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RARERIPE, r[=a]r'r[=i]p, _adj._ early ripe. [_Rathripe_.]

RAS, ras, _n._ the chief vizier in Abyssinia: a headland, cape. [Ar., 'head.']

RASANT, r[=a]'zant, _adj._ (_fort._) sweeping or flanking, applied to fire.


RASCAL, ras'kal, _n._ a dishonest fellow: a knave, rogue, scamp.--_adj._ worthless: mean.--_ns._ RAS'CALDOM, the class of rascals; RAS'CALISM, RASCAL'ITY, mean trickery or dishonesty: fraud: villainy: the rabble.--_adj._ RAS'CALLIEST (_Shak._, _superl._ of Rascally).--_n._ RASCALL'ION, a rascal: one of the lowest people: a low, mean wretch.--_adjs._ RAS'CALLY, RAS'CAL-LIKE, mean: vile: base. [Fr.

_racaille_, scum of the people, through Low L. forms from L. _rad[)e]re_, _rasum_, to scrape.]

RASE, r[=a]z, _v.t._ to scratch or blot out: to efface: to cancel: to level with the ground, demolish, or ruin (in this sense _raze_ is generally used).--_n._ a slight wound.--_ns._ R[=A]'SING, in shipbuilding, the act of marking figures upon timber; R[=A]'SING-[=I]'RON, a caulking-iron for cleaning the pitch, &c., from a vessel's seams; R[=A]'SING-KNIFE, an edged tool for making marks on timber, &c.; R[=A]'SION, a scraping: rasure; R[=A]'SURE, act of scraping, shaving, or erasing: obliterating: an erasure.

[Fr. _raser_--L. _rad[)e]re_, _rasum_, to scrape.]

RASH, rash, _adj._ (_comp._ RASH'ER; _superl._ RASH'EST) hasty: headstrong: incautious.--_adj._ RASH'-EMBRACED' (_Shak._), rashly undertaken.--_ns._ RASH'ER, a thin slice of broiled bacon, perh. because quickly roasted; RASH'LING, a rash person.--_adv._ RASH'LY, precipitately.--_n._ RASH'NESS.

[Dan. and Sw. _rask_; Ger. _rasch_, rapid.]

RASH, rash, _n._ a slight eruption on the skin. [O. Fr. _rasche_ (Fr.

_rache_)--L. _rad[)e]re_, to scratch.]

RASH, rash, _v.t._ (_obs._) to tear, to lacerate. [Fr. _arracher_, to uproot.]

RASKOLNIK, ras-kol'nik, _n._ in Russia, a schismatic, a dissenter from the orthodox or Greek Church.

RASORIAL, ra-s[=o]'ri-al, _adj._ belonging to an order of birds which scrape the ground for their food, as the RAS[=O]'RES, the _Gallinae_. [_Rase_.]

RASP, rasp, _v.t._ to rub with a coarse file: to utter in a grating manner.--_v.i._ to have a grating effect.--_n._ a coarse file.--_ns._ RASP'ATORY, a surgeon's rasp; RASP'ER, that which rasps: (_coll._) a difficult fence; RASP'-HOUSE, a place where wood is reduced to powder for dyeing; RASP'ING, a filing.--_adj._ exasperating.--_adv._ RASP'INGLY.--_ns._ RASP'ING-MACHINE', a bark-cutting machine; RASP'ING-MILL; RASP'-PUNCH, a tool for cutting the teeth of rasps.--_adj._ RASP'Y, rough. [O. Fr. _rasper_ (Fr. _raper_)--Old High Ger. _rasp[=o]n_, whence Ger. _raspeln_, to rasp.]

RASPBERRY, raz'ber-i, _n._ the fruit of several plants of genus _Rubus_, the plant producing it--also RASP.--_n._ RASP'BERRY-BUSH, the shrub which yields the raspberry.--RASPBERRY BORER, the larvae of one of the clear-winged sphinxes; RASPBERRY VINEGAR, a drink of raspberry juice, vinegar, and sugar.

RASTRUM, ras'trum, _n._ a music-pen. [_Rase._]

RAT, rat, _n._ an animal of the genus _Mus_, larger and more destructive than the mouse: a renegade, turncoat: a workman who accepts lower than the authorised wages, who declines to join in a strike, or who takes a striker's work: a roll of anything used to puff out the hair which is turned over it.--_v.i._ (_coll._) to desert one's party and join their opponents for gain or power: to take lower than current wages, to refuse to join in a strike, to take a striker's place:--_pr.p._ rat'ting; _pa.p._ and _pa.t._ rat'ted.--_ns._ RAT'-CATCH'ER, one whose business it is to catch rats; RAT'-CATCH'ING; RAT'-HOLE (_print._), a pigeon-hole; RAT'-PIT, an enclosure where rats are killed; RAT'-POI'SON, a preparation of arsenic; RAT'S'-BANE, poison for rats: arsenious acid; RAT'-TAIL, an excrescence growing on a horse's leg.--_adj._ RAT'-TAILED, having a tail like a rat.--_ns._ RAT'TER, a terrier which catches rats; RAT'TERY, apostasy; RAT'TING, deserting one's principles: working for less than the usual prices: setting a dog to kill rats in a pit; RAT'-TRAP, a trap for catching rats.--RAT-TAILED LARVA, the larva of certain syrphid flies.--SMELL A RAT, to have a suspicion. [A.S. _raet_; Ger. _ratte_.]

