.--_adv._ ROTT'ENLY, in a rotten manner: defectively.--_ns._ ROTT'ENNESS; ROTT'ENSTONE, a soft and earthy stone powdered to polish brass, &c.--_v.t._ to polish with rottenstone. [_Rot._]

ROTTLERA, rot'ler-a, _n._ a genus of Indian euphorbiaceous plants now included under _Mallotus_, yielding kamila (q.v.) dye.

ROTTOLO, rot'[=o]-l[=o], _n._ a Levantine weight. [It.]

ROTULA, rot'[=u]-la, _n._ the patella or knee-pan: one of the five radial pieces in the dentary apparatus of the sea-urchin.--_adjs._ ROT'[=U]LAR; ROT'[=U]LIFORM.

ROTUND, r[=o]-tund', _adj._ round: spherical: convexly protuberant.--_ns._ ROTUN'DA, ROTUN'DO, a round building, esp. with a dome, as the Pantheon at Rome.--_adjs._ ROTUN'D[=A]TE, rounded off, specifically noting bodies rounded off at the end; ROTUNDIF[=O]'LIOUS, having round leaves; ROTUN'DIOUS, ROTUND[=O]'VATE (_bot._), egg-shaped.--_ns._ ROTUND'NESS, ROTUN'DITY, globular form.--_adj._ ROTUND'-POINT'ED, bluntly pointed. [L.

_rotundus_--_rota_, a wheel.]

ROTURE, r[=o]-t[=u]r', _n._ in Canadian law, a grant made of feudal property: plebeian rank in France.--_n._ ROTURIER (ro-tu-ri-[=a]'), a plebeian. [Fr.,--Low L. _ruptura_, ground broken by the plough--L.

_rump[)e]re_, _ruptum_, to break.]


ROUCHED, rowcht, _adj._ wrinkled, puckered. [_Ruck_, a wrinkle.]

ROUCOU, r[=oo]'k[=oo], _n._ a dye--arnotto. [Fr.,--Braz.]

ROUe, r[=oo]-[=a]', _n._ a fashionable profligate: a rake, debauchee.--_n._ ROU'ERIE, debauchery. [A name given by Philippe, Duke of Orleans, Regent of France 1715-23, to his dissolute companions--Fr. _roue_, one broken on the wheel--pa.p. of _rouer_--_roue_--L. _rota_, a wheel.]

ROUELLE, r[=oo]-el', _n._ a wheel-like amulet of the ancient Gauls, intended to symbolise the sun.--_n._ ROUELLE'-GUARD, a guard having the shape of a disc, as on some old daggers. [Fr.]


ROUGE, r[=oo]zh, _n._ a powder used to give artificial colour to the cheeks or lips.--_v.t._ to colour with rouge.--_v.i._ to use rouge: to blush.--_ns._ ROUGE'-BERR'Y, a shrub of tropical America, whose berries supply a cosmetic; ROUGE'-DISH, a saucer containing a thin layer of dry rouge; ROUGE-ET-NOIR, a modern game of chance, played by the aid of packs of cards on a table covered with green cloth--also _Trente-un_ and _Trente-et-quarante_.--ROUGE CROIX, one of the four pursuivants of the English College of Heralds; ROUGE DRAGON, one of the pursuivants of the Heralds' College. [Fr. _rouge_ (It. _roggio_, _robbio_)--L. _rubeus_, red.]

ROUGET, r[=oo]-zh[=a]', _n._ an infectious disease of swine.

[Fr.,--_rouge_, red.]

