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HEIGHT, h[=i]t, _n._ the condition of being high: distance upwards: that which is elevated: a hill: elevation in rank or excellence: utmost degree.--_v.t._ HEIGHT'EN, to make higher, to advance or improve: to make brighter or more prominent. [Corr. of _highth_--A.S. _hiehtho_, _heahthu_--_heah_, high.]

HEINOUS, h[=a]'nus, _adj._ wicked in a high degree, enormous: atrocious.--_adv._ HEI'NOUSLY.--_n._ HEI'NOUSNESS. [O. Fr. _hanos_ (Fr.

_haineux_)--_har_, to hate.]

HEIR, [=a]r, _n._ one who inherits anything after the death of the owner: one entitled to anything after the present possessor: a child, offspring:--_fem._ HEIRESS ([=a]r'es).--_v.t._ HEIR, to inherit.--_ns._ HEIR'-APP[=A]'RENT, the one by law acknowledged to be heir; HEIR'-AT-LAW, an heir by legal right; HEIR'DOM, HEIR'SHIP.--_adj._ HEIR'LESS, without an heir.--_ns._ HEIR'LOOM, any piece of furniture or personal property which descends to the heir-at-law by special custom; HEIR'-PRESUMP'TIVE, one who will be heir if no nearer relative should be born.--HEIR BY CUSTOM, one whose right as heir is determined by customary modes of descent, as gavelkind, &c. [O. Fr. _heir_--L. _h[=e]res_, an heir.]


HEL, hel, _n._ in Northern mythology, the goddess of the dead, the sister of the wolf Fenrir, and daughter of the evil-hearted Loki.

HELCOID, hel'koid, _adj._ ulcerous.--_ns._ HELCOL'OGY, the branch of pathology concerned with ulcers; HEL'COPLASTY, the operation of grafting on an ulcer a piece of healthy skin; HELC[=O]'SIS, ulceration.--_adj._ HELCOT'IC. [Gr. _helkos_, an ulcer.]

HELD, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _hold_.

HELE, h[=e]l, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to hide, conceal. [A.S. _helian_, _helan_, to hide; Ger. _hehlen_.]

HELIAC, h[=e]'li-ak, HELIACAL, he-l[=i]'ak-al, _adj._ (_astron._) emerging from the light of the sun or passing into it.--_adv._ HEL[=I]'ACALLY. [Gr.

_h[=e]liakos_--_h[=e]lios_, the sun.]

HELIANTHUS, h[=e]-li-an'thus, _n._ a genus of order _Compositae_, including the common sunflower. [Gr. _h[=e]lios_, the sun, _anthos_, a flower.]


HELICONIAN, hel-i-k[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Helicon_, a mountain-range in Boeotia, in ancient Greece, the favourite seat of the Muses.

HELIOCENTRIC, -AL, h[=e]-li-o-sen'trik, -al, _adj._ (_astron._) referred to the sun as centre.--_adv._ HELIOCEN'TRICALLY. [Gr. _h[=e]lios_, the sun, _kentron_, the centre.]

HELIOCHROMY, h[=e]'li-ok-r[=o]-mi, _n._ the art of producing photographs in the natural colours.--_ns._ H[=E]'LIOCHROME, HELIOCHR[=O]'MOTYPE, a photograph in the natural colours.--_adj._ HELIOCHR[=O]'MIC.

HELIOGRAPH, h[=e]'li-o-graf, _n._ an apparatus for signalling by means of the sun's rays: an engraving obtained by a process in which a specially prepared plate is acted on chemically by exposure to light: an apparatus for taking photographs of the sun.--_v.t._ to signal to by means of the sun's rays.--_n._ HELIOG'RAPHER.--_adjs_. HELIOGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_adv._ HELIOGRAPH'ICALLY.--_ns._ HELIOG'RAPHY, a method of communicating swiftly between distant points by means of the sun's rays reflected from mirrors: photography; HELIOGR[=A]'VURE (or h[=a]-li-[=o]-gra-vur'), photo-engraving, or a print obtained by this process. [Gr. _h[=e]lios_, the sun, _graph[=e]_, a painting--_graphein_, to write.]

HELIOLATRY, h[=e]-li-ol'a-tri, _n._ worship of the sun.--_n._ HELIOL'ATER, a worshipper of the sun.--_adj._ HELIOL'ATROUS. [Gr. _h[=e]lios_, the sun, _latreia_, worship.]

