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PUMP, pump, _n._ a thin-soled shoe used in dancing.--_adj._ PUMPED, wearing pumps. [Prob. Fr. _pompe_, ornament, show, from Teut., cf. Ger.

_pumphosen_, wide pantaloons.]

PUMPERNICKEL, pump'er-nik-el, _n._ a kind of coarse bread, made of unsifted rye, much used in Westphalia. [Ger., a heavy, stupid fellow, from _pumper_, a heavy fall, _nickel_=Nicholas.]

PUMPKIN, pump'kin, _n._ a plant of the gourd family and its fruit.--Also PUMP'ION. [A corr. of O. Fr. _pompon_--L. _pep[=o]_--Gr. _pep[=o]n_, ripe.]


PUN, pun, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to pound. [Cf. _Pound_.]

PUN, pun, _v.i._ to play upon words similar in sound but different in meaning so as to produce a ludicrous idea:--_pr.p._ pun'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ punned.--_n._ a play upon words.--_ns._ PUN'NAGE, PUN'NING, the act or habit of punning. [Ety. dub.; prob. to beat words=_pound_, to beat, from A.S. _punian_, to pound.]

PUNCH, punsh, _n._ contr. of _Punchinello_, a humpbacked, hook-nosed puppet with a squeaking voice, one of the two main actors in the street puppet-show 'Punch and Judy:' PUNCH, or the London CHARIVARI, the chief illustrated English comic journal (begun 17th July 1841). [Through the influence of prov. Eng. _punch_, a variant of _bunch_, thick.]

PUNCH, punsh, _adj._ (_prov._) short and fat.--_n._ a short and fat man: a short-legged, round-bodied horse.--_adj._ PUNCH'Y. [Prob. a variant of _bunch_.]

PUNCH, punsh, _n._ a drink of five ingredients--spirit, water, sugar, lemon-juice, and spice.--_ns._ PUNCH'-BOWL, a large bowl for making punch in; PUNCH'-L[=A]D'LE, a ladle for filling glasses from a punch-bowl. [Hind.

_panch_, five--Sans. _pancha_, five.]

PUNCH, punsh, _v.t._ to prick or pierce with something sharp or blunt: to make a hole in with a steel tool.--_n._ a tool either blunt, or hollow and sharp-edged, for stamping or perforating: a kind of awl.--_n._ PUNCH'ER. [A shortened form of _puncheon_, a tool.]

PUNCH, punsh, _v.t._ to strike or hit: to beat with the fist, as one's head.--_n._ a stroke or blow with the fist, elbow, &c. [Prob. a corr. of _punish_.]

PUNCHEON, punsh'un, _n._ a steel tool with a die or a sharp point at one end for stamping or perforating metal plates: a short post or slab of wood with the face smoothed. [O. Fr. _poinson_--L. _punctio_, _-onis_--_pung[)e]re_, _punctum_, to prick.]

PUNCHEON, punsh'un, _n._ a cask: a liquid measure of from 72 or 84 to 120 gallons. [O. Fr. _poinson_, a cask; perh. from the above.]

PUNCHINELLO, punsh-i-nel'o, _n._ the short, hump-backed figure of a puppet-show: a buffoon, any grotesque personage. [It. _pulcinello_, dim. of _pulcino_, a chicken, child--L. _pullus_, a young animal.]

PUNCTATE, -D, pungk't[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ pointed: (_bot._) punctured: full of small holes: pitted: dotted.--_ns._ PUNCT[=A]'TION; PUNCT[=A]'TOR, one who marks with dots--esp. applied to the Massoretes who invented the Hebrew vowel-points.--_adj._ PUNC'TIFORM, pointed. [L. _punctum_--_pung[)e]re_, _punctum_, to prick.]

PUNCTILIO, pungk-til'yo, _n._ a nice point in behaviour or ceremony: nicety in forms: exact observance of forms.--_adj._ PUNCTIL'IOUS, attending to little points or matters: very nice or exact in behaviour or ceremony: exact or punctual to excess.--_adv._ PUNCTIL'IOUSLY.--_ns._ PUNCTIL'IOUSNESS; PUNC'TO (_Shak._), the point, or a blow with it in fencing: a nice point of ceremony. [Sp. _puntillo_, dim. of _punto_, point--L. _punctum_, a point.]