ROUGH, ruf, _adj._ not smooth: uneven: uncut: unpolished: unfinished: boisterous: tempestuous: violent: harsh: severe: rude: coarse: disordered in appearance: hasty, as a rough guess: stale: astringent: in Greek grammar, marking the stronger aspiration, equivalent to Eng. _h_.--_n._ rough condition, crudeness: a piece inserted in a horse's shoe to keep him from slipping: a bully, a ruffian, a rowdy.--_v.t._ to make rough: to roughen a horse's shoes to keep him from slipping: to shape roughly: to roughen.--_v.i._ to break the rules in boxing by too great violence.--_n._ ROUGH'AGE, coarse material for bedding cattle, &c.--_adj._ ROUGH'-BILLED, having a rough, horny excrescence on the beak.--_v.t._ ROUGH'-CAST, to mould in a rough, unfinished way: to form anything in its first rudiments.--_n._ a rude model: a form in its rudiments: a kind of semi-fluid mortar containing fine gravel, thrown in a thin coating on outer walls.--_vs.t._ ROUGH'-CULL, to cull oysters hastily; ROUGH'-DRAFT, -DRAW, to trace roughly; ROUGH'-DRY, to dry without smoothing.--_adj._ dry without having been smoothed.--_v.t._ ROUGH'EN, to make rough.--_v.i._ to become rough.--_n._ ROUGH'ER, a workman who shapes something preparatory to a finishing operation: a piece of woollen cloth in preparation for fulling.--_adjs._ ROUGH'-FOOT'ED, having feathered feet, as a grouse; ROUGH'-GRAINED, coarse-grained.--_v.t._ ROUGH'-GRIND, to grind roughly.--_n._ ROUGH'-HEAD, the iguanoid lizard.--_v.t._ ROUGH'-HEW, to hew coarsely: (_Shak._) to give to anything the first appearance of form.--_n._ ROUGH'-HEW'ER.--_p.adj._ ROUGH'-HEWN, not yet nicely finished: unpolished: unrefined.--_ns._ ROUGH'-HOUND, the dogfish: a kind of shark; ROUGH'IE (_Scot._), dried heath; ROUGH'ING-MILL, a metal disc charged with wet emery, &c., for grinding gems.--_adjs._ ROUGH'ISH, rather rough; ROUGH'-LEGGED, having legs covered with feathers.--_adv._ ROUGH'LY, coarsely: harshly: rudely.--_ns._ ROUGH'NESS, crudeness: rawness: harshness: asperity: physical or mental rudeness: (_U.S._) fodder consisting of dried corn-stalks: (_Scot._) plenty, esp. of food.--_adj._ ROUGH'-PER'FECT, of an actor when nearly perfect in the memorising of a part.--_ns._ ROUGH'-RID'ER, one who rides rough or untrained horses: a horse-breaker; ROUGH'-SCUFF, a coarse fellow: the rabble.--_adj._ ROUGH'-SHOD, shod with roughened shoes, as a horse in frosty weather.--_n._ ROUGH'-SLANT, a shed partially enclosed, for shelter.--_adj._ ROUGH'-SPUN, rude, homely.--_ns._ ROUGH'-STRING, one of the supports for the steps of a wooden stairway; ROUGH'-STUFF, coarse paint laid on after the priming, and before the finish; ROUGH'-TAIL, a shield-tail snake.--_adj._ ROUGH'-TAILED.--_n._ ROUGH'-WING, a British moth: a rough-winged swallow.--_adj._ ROUGH'-WINGED.--_v.t._ ROUGH'-WORK, to work over hastily without attention to execution in detail--also _n._--ROUGH AND READY, rough in manner but prompt in action; ROUGH AND TUMBLE, said of fighting in any style or by any means: indiscriminate, confused, not too particular about decorum, fairness, &c.; ROUGH DIAMOND (see DIAMOND); ROUGH IT, to take what comes.--CUT UP ROUGH, to become quarrelsome or violent; IN THE ROUGH, in an unwrought or rude condition; RIDE ROUGH-SHOD (see RIDE). [A.S. _ruh_, rough; Ger. _rauch_, _rauh_, Dut. _ruig_.]

ROUGHT, rawt, an obsolete pret. of _reck_.

ROULADE, r[=oo]-lad', _n._ (_mus._) a melodic embellishment: a run.

[Fr.,--_rouler_, to roll.]

ROULE, r[=oo]l, _n._ an obsolete form of _roll_.

ROULEAU, r[=oo]-l[=o]', _n._ a roll of paper containing a certain number of coins: a large piping or trimming: one of a bundle of fascines to cover besiegers:--_pl._ ROULEAUX'. [Fr.]