HELIOLOGY, h[=e]-li-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of the sun.

HELIOMETER, h[=e]-li-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument by which the diameters of the heavenly bodies can be measured with great accuracy.--_adjs._ HELIOMET'RIC, -AL. [Gr. _h[=e]lios_, sun, _metron_, a measure.]

HELIOPHILOUS, h[=e]-li-of'i-lus, _adj._ fond of the sun--opp. to HELIOPH[=O]'BIC, fearing or shunning sunlight.

HELIOSCOPE, h[=e]'li-o-sk[=o]p, _n._ a telescope for viewing the sun without injury to the eyes, by means of blackened glass or mirrors that reflect only a part of the light.--_adj._ HELIOSCOP'IC. [Fr.

_helioscope_--Gr. _h[=e]lios_, the sun, _skopein_, to look, to spy.]

HELIOSTAT, h[=e]'li-o-stat, _n._ an instrument by means of which a beam of sunlight is reflected in an invariable direction. [Gr. _h[=e]lios_, sun, _statos_, fixed--_histanai_, to stand.]

HELIOTROPE, h[=e]'li-o-tr[=o]p, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order _Boraginaceae_, many species with fragrant flowers, esp. the _Peruvian heliotrope_, with small lilac-blue flowers and a fragrance resembling vanilla or cherry-pie: (_min._) a bloodstone, a variety of chalcedony of a dark-green colour variegated with red: a mirror placed at a distant station and adjusted by clockwork, so that at a particular hour of the day (arranged beforehand) the light of the sun shall be reflected from the mirror directly to the surveyor's station.--_adjs._ HELIOTROP'IC, -AL.--_adv._ HELIOTROP'ICALLY.--_ns._ HELIOT'ROPISM, HELIOT'ROPY, the tendency that the stem and leaves of a seedling plant have to bend towards, and the roots from, the light when placed in a transparent vessel of water within reach of the light of a window. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr.

_h[=e]liotropion_--_h[=e]lios_, the sun, _tropos_, a turn.]

HELIOTYPY, h[=e]'li-[=o]-t[=i]-pi, _n._ a photo-mechanical process in which the gelatine relief is itself used to print from in some form of printing-press, instead of being covered with tinfoil as in the stannotype process.--_n._ H[=E]'LIOTYPE, a photograph.--_v.t._ to produce a heliotype picture of.--_v.i._ to practise heliotypy.--_adj._ HELIOTYP'IC. [Gr.

_h[=e]lios_, sun, _typos_, impression.]

HELIOZOA, h[=e]'li-[=o]-z[=o]'a, _n._ a class of Protozoa of the Rhizopod type, with protruding processes of living matter. [Gr. _h[=e]lios_, the sun, _z[=o]on_, an animal.]

HELIUM, h[=e]'li-um, _n._ a substance discovered by Lockyer in the sun's atmosphere, found by Ramsay in the rare Norwegian mineral cleveite.

HELIX, h[=e]'liks, _n._ a spiral, as of wire in a coil: (_zool._) a genus of molluscs including the land-snails: the external part of the ear: a small volute or twist in the capital of a Corinthian column:--_pl._ HELICES (hel'i-s[=e]z).--_adj._ HEL'ICAL, spiral.--_adv._ HEL' HELIC'IDae, a large family of terrestrial, air-breathing gasteropods, of which snails are familiar examples.--_n._ HEL'ICOGRAPH, a drawing instrument for describing a spiral line.--_adjs._ HEL'ICOID, -AL, like a helix, screw-shaped; HELISPHER'IC, -AL, spiral. [L.,--Gr. _helix_, _helissein_, to turn round.]

HELL, hel, _n._ the place or state of punishment of the wicked after death: the place of the dead indefinitely: the abode of evil spirits: the powers of hell: any place of vice or misery: a gambling-house.--_adjs._ HELL'-BLACK (_Shak._), black as hell; HELL'-BORN, born in hell: of hellish origin; HELL'-BRED.--_ns._ HELL'-BROTH (_Shak._), a composition boiled up for malignant purposes; HELL'-CAT, a malignant hag; HELL'-FIRE, the fire of hell: punishment in hell; HELL'-GATE, the entrance into hell.--_adj._ HELL'-HAT'ED (_Shak._), hated or abhorred as hell.--_n._ HELL'HOUND, a hound of hell: an agent of hell.--_adj._ HELL'ISH, pertaining to or like hell: very wicked.--_adv._ HELL'ISHLY.--_ns._ HELL'ISHNESS; HELL'-KITE (_Shak._), a kite of infernal breed.--_adv._ HELL'WARD, towards hell. [A.S.