PUNCTUAL, pungk't[=u]-al, _adj._ of or pertaining to a point: observant of nice points: punctilious: exact in keeping time and appointments: done at the exact time.--_ns._ PUNC'TUALIST; PUNCTUAL'ITY, quality or state of being punctual: the keeping of the exact time of an appointment: exactness.--_adv._ PUNC'TUALLY.--_n._ PUNC'TUALNESS. [Fr.

_ponctuel_--_punctum_, a point.]

PUNCTUATE, pungk't[=u]-[=a]t, _v.t._ to mark with points: to divide sentences by the usual points or marks: to emphasise.--_adv._ PUNC'TU[=A]TIM, point for point.--_n._ PUNCTU[=A]'TION, the act or art of dividing sentences by points or marks.--_adj._ PUNC'TU[=A]TIVE.--_n._ PUNC'TU[=A]TOR.--PUNCTUATION MARKS, the comma, semicolon, colon, period, &c.

PUNCTUM, pungk'tum, _n._ (_anat._) a point, dot.--_adjs._ PUNC'T[=U]LATE, -D.--_ns._ PUNCT[=U]L[=A]'TION; PUNC'T[=U]LE; PUNC'T[=U]LUM.--PUNCTUM CaeCUM, the point of the retina from which the optic nerve fibres radiate, so called because impervious to light.

PUNCTURE, pungk't[=u]r, _n._ a pricking: a small hole made with a sharp point.--_v.t._ to prick: to pierce with a pointed instrument.--_n._ PUNCTUR[=A]'TION. [L. _punctura_--_pung[)e]re_, to prick.]

PUNDIT, pun'dit, _n._ a person who is learned in the language, science, laws, and religion of India: any learned man. [Hind. _pandit_--Sans.


PUNDONOR, pun'do-n[=o]r', _n._ point of honour. [Sp., contr. of _punto de honor_, point of honour.]

PUNGENT, pun'jent, _adj._ sharp: pricking or acrid to taste or smell: keenly touching the mind: painful: keen: sarcastic.--_ns._ PUN'GENCY, PUN'GENCE.--_adv._ PUN'GENTLY. [L. _pungens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _pung[)e]re_, to prick.]

PUNIC, p[=u]'nik, _adj._ pertaining to, or like, the ancient Carthaginians: faithless, treacherous, deceitful.--_n._ the language of ancient Carthage.

[L. _Punicus_--_Poeni_, the Carthaginians.]

PUNINESS, p[=u]'ni-nes, _n._ the state or quality of being puny or feeble: smallness: pettiness. [_Puny_.]

PUNISH, pun'ish, _v.t._ to cause to pay a penalty: to cause loss or pain to a person for a fault or crime: (_coll._) to handle or beat severely, maul: (_coll._) to consume a large quantity of: to chasten.--_ns._ PUNISHABIL'ITY, PUN'ISHABLENESS.--_adj._ PUN'ISHABLE, that may be punished--said both of persons and crimes.--_ns._ PUN'ISHER; PUN'ISHMENT, act or process of punishing: loss or pain inflicted for a crime or fault: the consequences of a broken law.--_adjs._ PUNITIVE (p[=u]'ni-tiv), pertaining to punishment: inflicting punishment; P[=U]'NITORY, punishing: tending to punishment. [Fr. _punir_, _punis-sant_--L. _pun[=i]re_, to punish--_poena_, penalty.]

PUNJABEE, PUNJABI, pun-ja'b[=e], _n._ a native or inhabitant of the _Punjab_ in India.

PUNK, pungk, _n._ rotten wood used as tinder: (_Shak._) a strumpet.


PUNKA, PUNKAH, pung'ka, _n._ a large fan for cooling the air of an Indian house, consisting of a light framework covered with cloth and suspended from the ceiling of a room, worked by pulling a cord or by machinery.

[Hind. _pankha_, a fan.]

PUNSTER, pun'st[.e]r, _n._ one who makes puns.

PUNT, punt, _n._ a flat-bottomed boat with square ends.--_v.t._ to propel, as a boat, by pushing with a pole against the bottom of a river: to kick the ball (_in football_) before it touches the ground, when let fall from the hands: to knock.--_v.i._ to pursue water-fowl in a punt with a punt-gun.--_ns._ PUNT'ER; PUNT'-FISHING, angling from a punt in a pond, river, or lake; PUNT'-GUN, a heavy gun of large bore used for shooting water-fowl from a punt; PUNTS'MAN, a sportsman who uses a punt. [A.S.,--L.

_ponto_, a punt--_pons_, _pontis_, a bridge.]

PUNT, punt, _v.i._ to play at basset or ombre.--_n._ PUNT'ER, one who marks the points in basset or ombre. [Fr., through Sp.--L. _punctum_, a point.]

