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OAR, [=o]r, _n._ a light pole with a flat feather or spoon-shaped end (the _blade_) for propelling a boat: an oar-like appendage for swimming, as the antennae of an insect or crustacean, &c.: an oarsman.--_v.t._ to impel by rowing.--_v.i._ to row.--_n._ OAR'AGE, oars collectively.--_adj._ OARED, furnished with oars.--_ns._ OAR'LAP, a rabbit with its ears standing out at right-angles to the head; OAR'-LOCK, a rowlock; OARS'MAN, one who rows with an oar; OARS'MANSHIP, skill in rowing.--_adj._ OAR'Y, having the form or use of oars.--BOAT OARS, to bring the oars inboard; FEATHER OARS, to turn the blades parallel to the water when reaching back for another stroke; LIE ON THE OARS, to cease rowing without shipping the oars: to rest, take things easily: to cease from work; PUT IN ONE'S OAR, to give advice when not wanted; SHIP, or UNSHIP, OARS, to place the oars in the rowlocks, or to take them out. [A.S. _ar_.]

OARIUM, [=o]-[=a]'ri-um, _n._ an ovary or ovarium.

OASIS, [=o]-[=a]'sis, _n._ a fertile spot in a sandy desert: any place of rest or pleasure in the midst of toil and gloom:--_pl._ OASES ([=o]-[=a]'s[=e]z). [L.,--Gr. _oasis_, an Egyptian word; cf. Coptic _ouahe_.]

OAST, [=o]st, _n._ a kiln to dry hops or malt.--_n._ OAST'-HOUSE. [A.S.


OAT, [=o]t (oftener in _pl._ OATS, [=o]ts), _n._ a well-known grassy plant, the seeds of which are much used as food: its seeds: a musical pipe of oat-straw: a shepherd's pipe, pastoral song generally.--_n._ OAT'CAKE, a thin broad cake made of oatmeal.--_adj._ OAT'EN, consisting of an oat stem or straw: made of oatmeal.--_ns._ OAT'-GRASS, two species of oat, useful more as fodder than for the seed; OAT'MEAL, meal made of oats.--SOW ONE'S WILD OATS, to indulge in the usual youthful dissipations. [A.S. _ata_, pl.


OATH, [=o]th, _n._ a solemn statement with an appeal to God as witness, and a calling for punishment from Him in case of falsehood or of failure, also the form of words in which such is made--_oath of abjuration_, _allegiance_, &c.: an irreverent use of God's name in conversation or in any way: any merely exclamatory imprecation, &c.:--_pl._ OATHS ([=o]_th_z).--_adj._ OATH'ABLE (_Shak._), capable of having an oath administered to.--_n._ OATH'-BREAK'ING (_Shak._), the violation of an oath, perjury.--UPON ONE'S OATH, sworn to speak the truth. [A.S. _ath_; Ger.

_eid_, Ice. _eithr_.]

OB., for _objection_, just as _sol._ for _solution_, on the margins of old books of controversial divinity.--_n._ OB'-AND-SOL'ER, a disputant, polemic.

OBANG, [=o]-bang', _n._ an old Japanese oblong gold coin.

OBBLIGATO, ob-li-ga'to, _adj._ that cannot be done without.--_n._ a musical accompaniment, itself of independent importance, esp. that of a single instrument to a vocal piece.--Also OBLIGA'TO. [It.]

OBCONIC, -AL, ob-kon'ik, -al, _adj._ inversely conical.

OBCORDATE, ob-kor'd[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) inversely heart-shaped, as a leaf.

OBDURATE, ob'd[=u]-r[=a]t, _adj._ hardened in heart or in feelings: difficult to influence, esp. in a moral sense: stubborn: harsh.--_n._ OB'D[=U]RACY, state of being obdurate: invincible hardness of heart.--_adv._ OB'D[=U]RATELY.--_ns._ OB'D[=U]RATENESS, OBD[=U]R[=A]'TION.--_adj._ OBD[=U]RED', hardened. [L. _obdur[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, against, _dur[=a]re_, to harden--_durus_, hard.]


