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OBOL, ob'ol, _n._ in ancient Greece, a small coin, worth rather more than three-halfpence: also a weight, the sixth part of a drachma--also OB'OLUS:--_pl._ OB'OLI ([=i]).--_adj_. OB'OLARY, consisting of obols: extremely poor. [Gr. _obelos_, a spit.]

OBOVATE, ob-[=o]'v[=a]t, _adj_. _(bot.)_ egg-shaped, as a leaf, with the narrow end next the leaf-stalk.--_adv._ OB[=O]'V[=A]TELY.--_adj_.

OB[=O]'VOID, solidly obovate.

OBREPTION, ob-rep'shun, _n._ obtaining of gifts of escheat by falsehood--opp. to _Subreption_ (q.v.).--_adj._ OBREPTIT'IOUS.

OBSCENE, ob-s[=e]n', _adj_. offensive to chastity: unchaste: indecent: disgusting: ill-omened.--_adv_. OBSCENE'LY.--_ns._ OBSCENE'NESS, OBSCEN'ITY, quality of being obscene: lewdness. [L. _obscenus_.]

OBSCURE, ob-sk[=u]r', _adj_. dark: not distinct: not easily understood: not clear, legible, or perspicuous: unknown: humble: unknown to fame: living in darkness.--_v.t._ to darken: to make less plain: to render doubtful.--_ns._ OBSC[=U]'RANT, one who labours to prevent enlightenment or reform; OBSC[=U]'RANTISM, opposition to inquiry or reform; OBSC[=U]'RANTIST, an obscurant.--_adj_. pertaining to obscurantism.--_n._ OBSC[=U]R[=A]'TION, the act of obscuring or state of being obscured.--_adv_.

OBSC[=U]RE'LY.--_ns._ OBSC[=U]RE'MENT; OBSC[=U]RE'NESS; OBSC[=U]'RER; OBSC[=U]'RITY, state or quality of being obscure: darkness: an obscure place or condition: unintelligibleness: humility. [Fr.,--L. _obscurus_.]

OBSECRATE, ob'se-kr[=a]t, _v._ to beseech: to implore.--_n._ OBSECR[=A]'TION, supplication: one of the clauses in the Litany beginning with _by._--_adj_. OB'SECR[=A]TORY, supplicatory. [L. _obsecr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to entreat; _ob_, before, _sacr[=a]re_--_sacer_, sacred.]

OBSEQUIES, ob'se-kwiz, funeral rites and solemnities:--_sing._ OB'SEQUY (_Milt._)--rarely used.--_adj_. OBS[=E]'QUIAL. [Fr. _obseques_--L.

_obsequiae_--_ob_, before, upon, sequi, to comply.]

OBSEQUIOUS, ob-s[=e]'kwi-us, _adj_. compliant to excess: meanly condescending.--_adv_. OBS[=E]'QUIOUSLY.--_n._ OBS[=E]'QUIOUSNESS.

[Fr.,--L. _obsequiosus_, compliant, _obsequium_, compliance.]

OBSERVE, ob-z[.e]rv', _v.t._ to keep in view: to notice: to subject to systematic observation: to regard attentively: to remark, refer to in words: to comply with: to heed and to carry out in practice: to keep with proper ceremony: to keep or guard.--_v.i._ to take notice: to attend: to remark.--_adj._ OBSERV'ABLE, that may be observed or noticed: worthy of observation: remarkable: requiring to be observed.--_n._ OBSERV'ABLENESS.--_adv_. OBSERV'ABLY.--_ns._ OBSERV'ANCE, act of observing or paying attention to: performance: attention: that which is to be observed: rule of practice, a custom to be observed: reverence: homage; OBSERV'ANCY, observance: obsequiousness.--_adj._ OBSERV'ANT, observing: having powers of observing and noting: taking notice: adhering to: carefully attentive.--_n._ (_Shak._) an obsequious attendant: one strict to comply with a custom, &c.; or OBSERV'ANTINE, one of those Franciscan monks of stricter rule who separated from the Conventuals in the 15th century.--_adv._ OBSERV'ANTLY.--_n._ OBSERV[=A]'TION, act of observing: habit of seeing and noting: attention: the act of recognising and noting phenomena as they occur in nature, as distinguished from _experiment:_ that which is observed: a remark: performance: the fact of being observed.--_adj_. OBSERV[=A]'TIONAL, consisting of, or containing, observations or remarks: derived from observation, as distinguished from _experiment_.--_adv._ OBSERV[=A]'TIONALLY.--_adj._ OBSER'VATIVE, attentive.--_ns._ OB'SERV[=A]TOR, one who observes: a remarker; OBSERV'ATORY, a place for making astronomical and physical observations, usually placed in some high and stable place; OBSERV'ER.--_adj._ OBSERV'ING, habitually taking notice: attentive.--_adv._ OBSERV'INGLY.

[Fr.,--L. _observ[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, before, _serv[=a]re_, to keep.]

