HARDOCK. See HARLOCK.
HARDS, hardz, _n.pl._ also HURDS, coarse or refuse flax or hemp from which is made the coarse fabric HARD'EN, HERD'EN, HURD'EN.
HARDY, hard'i, _adj._ daring, brave, resolute: confident: impudent: able to bear cold, exposure, or fatigue.--_ns._ HARD'IHOOD, HARD'INESS, HARD'IMENT (_arch._).--_adv._ HARD'ILY. [O. Fr. _hardi_--Old High Ger. _hartjan_, to make hard.]
HARE, h[=a]r, _n._ a common and very timid animal, with a divided upper lip and long hind-legs, which runs swiftly by leaps.--_ns._ HARE-AND-HOUNDS, a boys' game in which some set off on a long run across country, dropping pieces of paper (the scent) as they go, and others try to overtake, following their trail; HARE'BELL, a plant with blue bell-shaped flowers.--_adjs._ HARE'-BRAINED, giddy: heedless; HARE'-FOOT, swift of foot like a hare; HAR'ISH, somewhat like a hare.--_n._ HARE'-LIP, a fissure in the upper human lip like that of a hare.--_adj._ HARE'-LIPPED.--_n._ HARE'S'-EAR, a genus of umbelliferous plants having yellow flowers.--FIRST CATCH YOUR HARE, make sure you have a thing first before you think what to do with it--from a direction in Mrs Glasse's cookery-book, where catch, however, was a misprint for 'case'=skin; HOLD WITH THE HARE AND RUN WITH THE HOUNDS, to play a double and deceitful game, to be with both sides at once; JUGGED HARE, hare cut into pieces and stewed with wine and other seasoning; MAD AS A MARCH HARE, from the gambols of the hare during the breeding season. [A.S. _hara_; Dut. _haas_, Dan. _hare_, Ger. _hase_.]
HARELD, har'eld, _n._ a genus of northern sea-ducks. [Norw.
HAREM, h[=a]'rem, _n._ the portion of a Mohammedan house allotted to females: the collection of wives and concubines belonging to one Mussulman.
[Ar. _haram_, anything forbidden--_harama_, to forbid.]
HARICOT, har'i-ko, -kot, _n._ a kind of ragout or stew of mutton and beans or other vegetables: the kidney-bean or French bean. [Fr. _haricot_.]
HARI-KARI, an incorrect form of _hara-kiri_.
HARK, hark, _interj._ or _imper._ listen.--_n._ a whisper.--_n._ HARK'-BACK, a backward move.--HARK BACK, to revert to the original point.
HARL, harl, _n._ the skin of flax: any filamentous substance.
HARL, harl, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to drag along the ground: to rough-cast a wall with lime.--_v.i._ to drag one's self: to troll for fish.--_n._ act of dragging: a small quantity, a scraping of anything.
HARLEIAN, har-l[=e]'an, har'li-an, _adj._ pertaining to Robert _Harley_, Earl of Oxford (1661-1724), and his son, Edward Harley, esp. in reference to the library of books and MSS. collected by them--the latter in the British Museum since 1753.
HARLEQUIN, har'le-kwin, or -kin, _n._ the leading character in a pantomime, the lover of Columbine, in a tight spangled dress, with a wand, by means of which he is supposed to be invisible and to play tricks: a buffoon.--_v.i._ to play the harlequin.--_n._ HARLEQUIN[=A]DE', the portion of a pantomime in which the harlequin plays a chief part.--HARLEQUIN DUCK, a species of northern sea-duck, so called from its variegated markings. [Fr.
_harlequin_, _arlequin_ (It. _arlecchino_), prob. the same as O. Fr.
_Hellequin_, a devil in medieval legend, perh. of Teut. origin.]
HARLOCK, har'lok, _n._ (_Shak._) a flower not identified, not charlock=wild mustard, or _hardock_=burdock.