OBEDIENCE, [=o]-b[=e]'di-ens, _n._ state of being obedient: willingness to obey commands: dutifulness: the collective body of persons subject to any particular authority: a written instruction from the superior of an order to those under him: any official position under an abbot's jurisdiction.--_adjs._ OB[=E]'DIENT, willing to obey; OB[=E]DIEN'TIAL, submissive: obligatory.--_adv._ OB[=E]'DIENTLY.--CANONICAL OBEDIENCE, the obedience, as regulated by the canons, of an ecclesiastic to another of higher rank; PASSIVE OBEDIENCE, unresisting and unquestioning obedience to authority, like that taught by some Anglican divines as due even to faithless and worthless kings like Charles II. and James II.

OBEISANCE, [=o]-b[=a]'sans, or [=o]-b[=e]'sans, _n._ obedience: a bow or act of reverence: an expression of respect.--_adj._ OB[=E]'ISANT.

[Fr.,--_obeir_--L. _obed[=i]re_, to obey.]

OBELION, [=o]-b[=e]'li-on, _n._ a point in the sagittal suture of the skull, between the two parietal foramina. [Gr. _obelos_, a spit.]

OBELISK, ob'e-lisk, _n._ a tall, four-sided, tapering pillar, usually of one stone, finished at the top like a flat pyramid: (_print._) a dagger ( + ).--_adj._ OB'ELISCAL.--_v.t._ OB'ELISE, to mark with an obelisk, to condemn as spurious, indelicate, &c.--_n._ OB'ELUS, a mark ( -- or ) used in ancient MSS. to mark suspected passages, esp. in the Septuagint to indicate passages not in the Hebrew:--_pl._ OB'ELI. [Through Fr. and L., from Gr. _obeliskos_, dim. of _obelos_, a spit.]

OBERHAUS, [=o]'ber-hows, _n._ the upper house in those German legislative bodies that have two chambers. [Ger. _ober_, upper, _haus_, house.]

OBERLAND, [=o]'ber-lant, _n._ highlands, as the Bernese Oberland in Switzerland.

OBERON, [=o]'ber-on, king of the fairies, husband of Titania.

OBESE, [=o]-b[=e]s', _adj._ fat: fleshy.--_ns._ OBESE'NESS, OBES'ITY, fatness: abnormal fatness. [L. _obesus_--_ob_, up, _ed[)e]re_, _esum_, to eat.]

OBEX, [=o]'beks, _n._ a barrier: a thickening at the calamus scriptorius of the medulla oblongata. [L., _objic[)e]re_, to throw before.]

OBEY, [=o]-b[=a]', _v.t._ to do as told by: to be ruled by: to yield to: to carry out or perform.--_v.i._ to submit to power, &c.: (_B._) to yield obedience (followed by _to_).--_n._ OBEY'ER.--_adv._ OBEY'INGLY, obediently. [Fr. _obeir_--L. _obed[=i]re_--_ob_, near, _aud[=i]re_, to hear.]

OBFUSCATE, ob-fus'k[=a]t, _v.t._ to darken: to confuse.--_n._ OBFUSC[=A]'TION. [L. _obfusc[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, inten., _fuscus_, dark.]

OBI, [=o]'bi, _n._ a kind of sorcery practised by _obeah-men_ and _obeah-women_ among the negroes of the West Indies and United States, a survival of African magic: a fetish or charm--also O'BEA, O'BEAH, O'BY.--_n._ O'BIISM. [Prob. Afr.]

OBI, [=o]'bi, _n._ a broad, gaily embroidered sash worn by Japanese women.


OBIT, [=o]'bit, or ob'it, _n._ death: the fact or the date of death: funeral ceremonies: the anniversary of a person's death, or a service at such time.--_adj._ OBIT'UAL, pertaining to obits.--_adv._ OBIT'UARILY.--_n._ OBIT'UARIST, a writer of obituaries.--_adj._ OBIT'UARY, relating to the death of a person or persons.--_n._ a register of deaths (_orig._) in a monastery: an account of a deceased person, or a notice of his death. [Fr.,--L. _obitus_--_ob[=i]re_--_ob_, to, _[=i]re_, to go.]