OBSESSION, ob-sesh'un, _n._ persistent attack, esp. of an evil spirit upon a person: the state of being so molested from without--opp. to _Possession_, or control by an evil spirit from within. [L.

_obsession-em_--_obsid[=e]re_, to besiege.]

OBSIDIAN, ob-sid'i-an, _n._ a natural glass--the vitreous condition of an acid lava. [From _Obsidius_, who, according to Pliny, discovered it in Ethiopia.]

OBSIDIONAL, ob-sid'i-[=o]-nal, _adj._ pertaining to a siege.--Also OBSID'IONARY.

OBSIGNATE, ob-sig'n[=a]t, _v.t._ to seal, confirm.--_n._ OBSIGN[=A]'TION.

OBSOLESCENT, ob-so-les'ent, _adj._ going out of use.--_n._ OBSOLESC'ENCE.--_adj._ OB'SOLETE, gone out of use: antiquated: (_zool._) obscure: not clearly marked or developed: rudimental.--_adv._ OB'SOLETELY.--_ns._ OB'SOLETENESS; OBSOL[=E]'TION (_rare_); OB'SOLETISM.

[L. _obsolescens_, _-entis_, _pr.p._ of _obsolesc[)e]re_, _obsoletum_--_ob_, before, _sol[=e]re_, to be wont.]

OBSTACLE, ob'sta-kl, _n._ anything that stands in the way of or hinders progress: obstruction.--OBSTACLE RACE, a race in which obstacles have to be surmounted or circumvented. [Fr.,--L. _obstaculum_--_ob_, in the way of, _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

OBSTETRIC, -AL, ob-stet'rik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to midwifery.--_ns._ OBSTETRIC'IAN, one skilled in obstetrics; OBSTET'RICS, the science of midwifery, or the delivery of women in childbed; OBSTET'RIX, a midwife. [L.

_obstetricius_--_obstetrix_, _-icis_, a midwife--_ob_, before, _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

OBSTINATE, ob'sti-n[=a]t, _adj._ blindly or excessively firm: unyielding: stubborn: not easily subdued or remedied.--_ns._ OB'STINACY, OB'STINATENESS, the condition of being obstinate: excess of firmness: stubbornness: fixedness that yields with difficulty, as a disease.--_adv._ OB'STINATELY. [L. _obstin[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, in the way of, _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

OBSTIPATION, ob-sti-p[=a]'shun, _n._ extreme costiveness.

OBSTREPEROUS, ob-strep'[.e]r-us, _adj._ making a loud noise: clamorous: noisy.--_v.i._ OBSTREP'ER[=A]TE (_Sterne_).--_adv._ OBSTREP'EROUSLY.--_n._ OBSTREP'EROUSNESS. [L. _obstreperus_--_ob_, before, _strep[)e]re_, to make a noise.]

OBSTRICTION, ob-strik'shun, _n._ obligation. [L. _obstring[)e]re_, _obstrictum_, to bind up.]

OBSTROPULOUS, ob-strop'[=u]-lus, _adj._ a vulgar form of _obstreperous_.

OBSTRUCT, ob-strukt', _v.t._ to block up, to hinder from passing, to retard.--_ns._ OBSTRUC'TER, OBSTRUC'TOR, one who obstructs; OBSTRUC'TION, act of obstructing: that which hinders progress or action: opposition, esp.

in a legislative assembly; OBSTRUC'TIONIST.--_adj._ OBSTRUC'TIVE, tending to obstruct: hindering.--_n._ one who opposes progress.--_adv._ OBSTRUCT'IVELY.--_adj._ OB'STRUENT, obstructing: blocking up.--_n._ (_med._) anything that obstructs, esp. in the passages of the body. [L.

_obstru[)e]re_, _obstructum_--_ob_, in the way of, _stru[)e]re_, _structum_, to pile up.]

OBTAIN, ob-t[=a]n', _v.t._ to lay hold of: to hold: to procure by effort: to gain: to keep possession of.--_v.i._ to be established: to continue in use: to become customary or prevalent: to hold good: (_rare_) to succeed.--_adj._ OBTAIN'ABLE, that may be obtained, procured, or acquired.--_ns._ OBTAIN'ER; OBTAIN'MENT; OBTEN'TION, procurement.--OBTAIN TO (_Bacon_), to attain to. [Fr.,--L. _obtin[=e]re_--_ob_, upon, _ten[=e]re_, to hold.]

OBTECTED, ob-tek'ted, _adj._ covered, protected by a chitonous case, as the pupae of most flies. [L. _obteg[)e]re_, _obtectum_, to cover over.]

OBTEMPER, ob-tem'per, _v.t._ to yield obedience to (with _to_, _unto_). [L.


OBTEND, ob-tend', _v.t._ (_obs._) to oppose: to allege. [L. _obtend[)e]re_, to stretch before.]

OBTEST, ob-test', _v.t._ to call upon, as a witness: to beg for.--_v.i._ to protest.--_n._ OBTEST[=A]'TION, act of calling to witness: a supplication.

[L. _obtest[=a]ri_, to call as a witness--_ob_, before, _testis_, a witness.]