_hel_; Ice. _hel_, Ger. _holle_.]

HELL, hel, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to hide.

HE'LL, contraction for _he will_.

HELLEBORE, hel'e-b[=o]r, _n._ a plant of the genus Helleborus (_Ranunculaceae_), whose root possesses drastic purgative properties, anciently used as a cure for insanity--varieties are the _Black Hellebore_ or _Christmas Rose_, the _Stinking_ and the _Green Hellebore_; similar plants of other genera are the _Winter Hellebore_ and the _American False_ or _White Hellebore_, known also as _Indian Poke_ or _Itch Weed_. [Fr.

_hellebore_--L. _helleborus_--Gr. _helleboros_.]

HELLENIC, hel-len'ik, or hel-l[=e]'nik, HELLENIAN, hel-l[=e]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to the Hellenes or Greeks: Grecian, in art, esp. of the period from the primitive epoch to the Roman supremacy in Greece (beginning 146 B.C.), sometimes only from the time of Alexander the Great (c. 330 B.C.)--the term _Hellenistic_ applying to later times.--_n._ HELL'[=E]NE, an ancient Greek: a subject of the modern kingdom of Greece or Hellas:--_pl._ HELL[=E]'NES, the name of the modern Greeks for themselves.--_v.i._ HELL'ENISE, to conform, or show a tendency to conform, to Greek usages.--_ns._ HELL'ENISM, a Greek idiom: the spirit of the Greek race; HELL'ENIST, one skilled in the Greek language: a Jew who used the Greek language and adopted Greek usages, in opposition to the Hebrews properly so called, whether of Palestine or of the Dispersion, and to the Hellenes or Greeks proper--they are called _Grecians_ in the Authorised, _Grecian Jews_ in the Revised Version.--_adjs._ HELLENIST'IC, -AL, pertaining to the Hellenists: pertaining to Greek with foreign, esp.

Aramaic and Hebrew, idioms--a popular dialect which grew up at Alexandria and perpetuated itself in the Septuagint, and to a less marked degree in the New Testament.--_adv._ HELLENIST'ICALLY. [Gr. _Hell[=e]nios_, _Hel[=e]nikos_--_Hell[=e]nes_, a name ultimately given to all the Greeks--_Hell[=e]n_, the son of Deucalion, the Greek Noah.]

HELLICAT, hel'i-kat, _adj._ giddy-headed: flighty.--_n._ (_Scot._) a wicked creature.

HELM, helm, _n._ the instrument by which a ship is steered: the station of management or government.--_v.t._ to direct.--_n._ HELM'AGE, guidance.--_adj._ HELM'LESS, of a ship, without a helm.--_n._ HELMS'MAN, the one who steers. [A.S. _helma_; Ice. _hjalm_, a rudder, Gr. _helm_, a handle.]

HELM, helm, HELMET, hel'met, _n._ a covering of armour for the head: (_bot._) the hooded upper lip of certain flowers.--_adjs._ HELMED, HEL'METED, furnished with a helmet.--_n._ HEL'MET-SHELL, a genus of gasteropods having thick heavy shells with bold ridges: a cameo-shell.

[A.S. _helm_--_helan_, to cover; Ger. _helm_.]

HELMINTH, hel'minth, _n._ a worm.--_n._ HELMINTH'AGOGUE, a remedy against worms.--_adj._ HELMIN'THIC, pertaining to worms: (_med._) expelling worms.--_n._ a medicine for expelling worms.--_n._ HELMIN'THITE, a long sinuous mark common on the surfaces of sandstone, and supposed to be the tracks of worms.--_adjs._ HELMIN'THOID, worm-shaped; HELMINTHOLOG'IC, -AL.--_ns._ HELMINTHOL'OGIST; HELMINTHOL'OGY, that branch of natural history which treats of worms, or more particularly of the parasitic forms.--_adj._ HELMINTH'OUS. [Gr. _helmins_, -_inthos_, a worm.]