OBJECT, ob-jekt', _v.t._ to place before the view: to throw in the way of: to offer in opposition: to oppose.--_v.i._ to oppose: to give a reason against.--_n._ OBJECTIFIC[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ OBJECT'IFY, to make objective.--_n._ OBJEC'TION, act of objecting: anything said or done in opposition: argument against.--_adj._ OBJEC'TIONABLE, that may be objected to: requiring to be disapproved of.--_adv._ OBJEC'TIONABLY, in an objectionable manner or degree.--_adj._ OBJECT'IVE, relating to an object: being exterior to the mind: substantive, self-existent: setting forth what is external, actual, practical, apart from the sensations or emotions of the speaker: as opposed to _Subjective_, pertaining to that which is real or exists in nature, in contrast with what is ideal or exists merely in thought: (_gram._) belonging to the case of the object.--_n._ (_gram._) the case of the object: in microscopes, &c., the lens which brings the rays to a focus: the point to which the operations of an army are directed.--_adv._ OBJECT'IVELY.--_ns._ OBJECT'IVENESS; OBJECT'IVISM.--_adj._ OBJECTIVIST'IC.--_ns._ OBJECTIV'ITY, state of being objective; OBJECT'OR.

[Fr.,--L. _object[=a]re_, a freq. of _objic[)e]re_, _-jectum_--_ob_, in the way of, _jac[)e]re_, to throw.]

OBJECT, ob'jekt, _n._ anything perceived or set before the mind: that which is sought after, or that toward which an action is directed: end: motive: (_gram._) that toward which the action of a transitive verb is directed.--_ns._ OB'JECT-FIND'ER, a device in microscopes for locating an object in the field before examination by a higher power; OB'JECT-GLASS, the glass at the end of a telescope or microscope next the object; OB'JECTIST, one versed in the objective philosophy.--_adj._ OB'JECTLESS, having no object: purposeless.--_ns._ OB'JECT-LESS'ON, a lesson in which the object to be described, or a representation of it, is shown; OB'JECT-SOUL, a vital principle attributed by the primitive mind to inanimate objects.

OBJURE, ob-j[=oo]r', _v.i._ to swear.--_n._ OBJUR[=A]'TION, act of binding by oath.

OBJURGATION, ob-jur-g[=a]'shun, _n._ act of chiding: a blaming, reproof: reprehension.--_v.t._ OBJUR'GATE, to chide.--_adj._ OBJUR'GATORY, expressing blame or reproof. [Fr.,--L.,--_ob_, against, _jurg[=a]re_, to sue at law--_jus_, law, _ag[)e]re_, to drive.]

OBLANCEOLATE, ob-lan'se-o-l[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) shaped like the head of a lance reversed, as a leaf.

OBLATE, ob-l[=a]t', _n._ a secular person devoted to a monastery, but not under its vows, esp. one of the Oblate Fathers or Oblate Sisters: one dedicated to a religious order from childhood, or who takes the cowl in anticipation of death: a loaf of altar-bread before its consecration.--_n._ OBL[=A]'TION, act of offering: anything offered in worship or sacred service, esp. a eucharistic offering: an offering generally.--GREAT OBLATION, the solemn offering or presentation in memorial before God of the consecrated elements, as sacramentally the body and blood of Christ; LESSER OBLATION, the offertory. [L. _oblatus_, offered up.]

OBLATE, ob-l[=a]t', _adj._ flattened at opposite sides or poles: shaped like an orange.--_ns._ OBLATE'NESS, flatness at the poles; OBLATE'-SPHER'OID, a spherical body flattened at the poles. [L. _oblatus_, pa.p. of _offerre_, to offer--_ob_, against, _ferre_, to bring.]


OBLIGE, [=o]-bl[=i]j', _v.t._ to bind or constrain: to bind by some favour rendered, hence to do a favour to.--_adj._ OB'LIGABLE, that can be held to a promise or an undertaking: true to a promise or a contract.--_n._ OB'LIGANT, one who binds himself to another to pay or to perform something.--_v.t._ OB'LIG[=A]TE, to constrain: to bind by contract or duty:--_pr.p._ ob'lig[=a]ting; _pa.p._ ob'lig[=a]ted.--_n._ OBLIG[=A]'TION, act of obliging: the power which binds to a promise, a duty, &c.: any act which binds one to do something for another: that to which one is bound: state of being indebted for a favour: (_law_) a bond containing a penalty in case of failure.--_adv._ OB'LIGATORILY.--_n._ OB'LIGATORINESS.--_adj._ OB'LIG[=A]TORY, binding: imposing duty.--_ns._ OBLIGEE (ob-li-j[=e]'), the person to whom another is obliged; OBLIGE'MENT, a favour conferred.--_adj._ OBLIG'ING, disposed to confer favours: ready to do a good turn.--_adv._ OBLIG'INGLY.--_ns._ OBLIG'INGNESS; OB'LIGOR (_law_), the person who binds himself to another. [Fr.,--L. _oblig[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, before, _lig[=a]re_, to bind.]