OBTRUDE, ob-tr[=oo]d', _v.t._ to thrust in upon when not wanted: to urge upon against the will of.--_v.i._ to thrust one's self or be thrust upon.--_ns._ OBTRUD'ER; OBTRUD'ING, OBTRU'SION, a thrusting in or upon against the will of.--_adj._ OBTRUS'IVE, disposed to thrust one's self among others.--_adv._ OBTRUS'IVELY.--_n._ OBTRUS'IVENESS. [L.

_obtrud[)e]re_--_ob_, before, _trud[)e]re_, _trusum_, to thrust.]

OBTRUNCATE, ob-trung'k[=a]t, _v.t._ to cut or lop off. [L. _obtrunc[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, before, _trunc[=a]re_, cut off.]

OBTUND, ob-tund', _v.t._ to dull or blunt, to deaden.--_adj._ OBTUND'ENT, dulling.--_n._ an oily mucilage for sores: an application to deaden the nerve of a tooth. [L. _obtund[)e]re_, to strike upon.]

OBTURATE, ob't[=u]-r[=a]t, _v.t._ to close or stop up.--_ns._ OBTUR[=A]'TION, the act of stopping up, esp. in gunnery, of a hole to prevent the escape of gas; OB'T[=U]R[=A]TOR, that which stops or closes up, as a device of this kind in gunnery, &c.: in surgery, an artificial plate for closing an abnormal aperture or fissure, as with cleft palate, &c., or for distending an opening, as in lithotomy: any structure that shuts off a cavity or passage, esp. in anatomy, the membrane vessels, &c., closing the _obturator foramen_, or _thyroid foramen_, a large opening or fenestra in the anterior part of the hip-bone. [L. _obtur[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to stop up.]

OBTURBINATE, ob-tur'bi-n[=a]t, _adj._ inversely top-shaped.

OBTUSE, ob-t[=u]s', _adj._ blunt: not pointed: (_bot._) blunt or rounded at the point, as a leaf: stupid: not shrill: (_geom._) greater than a right angle.--_adjs._ OBTUSE'-ANG'LED, OBTUSE'-ANG'ULAR, having an angle greater than a right angle.--_adv._ OBTUSE'LY.--_ns._ OBTUSE'NESS, OBTUS'ITY.

[Fr.,--L. _obtusus_--_obtund[)e]re_, to blunt--_ob_, against, _tund[)e]re_, to beat.]

OBUMBRATE, ob-um'br[=a]t, _v.t._ to overshadow, to darken.--_adj._ lying under some projecting part, as the abdomen of certain spiders.--_adj._ OBUM'BRANT, overhanging. [L. _obumbr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to overshadow.]

OBVALLATE, ob-val'[=a]t, _adj._ walled up. [L. _obvall[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to wall round.]

OBVELATION, ob-v[=e]-l[=a]'shun, _n._ concealment.

OBVENTION, ob-ven'shun, _n._ (_obs._) any incidental occurrence, or advantage, esp. an offering.

OBVERSE, ob-v[.e]rs', _adj._ turned towards one: bearing the head, as one face of a coin--opp. to _Reverse_: a second or complemental aspect of the same fact, a correlative proposition identically, implying another: (_bot._) having the base narrower than the top.--_n._ OB'VERSE, the side of a coin containing the head, or principal symbol.--_adv._ OBVERSE'LY.--_n._ OBVER'SION, the act of turning toward the front of anything: in logic, a species of immediate inference--viz. the predicating of the original subject, the contradictory of the original predicate, and changing the quality of the proposition--e.g. to infer from _all_ A is B that _no_ A is not B--also called _Permutation_ and _Equipollence_.--_v.t._ OBVERT', to turn towards the front. [L. _obversus_--_ob_, towards, _vert[)e]re_, to turn.]

OBVIATE, ob'vi-[=a]t, _v.t._ to meet on the way, hence to remove, as difficulties. [L. _obvi[=a]re_, -[=a]tum--_ob_, in the way of, _vi[=a]re_, _vi[=a]tum_, to go--_via_, a way.]

OBVIOUS, ob'vi-us, _adj._ meeting one in the way: easily discovered or understood: evident.--_adv._ OB'VIOUSLY.--_n._ OB'VIOUSNESS. [L. _obvius_.]

OBVOLUTE, -D, ob'vo-l[=u]t, -ed, _adj._ rolled or turned in, as two leaves in a bud, one edge of each out and the other in, as in the poppy.--_adj._ OBVOL'VENT, curved downward or inward. [L. _obvolutus_--_ob_, before, _volv[)e]re_, _volutum_, to roll.]

OCARINA, ok-a-r[=e]'na, _n._ a kind of musical instrument with a whistling sound, made of terra-cotta, with finger-holes and a mouthpiece. [It.]

OCCAMISM, ok'am-mizm, _n._ the doctrine of the nominalist schoolman, William of _Occam_ or _Ockham_ (_c._ 1270-1349).--_n._ OCC'AMIST, a follower of Occam.

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