HELOT, h[=e]'lot, or hel'ot, _n._ one of a class of slaves among the ancient Spartans.--_ns._ H[=E]'LOTAGE, the state of a Helot; H[=E]'LOTISM, the condition of the Helots in ancient Sparta: slavery; H[=E]'LOTRY, the whole body of the Helots: any class of slaves. [Gr.; said to be derived from _Helos_, a town in Greece, reduced to slavery by the Spartans.]

HELP, help, _v.t._ to support: to assist: to mitigate: to give means for doing anything: to provide or supply with: to remedy: to prevent, to keep from.--_v.i._ to give assistance: to contribute:--_pa.p._ helped, (_B._) h[=o]lp'en.--_n._ means or strength given to another for a purpose: assistance: relief: one who assists: (_Amer._) a hired servant, esp. a domestic.--_n._ HELP'ER, one who helps: an assistant.--_adj._ HELP'FUL, giving help: useful.--_n._ HELP'FULNESS.--_adj._ HELP'LESS, without help or power in one's self: wanting assistance.--_adv._ HELP'LESSLY.--_ns._ HELP'LESSNESS; HELP'MATE, an assistant: a partner: a wife--also written HELP'MEET, from Gen. ii. 18.--HELP FORWARD, to assist in making progress; HELP OFF, to aid in disposing or getting rid of; HELP ON, to forward, to lift up; HELP OUT, to aid in finishing a task, eking out a supply, &c.; HELP OVER, to enable to surmount; HELP TO, to aid in obtaining for some one; HELP UP, to raise.--GOD HELP HIM, a phrase implying extreme pity or commiseration.--SO HELP ME GOD, a very strong asseveration, implying the willingness of the speaker to let his chance of salvation depend upon his truthfulness. [A.S. _helpan_, pa.t. _healp_, pa.p. _holpen_; Ice. _hjalpa_, Ger. _helfen_, to aid.]

HELTER-SKELTER, hel'ter-skel'ter, _adv._ in a confused hurry: tumultuously.--_n._ a confused medley: disorderly motion.--_adj._ confused.--_n._ HEL'TER-SKEL'TERINESS. [Imit.]

HELVE, helv, _n._ the handle of an axe or hatchet: the handle of a forehammer.--_v.t._ to furnish with a handle, as an axe.--_n._ HELVE'-HAMM'ER, a trip-hammer. [A.S. _hielfe_, _helfe_, a handle.]

HELVETIC, hel-vet'ik, _adj._ pertaining to Switzerland--also HELV[=E]'TIAN.--HELVETIC CONFESSIONS, two confessions of faith drawn up by the Swiss theologians in 1536 and 1566, in substance Protestant, Evangelical, moderately Calvinistic, and Zwinglian. [L.,--_Helvetia_, Latin name of Switzerland.]

HEM, hem, _n._ the border of a garment doubled down and sewed.--_v.t._ to form a hem on: to edge:--_pr.p._ hem'ming; _pa.p._ hemmed.--_n._ HEM'-STITCH, the ornamental finishing of the inner side of a hem, made by pulling out several threads adjoining it and drawing together in groups the cross-threads by successive stitches.--_v.t._ to embroider with such.--HEM IN, to surround. [A.S. _hemm_, a border; Ger. _hamm_, a fence.]

HEM, hem, _n._ and _interj._ a sort of half-cough to draw attention.--_v.i._ to utter the sound _hem!_--_pr.p._ hem'ming; _pa.p._ hemmed. [Imit.]

HEM, hem, (_Spens._) them.

HEMERALOPIA, hem'e-ra-l[=o]'pi-a, _n._ day-blindness, a defect of vision except in artificial or dim light; also applied to night-blindness. [Gr.

_h[=e]mera_, a day, _alaos_, blind, _[=o]ps_, the eye.]

HEMIANOPSIA, hem'i-an-op'si-a, _n._ complete or partial blindness as to half the field of vision--also HEMIAN[=O]P'IA, HEMI[=O]'PIA, HEMIOP'SIA, HEM'OPSY.--_adjs._ HEMIANOP'TIC, HEMIOP'IC. [Gr. _h[=e]mi_-, half, _an_-, neg., _opsis_, sight.]

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