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REFASTEN, r[=e]-fas'n, _v.t._ to fasten again.

REFECTION, r[=e]-fek'shun, _n._ refreshment: a meal or repast.--_n._ REFEC'TIONER.--_adj._ REFEC'TIVE, refreshing.--_n._ REFEC'TORY, the place where refections or meals are taken, esp. in convents or monasteries.

[_Fr._,--L. _refectio_--_refic[)e]re_, _refectum_--_re-_, again, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

REFEL, r[=e]-fel', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to refute, to disprove. [O. Fr.,--L.

_refell[)e]re_--_re-_, again, _fall[)e]re_, to deceive.]

REFEOFF, r[=e]-fef', _v.t._ to reinvest.

REFER, r[=e]-f[.e]r, _v.t._ to submit to another person or authority: to assign: to reduce: to carry back: to trace back: to hand over for consideration: to deliver over, as to refer a matter: to appeal: to direct for information.--_v.i._ to direct the attention: to give a reference: to have reference or recourse: to relate: to allude:--_pr.p._ refer'ring; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ referred'.--_adjs._ REF'ERABLE, REFER'RIBLE, that may be referred or assigned to.--_ns._ REFER[=EE]', one to whom anything is referred: an arbitrator, umpire, or judge; REF'ERENCE, the act of referring: a submitting for information or decision: relation: allusion: one who, or that which, is referred to: (_law_) the act of submitting a dispute for investigation or decision: a testimonial: a direction in a book, a quotation; REF'ERENCE-B[=I]'BLE, a Bible having references to parallel passages; REF'ERENCE-BOOK, a book to be referred to or consulted, as an encyclopaedia; REF'ERENCE-L[=I]'BRARY, a library containing books to be consulted only in the REF'ERENCE-MARKS (_print._), the characters *, +, &c., used to refer to notes, &c.--_ns._ REFERENDAR', in Germany, a legal probationer who has passed the first of the two examinations for the judicial service; REFEREN'DARY, one to whose decision a cause is referred, a referee: formerly a public official whose duty was to procure, execute, and despatch diplomas and charters, or who served as the medium of communication with a sovereign: the official through whom the patriarch of Constantinople communicates with the civil authorities; REFEREN'DUM, in Switzerland, the right of the people to have all legislative acts passed in the Federal or Cantonal Assemblies referred to them _en masse_.--_adj._ REFEREN'TIAL, containing a reference: pointing or referring to something else.--_adv._ REFEREN'TIALLY, in the way of reference.--_ns._ REFER'MENT; REFER'RER. [O. Fr. _referer_ (_referer_)--L.

_referre_, to carry back--_re-_, back, _ferre_, to carry.]


REFIGURE, r[=e]-fig'[=u]r, _v.t._ to represent anew: (_astrol._) to restore the parabolic figure of, as of a parabolic mirror.

REFILL, r[=e]-fil', _v.t._ to fill again.

REFIND, r[=e]-f[=i]nd', _v.t._ to find or experience again.

REFINE, r[=e]-f[=i]n', _v.t._ to separate from extraneous matter: to reduce to a fine or pure state: to purify: to clarify: to polish: to make elegant: to purify the manners, morals, language, &c.--_v.i._ to become fine or pure: to affect nicety: to improve in any kind of excellence.--_p.adj._ REFINED', made fine: polished: highly cultivated.--_adv._ REFIN'EDLY, in a refined manner: with affected elegance.--_ns._ REFIN'EDNESS, REFINE'MENT, act of refining or state of being refined: purification: separation from what is impure, &c.: cultivation: elegance: polish: purity: an excessive nicety; REFIN'ER, one who refuses anything: a piece of mechanism for refining, as a gas purifier; REFIN'ERY, a place for refining; REFIN'ING, the act or process of refining or purifying, particularly metals. [L.

_re-_, denoting change of state, and _fine_; cf. Fr. _raffiner_.]

REFIT, r[=e]-fit', _v.t._ to fit or prepare again.--_v.i._ to repair damages.--_ns._ REFIT', REFIT'MENT.

REFLAME, r[=e]-fl[=a]m', _v.i._ to burst again into flame.