RATA, ra'ta, _n._ a New Zealand tree related to various species of Ironwood, its wood once much used for making clubs, and valuable for shipbuilding.

RATABLE, RATEABLE, r[=a]'ta-bl, _adj._ See RATE.

RATAFIA, rat-a-f[=e]'a, _n._ a flavouring essence made with the essential oil of almonds: a fancy cake. [Fr.,--Malay _araqtafia_, from Ar. _'araq_, Malay _tafia_, rum.]

RATAN, ra-tan', _n._ Same as RATTAN.

RATANY, rat'a-ni, _n._ a perennial procumbent shrub, yielding the medicinal _ratany root_. [Peruv.]

RATAPLAN, rat-a-plong', _n._ the sound or rattle of the military drum, a tattoo. [Fr.; imit.]

RAT-A-TAT, rat'-a-tat', _n._ sound of repeated knocks, as of a drumstick.--Also RAT'-TAT. [Imit.]

RATCH, rach, _n._ a rack or bar with teeth into which a click drops: the wheel which makes a clock strike: a white mark on the face of a horse.--_v.t._ to stretch: to streak.--_v.i._ to sail by tacks.--_ns._ RATCH'ET, a bar acting on the teeth of a ratchet-wheel: a click or pall; RATCH'ET-COUP'LING, a device for uncoupling machinery in the event of a sudden stoppage; RATCH'ET-DRILL, a tool for drilling holes, the bit mounted in a stock and rotated by a ratchet-wheel and lever; RATCH'ET-JACK, a form of screw-jack; RATCH'ET-L[=E]'VER, a lever fitted round a ratchet-wheel; RATCH'ET-PUNCH, a punch worked by means of a ratchet-lever; RATCH'ET-WHEEL, a wheel having teeth against which a ratchet abuts, for changing a reciprocating into a rotatory motion, &c.; RATCH'ET-WRENCH, a ratchet bed-key wrench.--_adj._ RATCH'ETY, jerky.--_n._ RATCH'MENT (_archit._), a flying buttress springing from corner principals. [_Rack._]

RATCHEL, rach'el, _n._ (_prov._) broken-stone, hard-pan.--Also RATCH'IL.

RATE, r[=a]t, _n._ a ratio or proportion: allowance: standard: value: price: the class of a ship and of seamen: movement, as fast or slow: a tax.--_v.t._ to calculate: to estimate: to settle the relative rank, scale, or position of.--_v.i._ to make an estimate: to be placed in a certain class: to ratify.--_ns._ R[=A]TABIL'ITY, R[=A]'TABLENESS, quality of being ratable.--_adj._ R[=A]'TABLE, R[=A]'TEABLE, that may be rated or set at a certain value: subject to taxation.--_adv._ R[=A]'TABLY.--_ns._ R[=A]TE'-BOOK, a book of valuations; R[=A]TE'PAYER, one who pays a local tax.--_adj._ R[=A]TE'PAYING, paying, or relating to, an assessed local tax.--_ns._ R[=A]'TER, one who makes an estimate; R[=A]TE'-TITHE, a tithe paid for sheep and cattle; R[=A]'TING, a fixing of rates: classification according to rank or grade.--AT ANY RATE, by any means; BY NO RATE, by no means. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _rata_, rate--L. _r[=e]ri_, _ratus_, to think.]

RATE, r[=a]t, _v.t._ to tax: to scold: to chide: to reprove. [M. E.

_raten_, acc. to Skeat, from O. Fr. _aretter_, to impute--L. _ad_, to, _reput[=a]re_, to count. Others explain as Scand., Sw. _rata_, to reject.]

RATEL, r[=a]'tel, _n._ a genus of quadrupeds of the bear family, nearly allied to the gluttons, and very like the badgers. [Fr., dim. of _rat_.]

RAT-GOOSE, rat'-g[=oo]s, _n._ the brent or brant goose.

RATH, rath, _adj._ early, soon--also RATHE.--_adv._ RATH (_arch._), early, soon.--_adj._ RATH'EREST (_Shak._), _superl._ of RATH.--_adv._ RATH'LY, suddenly.--_adj._ RATH'RIPE, early ripe. [A.S. _hraeth_, quickly; Ice.