PUNTILLA, pun-til'a, _n._ lace-work. [Sp.]

PUNTO, pun'to, _n._ (_Shak._) a point or hit: a pass or thrust made in fencing.--PUNTO DRITTO, a direct or straight hit; PUNTO RIVERSO, a back-handed stroke. [Sp. and It. _punto_--L. _punctum_, a point.]

PUNY, p[=u]'ni, _adj._ (_comp._ P[=U]'NIER; _superl._ P[=U]'NIEST) small: feeble: petty. [Cf. _Puisne_.]

PUP, pup, _v.t._ to bring forth puppies, as a bitch: to whelp:--_pr.p._ pup'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pupped.--_n._ PUP.--BE IN PUP, to be pregnant, said of dogs. [_Puppy._]

PUPA, p[=u]'pa, _n._ an insect enclosed in a case while passing from the caterpillar to the winged stage: a chrysalis--also P[=U]PE:--_pl._ PUPae (p[=u]'p[=e]).--_adjs._ P[=U]'PAL, P[=U]P[=A]'RIAL.--_n._ P[=U]P[=A]'RIUM, a pupa included within the last larval skin.--_v.i._ P[=U]P[=A]TE', to become a pupa.--_n._ P[=U]P[=A]'TION.--_adjs._ P[=U]'PIFORM; P[=U]PIG'EROUS.--_n._ P[=U]PIP'ARA, a division of dipterous insects having pupae developed within the body of the mother.--_adjs._ P[=U]PIP'AROUS; P[=U]PIV'OROUS; P[=U]'POID. [L. _pupa_, a girl, a doll, fem. of _pupus_, a boy, a child; cf. _puer_, a boy.]

PUPIL, p[=u]'pil, _n._ a little boy or girl: one under the care of a tutor: a scholar: a ward: (_law_) one under the age of puberty--i.e. under fourteen years for males, and twelve for females.--_adj._ under age.--_ns._ PUPILABIL'ITY (_rare_), pupilary nature: confidential character; P[=U]'PILAGE, P[=U]'PILLAGE, state of being a pupil: the time during which one is a pupil; PUPILAR'ITY, PUPILLAR'ITY, the time between birth and puberty.--_adjs._ P[=U]'PILARY, P[=U]'PILLARY, pertaining to a pupil or ward.--PUPIL TEACHER, one who is both a pupil and a teacher. [Fr.

_pupille_--L. _pupillus_, _pupilla_, dims. of _pupus_, boy, _pupa_, girl.]

PUPIL, p[=u]'pil, _n._ the round opening in the middle of the eye through which the light passes: the apple of the eye, so called from the baby-like figures seen on it: (_zool._) the central dark part of an ocellated spot.--_adjs._ P[=U]'PILARY, P[=U]'PILLARY; P[=U]'PILATE (_zool._), having a central spot of another colour.--_n._ PUPILLOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the size of the pupil of an eye. [Same as above word.]

PUPPET, pup'et, _n._ a small doll or image moved by wires in a show: a marionette: one who acts just as another tells him.--_ns._ PUPP'ETRY, finery, affectation: a puppet-show; PUPP'ET-SHOW, -PLAY, a mock show or drama performed by puppets; PUPP'ET-VALVE, a valve like a pot-lid attached to a rod, and used in steam-engines for covering an opening. [O. Fr.

_poupette_, dim. from L. _pupa_.]

PUPPY, pup'i, _n._ a doll: a young dog: a whelp: a conceited young man.--_adj._ PUPP'Y-HEAD'ED (_Shak._), stupid.--_n._ PUPP'YHOOD, the condition of being a puppy.--_adj._ PUPP'YISH.--_n._ PUPP'YISM, conceit in men. [Fr. _poupee_, a doll or puppet--L. _pupa_.]


PURANA, p[=oo]-ra'na, _n._ one of a class of sacred poetical books in Sanscrit literature, forming with the Tantras the main foundation of the actual popular creed of the Brahmanical Hindus.--_adj._ PURAN'IC. [Sans.

_pur[=a]na_--_pur[=a]_, ancient.]

PURBLIND, pur'bl[=i]nd, _adj._ nearly blind, near-sighted: (_orig._) wholly blind.--_adv._ PUR'BLINDLY.--_n._ PUR'BLINDNESS. [For _pure-blind_--i.e.

wholly blind; the meaning has been modified, prob. through some confusion with the verb to _pore_.]

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