HARLOT, har'lot, _n._ a woman who prostitutes her body for hire, a whore.--_adj._ wanton: lewd.--_n._ HAR'LOTRY, prostitution, unchastity: (_obs._) a woman given to such: meretriciousness. [O. Fr. _herlot_, _arlot_, a base fellow; origin dub., perh. from Old High Ger. _karl_ (A.S.
HARM, harm, _n._ injury: moral wrong.--_v.t._ to injure.--_adj._ HARM'FUL, hurtful.--_adv._ HARM'FULLY.--_n._ HARM'FULNESS.--_adj._ HARM'LESS, not injurious, innocent: unharmed.--_adv._ HARM'LESSLY.--_n._ HARM'LESSNESS.
[A.S. _hearm_; Ger. _harm_.]
HARMALA, har'ma-la, _n._ wild rue--also HAR'MEL.--_ns._ HAR'MALINE, a white crystalline alkaloid obtained from the seeds of wild rue; HAR'MALOL, HAR'MINE, other alkaloids from the same source. [Gr., from Semitic; cf. Ar.
HARMAN, har'man, _n._ (_slang_) a policeman--also HAR'MAN-BECK: (_pl._) the stocks.
HARMATTAN, har-mat'an, _n._ a hot, dry, noxious wind which blows periodically from the interior of Africa to the Atlantic along the Guinea coast during December, January, and February. [Fanti.]
HARMONIC, -AL, har-mon'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to harmony: musical: concordant: recurring periodically.--_n._ a secondary tone, overtone; a note on a stringed instrument produced by lightly stopping a string: (_math._) one of a class of functions that enter into the development of the potential of a nearly spherical mass due to its attraction.--_adv._ HARMON'ICALLY.--_n.pl._ HARMON'ICS, used as _sing._ the science of harmony or of musical sounds--as _pl._ consonances, the component sounds included in what appears to the ear to be a single sound.--_adj._ HARM[=O]'NIOUS, having harmony: symmetrical, congruous: concordant.--_adv._ HARM[=O]'NIOUSLY.--_ns._ HARM[=O]'NIOUSNESS; HARMONIS[=A]'TION.--_v.i._ HAR'MON[=I]SE, to be in harmony: to agree.--_v.t._ to make in harmony: to cause to agree: (_mus._) to provide parts to.--_ns._ HARMON[=I]S'ER; HAR'MONIST, one skilled in harmony: a musical composer.--HARMONIC ENGINE, an invention of Edison's, in which the energy of an electric current is used, by means of two small electro-magnets, to keep up the vibrations of a large and heavily-weighted tuning-fork whose arms are connected with two pistons working a miniature pump; HARMONIC PROGRESSION, a series of numbers the reciprocals of which are in arithmetical progression; HARMONIC PROPORTION, the relation of three quantities in harmonic progression--the 2d a _harmonic mean_ between the 1st and 3d, as in the three numbers 2, 3, and 6; HARMONIC TRIAD, the common chord.
HARMONIUM, har-m[=o]'ni-um, _n._ a reed-organ, esp. one in which the air is compressed in the bellows and driven thence through the reeds.--_ns._ HARMON'ICA, the musical glasses--an instrument invented by Franklin, the sounds of which were produced from bell-shaped glasses placed on a framework that revolved on its centre, while the rims were touched by the moistened finger: a musical instrument consisting of a series of glass or metal plates played by striking with a small mallet: a mouth-organ or harmonicon; HARMON'ICON, a mouth-organ: an acoustic apparatus by which a musical note is evolved when a long dry tube, open at both ends, is held over a jet of burning hydrogen; HARMON'IPHONE, a musical instrument played with a keyboard, in which the sounds are produced by reeds set in a tube, and vibrating under pressure from the breath; HARM[=O]'NIUMIST, one who plays the harmonium; HARMON'OGRAPH, an instrument for tracing curves representing sonorous vibrations; HARMONOM'ETER, one for measuring the harmonic relations of sounds.