REFLECT, r[=e]-flekt', _v.t._ to bend back: to throw back after striking upon any surface, as light, &c.--_v.i._ to be thrown back, as light, heat, &c.: to revolve in the mind: to consider attentively or deeply: to ponder: to cast reproach or censure (with _on_, _upon_).--_p.adj._ REFLECT'ED, cast or thrown back: turned upward: reflexed.--_adjs._ REFLECT'IBLE, capable of being reflected; REFLECT'ING, throwing back light, heat, &c.: given to reflection: thoughtful.--_adv._ REFLECT'INGLY, with reflection: with censure.--REFLECTING TELESCOPE, a form of telescope in which the image of the object to be viewed is produced by a concave reflector instead of a lens, as in the refracting telescope. [Fr.,--L. _reflect[)e]re_, _reflexum_--_re-_, again, _flect[)e]re_, to bend.]

REFLECTION, REFLEXION, r[=e]-flek'shun, _n._ the act of reflecting: the change of direction when a ray of light, &c., strikes upon a surface and is thrown back: the state of being reflected: that which is reflected: the action of the mind by which it is conscious of its own operations: attentive consideration: contemplation: censure or reproach: (_anat._) the folding of a part, a fold.--_adj._ REFLECT'IVE, reflecting: considering the operations of the mind: exercising thought or reflection: (_gram._) reciprocal.--_adv._ REFLECT'IVELY.--_ns._ REFLECT'IVENESS; REFLECT'OR, one who, or that which, reflects: a mirror or polished reflecting surface: a censurer.--_adj._ REFLECT'ORY.

REFLET, re-fl[=a]', _n._ iridescent glaze, as on pottery: ware possessing this property.

REFLEX, r[=e]'fleks, _adj._ bent or turned back: reflected: reciprocal: acting and reacting, as reflex influence: (_physiol._) said of certain movements which take place independent of the will, being sent back from a nerve-centre in answer to a stimulus from the surface: (_paint._) illuminated by light reflected from another part of the same picture.--_n._ reflection: light reflected from an illuminated surface: a copy.--_v.t._ REFLEX', to bend back.--_p.adj._ REFLEXED' (_bot._), bent backward or downward.--_n._ REFLEXIBIL'ITY.--_adjs._ REFLEX'IBLE, REFLECT'IBLE, that may be reflected or thrown back.--_n._ REFLEX'ITY.--_adj._ REFLEX'IVE, turning backward: reflective: respecting the past: relating to a verb in which the action turns back upon the subject, as _I bethought myself_.--_adv._ REFLEX'IVELY.--_n._ REFLEX'IVENESS, the state or quality of being reflexive.--_adv._ R[=E]'FLEXLY (also REFLEX'LY).--_adj._ REFLEXOGEN'IC, tending to increase reflex motions.

REFLOAT, r[=e]-fl[=o]t', _n._ ebb.

REFLORESCENCE, r[=e]-flor-es'ens, _n._ a blossoming anew.--_v.i._ REFLOUR'ISH.

REFLOW, r[=e]-fl[=o]', _v.i._ to flow back.--_ns._ REFLOW', REFLOW'ING.

REFLOWER, r[=e]-flow'[.e]r, _v.i._ to bloom again.

REFLUENT, ref'l[=oo]-ent, _adj._ flowing back: ebbing.--_ns._ REF'LUENCE, REF'LUENCY.--_adj._ R[=E]'FLUX, flowing or returning back: reflex.--_n._ a flowing back: ebb.--_n._ REFLUX'ING. [L. _refluens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _reflu[)e]re_--_re-_, back, _flu[)e]re_, _fluxum_, to flow.]

REFOCILLATE, r[=e]-fos'il-[=a]t, _v.t._ (_obs._) to revive.--_n._ REFOCILL[=A]'TION. [L. _re-_, again, _focill[=a]re_, to cherish--_focus_, a hearth.]

REFOLD, r[=e]-f[=o]ld', _v.t._ to fold again.--_adj._ REFOLD'ED.

REFOOT, r[=e]-f[=oo]t', _v.t._ to supply with a new foot.

REFOREST, r[=e]-for'est, _v.t._ to plant again with trees.--_n._ REFOREST[=A]'TION.