ROULETTE, r[=oo]l-et', _n._ a little ball or roller: a game of chance played on an oblong table divided into numbered and coloured spaces, and having in the centre a rotating disc on which a ball is rolled until it drops into one of the spaces, the player winning if he has staked his money on that space or its colour: an engraver's tool: a cylindrical object used to curl hair upon: (_geom._) a particular kind of curve. [Fr.,--_rouler_, to roll.]

ROUM. See ROOM (2).

ROUNCE, rowns, _n._ a wheel-pulley in a hand printing-press: a game of cards.

ROUNCEVAL, rown'se-val, _n._ (_obs._) a giant: anything large and strong: the marrow-fat pea.

ROUNCY, rown'si, _n._ (_obs._) a common hackney: a nag: a vulgar woman.

ROUND, rownd, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to address in a whisper. [A.S. _runian_, to whisper.]

ROUND, rownd, _adj._ circular: globular: cylindrical: whole: complete: plump: large: not inconsiderable, as a sum: whole, unbroken: smooth-flowing, continuous, as a sound: full, expressive: open: plain: positive: bold, brisk, without hesitation or delicacy, plain-spoken: candid, as a 'round unvarnished tale': severe: well turned, in a literary sense: periodic: (_archit._) vaulted.--_adv._ on all sides: every way: circularly: in a revolution: from one side or party to another: not in a direct line, circuitously: in a round manner: from beginning to end.--_prep._ around: on every side of: all over.--_n._ that which is round: a circle or globe: a series of actions: the time of such a series: a turn: routine: revolution: cycle: an accustomed walk: a rundle or step of a ladder: a song or dance having a frequent return to the same point: a volley or general discharge of firearms, a single charge of ammunition for a musket or field-piece: that in which a whole company takes part, as a treat of liquor, &c.: prescribed circuit, as a policeman's round: the whole scope, as the round of science: one of a series, as rounds of applause: a bout in a boxing match: a brewer's vessel for holding beer while undergoing fermentation.--_v.t._ to make round: to surround: to go round: to complete: to make full and flowing: to encircle: to make a course round.--_v.i._ to grow or become round or full: to go round: to go the rounds, as a guard.--_adj._ ROUND'ABOUT, encircling: circuitous: indirect.--_n._ a horizontal revolving wheel on which children ride: a round-dance: a short jacket.--_adv._ ROUND'ABOUTLY.--_ns._ ROUND'ABOUTNESS; ROUND'-ALL, an acrobatic feat.--_adjs._ ROUND'-ARCHED, of a style characterised by semicircular arches; ROUND'-ARM, in cricket, swinging the arm more or less horizontally; ROUND'-BACKED, having a round or curved back: round-shouldered; ROUND'-CREST'ED, fan-crested.--_ns._ ROUND'-DANCE, a dance in a circle, or in which the couples wheel; ROUND'ER, one that frequents a place: a tool for making an edge round: (_pl._) an English game out of which base-ball grew, played with a small ball and a bat about two feet long.--_adj._ ROUND'-FACED, having a round face.--_ns._ ROUND'-FISH, the common carp: the shadwaiter; ROUND'HAND, a style of penmanship in which the letters are well rounded and free; ROUND'HEAD, a Puritan, so called in the time of Charles I. from the Puritan fashion of having the hair cut close to the head.--_adj._ ROUND'HEADED.--_ns._ ROUND'-HOUSE, in ships, a cabin or house on the after-part of the quarterdeck: on American railways, an engine-house; ROUND'ING, in bookbinding, the shaping the folded and sewed sheets into a convex form at the back; ROUND'ING-MACHINE', various machines for producing round forms, as a machine for sawing out circular heads for casks; ROUND'ING-PLANE, a woodworking tool for rounding the handles of rakes, &c.; ROUND'ING-TOOL, an instrument used in forging for rounding a rod: a kind of draw-plate in saddlery for shaping round leather straps; ROUND'-[=I]'RON, a plumber's tool for finishing soldered work.--_adj._ ROUND'ISH, somewhat round.--_ns._ ROUND'ISHNESS; ROUND'LE (_Spens._), a roundelay; ROUND'LET, a little circle.--_adv._ ROUND'LY, in a round manner: fully: completely: boldly: openly: plainly: briskly: generally.--_adj._ ROUND'-MOUTHED (_zool._), having a mouth without any lower jaw.--_n._ ROUND'NESS, quality of being round, globular, or cylindrical: cylindrical form: fullness: smoothness of flow: plainness: boldness: a kind of ROUND'-NUM'BERS, an indefinite or approximate statement of a number, as a population, say, of 10,000.--_v.t._ ROUND'-RIDGE, to plough into round ridges.--_ns._ ROUNDS'MAN (_U.S._), a policeman who acts as inspector; ROUND'-STONE, small stones used for paving; ROUND'-T[=A]'BLE, the group of twelve knights, the bravest of all the throng, who form the centre of the mythical King Arthur's retinue, sitting with the king at a round table; ROUND'-TOP, a round platform at the ROUND'-TOW'ERS, tall narrow circular towers tapering gradually from the base to the summit, found abundantly in Ireland, and occasionally in Scotland, now generally believed to be the work of Christian architects and built for religious purposes.--_n._ ROUND'-UP, the forming of upward curves: the bringing together of all the cattle in a ranch: a finishing of an arrangement: the convexity of a deck.--_adj._ ROUND'-WINGED, having rounded wings, as some British moths.--_n._ ROUND'-WORM, one of a class of worms (_Nematoda_) in which the body is elongated and more or less cylindrical, most of them parasitic--opposed to the flatworms or _Plathelminthes_, such as tapeworms and flukes.--ROUND ABOUT, in an opposite direction: an emphatic form of round; ROUND OF BEEF, a cut of the thigh, through and across the bone; ROUND OFF, to finish completely; ROUND TO, to turn the head of a ship to the wind.--ALL ROUND, in all respects; BRING ROUND (see BRING); COME ROUND (see COME); SCOLD ROUNDLY, to bring to book. [O. Fr. _roond_ (Fr. _rond_)--L.