OBLIQUE, ob-l[=e]k', _adj._ slanting: not perpendicular: not parallel: not straightforward: obscure: (_geom._) not a right-angle: (_gram._) denoting any case except the nominative.--_v.i._ to deviate from a direct line or from the perpendicular, to slant: to advance obliquely by facing half right or left and then advancing.--_ns._ OBLIQU[=A]'TION, OBLIQUE'NESS, OBLIQ'UITY, state of being oblique: a slanting direction: error or wrong: irregularity.--_adv._ OBLIQUE'LY.--_adj._ OBLIQ'UID (_Spens._), oblique.--OBLIQUE CONE or CYLINDER, one whose axis is oblique to the plane of its base; OBLIQUE NARRATION or SPEECH (L. _oratio obliqua_), indirect narration, the actual words of the speaker, but, as related by a third person, having the first person in pronoun and verb converted into the third, adverbs of present time into the corresponding adverbs of past time, &c.; OBLIQUE SAILING, the reduction of the position of a ship from the various courses made good, oblique to the meridian or parallel of latitude; OBLIQUITY OF THE ECLIPTIC, the angle between the plane of the earth's orbit and that of the earth's equator. [Fr.,--L. _obliquus_--_ob_, before, _liquis_, slanting.]

OBLITERATE, ob-lit'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to blot out, so as not to be readable: to wear out: to destroy: to reduce to a very low state.--_n._ OBLITER[=A]'TION, act of obliterating: a blotting or wearing out: extinction.--_adj._ OBLIT'ER[=A]TIVE. [L. _obliter[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, over, _litera_, a letter.]

OBLIVION, ob-liv'i-un, _n._ act of forgetting or state of being forgotten: remission of punishment.--_adj._ OBLIV'IOUS, forgetful: prone to forget: causing forgetfulness.--_adv._ OBLIV'IOUSLY.--_ns._ OBLIV'IOUSNESS; OBLIVISC'ENCE. [Fr.,--L. _oblivion-em_--_oblivisci_, to forget.]

OBLONG, ob'long, _adj._ long in one way: longer than broad.--_n._ (_geom._) a rectangle longer than broad: any oblong figure.--_adj._ OB'LONGISH.--_adv._ OB'LONGLY.--_n._ OB'LONGNESS. [Fr.,--L. _ob_, over, _longus_, long.]

OBLOQUY, ob'lo-kwi, _n._ reproachful language: censure: calumny: disgrace.

[L. _obloquium_--_ob_, against, _loqui_, to speak.]

OBMUTESCENCE, ob-m[=u]-tes'ens, _n._ loss of speech, dumbness. [L.

_obmutesc[)e]re_, to become dumb.]

OBNOXIOUS, ob-nok'shus, _adj._ liable to hurt or punishment: exposed to: guilty: blameworthy: offensive: subject: answerable.--_adv._ OBNOX'IOUSLY.--_n._ OBNOX'IOUSNESS. [L.,--_ob_, before, _noxa_, hurt.]

OBNUBILATION, ob-n[=u]-bi-l[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of making dark or obscure.--_v.t._ OBN[=U]'BIL[=A]TE. [Low L. _obnubilare_, to cloud over--L.

_ob_, over, _nubilus_, cloudy.]

OBOE, [=o]'b[=o]-e, _n._ a treble reed musical instrument, usually with fifteen keys, with a rich tone, giving the pitch to the violin in the orchestra: a treble stop on the organ, its bass being the bassoon--also _Hautboy._--_n._ O'B[=O]IST, a player on the oboe.--OBOE D'AMORE, an obsolete alto oboe; OBOE DI CACCIA, an obsolete tenor oboe, or rather tenor bassoon. [Fr. _hautbois_.]

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