REFORGE, r[=e]-f[=o]rj', _v.t._ to forge again or anew: to make over again.--_n._ REFORG'ER.

REFORM, r[=e]-form', _v.t._ to form again or anew: to transform: to make better: to remove that which is objectionable from: to repair or improve: to reclaim.--_v.i._ to become better: to abandon evil: to be corrected or improved.--_n._ a forming anew: change, amendment, improvement: an extension or better distribution of parliamentary representation, as in the Reform Bill.--_adj._ REFOR'MABLE.--_n._ REFORM[=A]'TION, the act of forming again: the act of reforming: amendment: improvement: the great religious revolution of the 16th century, which gave rise to the various evangelical or Protestant organisations of Christendom.--_adjs._ REFOR'M[=A]TIVE, forming again or anew: tending to produce reform; REFOR'M[=A]TORY, reforming: tending to produce reform.--_n._ an institution for reclaiming youths and children who have been convicted of crime.--_adj._ REFORMED', formed again or anew: changed: amended: improved: denoting the churches formed after the Reformation, esp. those in which the Calvinistic doctrines, and still more the Calvinistic polity, prevail, in contradistinction to the _Lutheran_.--_ns._ REFOR'MER, one who reforms: one who advocates political reform: one of those who took part in the Reformation of the 16th century; REFOR'MIST, a reformer.--REFORMED PRESBYTERIANS, a Presbyterian denomination originating in Scotland (see CAMERONIAN); REFORM SCHOOL, a reformatory. [L. _re-_, again, _form[=a]re_, to shape--_forma_, form.]

REFORMADE, ref-or-m[=a]d', _n._ (_Bunyan_) a reduced or dismissed soldier.--_n._ REFORM[=A]'DO, an officer without a command.--_adj._ degraded: penitent.

REFORTIFY, r[=e]-for'ti-f[=i], _v.t._ to fortify again or anew.

REFOUND, r[=e]-fownd', _v.t._ to establish on a new basis: to cast anew.--_n._ REFOUND'ER.

REFRACT, r[=e]-frakt', _v.t._ to break back or open: to break the natural course, or bend from a direct line, as rays of light, &c.--_adj._ R[=E]FRAC'TABLE.--_p.adjs_. R[=E]FRAC'TED, turned out of its straight course, as a ray of light: (_bot._, &c.) bent back at an acute angle; R[=E]FRAC'TING, serving or tending to refract: refractive.--_n._ R[=E]FRAC'TION, the act of refracting: the change in the direction of a ray of light, heat, &c., when it enters a different medium.--_adj._ R[=E]FRAC'TIVE, refracting: pertaining to refraction.--_ns._ R[=E]FRAC'TIVENESS; R[=E]FRACTIV'ITY; R[=E]FRACTOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the refractive power of different substances; R[=E]FRAC'TOR, a refracting telescope.--ANGLE OF REFRACTION, the angle between a perpendicular and a ray of light after its change of direction, bearing a constant ratio to the sine of the _angle of incidence_--the index of refraction; ASTRONOMICAL, or ATMOSPHERIC, REFRACTION, the apparent angular elevation of the heavenly bodies above their true places, caused by the refraction of the rays of light in their passage through the earth's atmosphere; DOUBLE REFRACTION, the separation of an incident ray of light into two refracted rays, polarised in perpendicular planes. [L.

_refring[)e]re_, _refractum_--_re-_, back, _frang[)e]re_, to break.]

REFRACTORY, r[=e]-frak'to-ri, _adj._ breaking through rules: unruly: unmanageable: obstinate: perverse: difficult of fusion, as metals, &c.: not susceptible, as to disease.--_adv._ REFRAC'TORILY.--_n._ REFRAC'TORINESS.

REFRACTURE, r[=e]-frak't[=u]r, _n._ a breaking again.

REFRAGABLE, ref'ra-ga-bl, _adj._ that may be resisted: capable of refutation.--_ns._ REFRAGABIL'ITY, REF'RAGABLENESS.--_v.i._ REF'RAG[=A]TE (_obs._), to be contrary in effect. [L. _refrag[=a]ri_, to resist--_re-_, again, _frang[)e]re_, to break.]