_rotundus_--_rota_, a wheel.]

ROUNDEL, rown'del, _n._ anything of a round form or figure: a circle: a ring-dance, a rondel.--_n._ ROUN'DELAY, a round: a song in which parts are repeated: a dance in a ring. [O. Fr. _rondel_ (Fr. _rondeau_), dim. of _rond_, round.]

ROUNDROBIN, rownd-rob'in, _n._ a name given to a protest signed by a number of persons in a circular form, so that no one shall be obliged to head the list. [Fr. _rond ruban_, round ribbon.]

ROUNDURE, rown'd[=u]r, _n._ (_Shak._)=RONDURE.

ROUP, rowp, _n._ (_Scot._) a sale by auction.--_v.t._ to sell by auction.

ROUP, r[=oo]p, _n._ an infectious disease of the respiratory passages of poultry.

ROUSE, rowz, _v.t._ to raise up: to stir up: to awaken: to excite to anything: to put into action: to startle or start, as an animal: to work about in salt, to roil.--_v.i._ to awake: to be excited to action.--_n._ the reveille.--_adv._ (_obs._) vehemently.--_adj._ ROUS'ANT (_her._), starting up, as a bird in the attitude of rising.--_ns._ ROUSE'MENT, an awakening religious discourse; ROUS'ER, one who, or that which, rouses, anything astonishing.--_adj._ ROUS'ING, having power to awaken: great, violent.--_adv._ ROUS'INGLY.--_adj._ ROUS'Y, noisy, riotous. [Scand., Sw.

_rusa_, Dan. _ruse_, to rush.]

ROUSE, rowz, _n._ a carousal: a bumper. [Scand., Sw. _rus_, drunkenness, Ice. _russ_; cf. Dut. _roes_, Ger. _rausch_.]

ROUSSETTE, r[=oo]-set', _n._ a fruit-eating bat: a dogfish. [Fr.]

ROUST, rowst, _v.t._ to stir up.--_v.i._ to move energetically.

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