_hradhr_, swift, Mid. High Ger. _hrad_, quick.]

RATH, rath, _n._ a prehistoric hill-fort. [Ir.]

RATH, rat, _n._ a name given to some Indian rock-cut Buddhist temples.

RATH, rat, _n._ a Burmese state-carriage.

RATHER, rath'[.e]r, _adv._ more willingly: in preference: especially: more so than otherwise: on the contrary: somewhat, in some degree: more properly: (_coll._) considerably, very much.--_adj._ RATH'ERISH, to a slight degree, somewhat.--RATHER BETTER THAN, somewhat in excess of.--THE RATHER, by so much the more. [A.S. _hrathor_, comp. of _hrathe_, early.]

RATIFY, rat'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to approve and sanction: to settle:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ rat'ified.--_ns._ RATIFIC[=A]'TION, act of ratifying or confirming: confirmation; RAT'IFIER, one who, or that which, ratifies or sanctions. [Fr. _ratifier_--L. _ratus_, fixed by calculation--_r[=e]ri_, _ratus_, to think, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

RATIO, r[=a]'shi-o, _n._ the relation or the proportion of one thing to another: reason, cause: (_mus._) the relation between the vibration-numbers of two tones. [L. _ratio_, reason--_r[=e]ri_, _ratus_, to think.]

RATIOCINATE, rash-i-os'i-n[=a]t, _v.i._ to reason:--_pr.p._ ratioc'inating; _pa.p._ ratioc'inated.--_n._ RATIOCIN[=A]'TION, the process of reasoning: deduction from premises.--_adjs._ RATIOC'IN[=A]TIVE, RATIOC'IN[=A]TORY. [L.

_ratiocin[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_ratio_, reason.]

RATION, r[=a]'shon, _n._ the quantity of provisions distributed to a soldier or sailor daily: an allowance.--_n._ R[=A]'TION-MON'EY, money paid as commutation for rations. [Fr.,--L. _ratio_.]

RATIONAL, rash'on-al, _adj._ pertaining to the reason: endowed with reason: agreeable to reason: sane: intelligent: judicious: (_arith._, _alg._) noting a quantity which can be exactly expressed by numbers.--_n._ RATIONABIL'ITY, the possession of reason.--_adj._ RAT'IONABLE, reasonable.--_ns._ RATION[=A]'LE, a rational account of anything, with reasons for its existence: a theoretical explanation or solution; RATIONALIS[=A]'TION, subjection to rational principles.--_v.t._ RAT'IONALISE, to interpret like a rationalist: to think for one's self.--_v.i._ to rely entirely or unduly on reason.--_ns._ RAT'IONALISM, the religious system or doctrines of a rationalist; RAT'IONALIST, one who believes himself guided in his opinions solely by reason, independently of authority, esp. in regard to religion--denying supernatural revelation.--_adjs._ RATIONALIST'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or in accordance with, the principles of rationalism.--_adv._ RATIONALIST'ICALLY, in a rationalistic manner.--_n._ RATIONAL'ITY, quality of being rational: the possession or due exercise of reason: reasonableness.--_adv._ RAT'IONALLY, reasonably.--_n._ RAT' RAT'IONALS, dress for women convenient for bicycling, &c.--breeches instead of skirts.

RATIONAL, rash'on-al, _n._ the breast-plate of the Jewish high-priest: a pectoral worn by a bishop. [L. _rationale_, a mistaken rendering in the Vulgate of the Gr. _logion_, oracle.]

RATITae, r[=a]-t[=i]'t[=e], _n._ a division of birds, including the ostriches, cassowaries, emus, and kiwis.--_n._ R[=A]'TITE, RAT'ITATE, raft-breasted, as a bird.

RATIUNCULE, r[=a]-shi-ung'k[=u]l, _n._ a ratio very near unity. [Dim. of L.



RATLINE, RATLIN, rat'lin, _n._ one of the small lines or ropes traversing the shrouds and forming the steps of the rigging of ships--also RAT'LING, RATT'LING.--_n._ RAT'LINE-STUFF (_naut._), a tarred rope from which ratlines are made. [Prob. _rat-lines_.]

RATOON, ra-t[=oo]n', _n._ a new shoot from the root of a sugar-cane.--_v.i._ to send up new shoots from the root after cropping.

[Hind. _ratun_.]

RATTAN, rat-an', _n._ a genus of palms having a smooth, reed-like stem several hundreds of feet in length: a walking-stick made of rattan: stems of rattan palm used as a raft. [Malay _rotan_.]

RATTAN, ra-tan', _n._ the continuous beat of a drum.

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