REFRAIN, r[=e]-fr[=a]n', _n._ a burden or chorus recurring at the end of each division of a poem: the musical form to which the burden of a song is set: an after-taste or other sense impression. [O. Fr.

_refrain_--_refraindre_--L. _refring[)e]re_ (_refrang[)e]re_).]

REFRAIN, r[=e]-fr[=a]n', _v.t._ to curb: to restrain.--_v.i._ to keep from action: to forbear.--_ns._ REFRAIN'ER; REFRAIN'MENT. [O. Fr. _refraindre_ (Fr. _refrener_)--Low L. _refren[=a]re_--_re-_, back, _frenum_, a bridle.]

REFRAME, r[=e]-fr[=a]m', _v.t._ to frame again.

REFRANATION, r[=e]f-ra-n[=a]'shun, _n._ (_astrol._) the failure of a planetary aspect to occur.

REFRANGIBLE, r[=e]-fran'ji-bl, _adj._ that may be refracted, or turned out of a direct course, as rays of light, heat, &c.--_ns._ REFRANGIBIL'ITY, REFRAN'GIBLENESS.

REFREEZE, r[=e]-fr[=e]z', _v.t._ to freeze a second time.

REFRENATION, ref-r[=e]-n[=a]'shun, _n._ (_obs_.) the act of restraining.

REFRESH, r[=e]-fresh', _v.t._ to give new strength, spirit, &c. to: to revive after exhaustion: to enliven: to restore a fresh appearance to.--_v.i._ to become fresh again: (_coll._) to take refreshment, as food and drink.--_v.t._ R[=E]FRESH'EN, to make fresh again.--_n._ R[=E]FRESH'ER, one who, or that which, refreshes: a fee paid to counsel for continuing his attention to a case, esp. when adjourned.--_adj._ R[=E]FRESH'FUL, full of power to refresh: refreshing.--_adv._ R[=E]FRESH'FULLY.--_p.adj._ R[=E]FRESH'ING, reviving, invigorating.--_adv._ R[=E]FRESH'INGLY, in a refreshing manner: so as to revive.--_ns._ R[=E]FRESH'INGNESS; REFRESH'MENT, the act of refreshing: new strength or spirit after exhaustion: that which refreshes, as food or rest--(_pl._) usually food and drink.--REFRESHMENT, or REFECTION, SUNDAY, the fourth Sunday in Lent.

REFRIGERANT, r[=e]-frij'[.e]-rant, _adj._ making cold: cooling: refreshing.--_n._ that which cools.--_v.t._ R[=E]FRIG'ER[=A]TE, to make cold: to cool: to refresh.--_n._ R[=E]FRIGER[=A]'TION.--_adjs._ R[=E]FRIG'ER[=A]TIVE, R[=E]FRIG'ER[=A]TORY, cooling: refreshing.--_ns._ R[=E]FRIG'ER[=A]TOR, an apparatus for preserving food by keeping it at a low temperature: an ice-safe; R[=E]FRIG'ER[=A]TOR-CAR, a freight-car fitted for preserving meat, &c., during transmission, by means of cold; R[=E]FRIG'ER[=A]TORY, a cooler: a vessel or apparatus for cooling, used in brewing, &c.; R[=E]FRIG[=E]'RIUM (_obs._), cooling refreshment. [Fr.,--L.

_re-_, denoting change of state, _friger[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to cool, _frigus_, cold.]

REFRINGE, r[=e]-frinj', _v.t._ to infringe.--_n._ R[=E]FRING'ENCY, refractive power.--_adj._ R[=E]FRIN'GENT.

REFT, reft, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _reave_.

REFUGE, ref'[=u]j, _n._ that which affords shelter or protection: an asylum or retreat: a resource or expedient.--_v.t._ to find shelter for.--_v.i._ to take shelter.--_ns._ REFUG[=EE]', one who flees for refuge to another country, esp. from religious persecution or political commotion; REFUG[=EE]'ISM.--CITY OF REFUGE (see City); HOUSE OF REFUGE, an institution for the shelter of the destitute. [Fr.,--L. _refugium_--_re-_, back, _frug[)e]re_, to flee.]

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