HARMONY, har'mo-ni, _n._ a fitting together of parts so as to form a connected whole, agreement in relation: in art, a normal state of completeness and order in the relations of things to each other: (_mus._) a simultaneous combination of accordant sounds: the whole chordal structure of a piece, as distinguished from its melody or its rhythm: concord, music in general: a collation of parallel passages regarding the same event arranged to demonstrate the substantial unity--as of the Gospels.--HARMONY, or MUSIC, OF THE SPHERES, a harmony formed by the regular movements of the heavenly bodies throughout space, determined by the relation to each other of the intervals of separation; PRE-ESTABLISHED HARMONY, the designation of Leibnitz for his theory of the divinely established relation between body and mind--the movements of monads and the succession of ideas, as it were a constant agreement between two clocks. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr.
_harmonia_--_harmos_, a fitting--_arein_, to fit.]
HARMOST, har'most, _n._ a Spartan governor of a subject city or province.--_n._ HAR'MOSTY; the office of such.
HARMOTOME, har'm[=o]-t[=o]m, _n._ a hydrous silicate of aluminium and barium.--Also _Cross-stone_.
HARNESS, har'nes, _n._ the equipments of a horse: formerly, the armour of a man or horse: equipment for any kind of labour.--_v.t._ to equip with armour: to put the harness on a horse.--_n._ HAR'NESS-CASK, a tub, a cask with rimmed cover on a ship's deck holding the salt meat for daily use.--DIE IN HARNESS, to die at one's work. [O. Fr. _harneis_, armour; dubiously referred to Celt., as in Bret. _harnez_, old iron, also armour.]
HARNS, harnz, _n.pl._ (_Scot._) the brains. [A.S. _haernes_, most prob.
Norse _hjarne_; cf. Ger. _hirn_.]
HARO, ha'ro, _n._ an old term for a form of appeal in the Channel Islands, a demand for protection against harm, or for assistance to arrest an adversary.--Also HA'ROW, HAR'ROW (_Spens._), a mere exclamation of distress. [O. Fr. _haro_, _harou_, of unknown origin; not _ha Rou!_ an appeal to Rolf, Rollo, or Rou, the first Duke of Normandy.]
HARP, harp, _n._ a musical stringed instrument much esteemed by the ancients.--_v.i._ to play on the harp: to dwell tediously upon anything.--_v.t._ to give voice to.--_ns._ HARP'ER, HARP'IST, a player on the harp.--_n.pl._ HARP'INGS (_naut._), the fore-parts of the wales surrounding the bow extensions of the rib-bands.--_n._ HARP'-SHELL, a genus of gasteropodous molluscs with inflated shell.--HARP ON ONE STRING, to dwell constantly on one topic. [A.S. _hearpe_; Ger. _harfe_.]
HARPOON, har-p[=oo]n', _n._ a dart for striking and killing whales.--_v.t._ to strike with the harpoon.--_ns._ HARPOON'ER, HARPOONEER', one who uses a harpoon; HARPOON'-GUN, a gun from which a harpoon or toggle-iron may be discharged. [Fr. _harpon_--_harpe_, a clamp--L. _harpa_, Gr. _harp[=e]_, sickle.]
HARPSICHORD, harp'si-kord, _n._ an old-fashioned keyed musical instrument, where the sound is produced by the twitching of the strings by a piece of crow-quill or hard leather. [O. Fr. _harpechorde_.]
HARPY, har'pi, _n._ (_myth._) a rapacious and filthy monster, with the body of a woman and the wings, feet, and claws of a bird of prey, considered as a minister of the vengeance of the gods: (_her._) a vulture with the head and breast of a woman: a South American eagle, larger than the golden eagle, and of great strength and rapacity: a rapacious person. [L.
_harp[=y]ia_--Gr., pl. _harpyiai_, 'snatchers,' symbols of the storm-wind--_harpazein_, to seize.]
HARQUEBUS, HARQUEBUSE, HARQUEBUSS, har'kwi-bus, _n._ Same as ARQUEBUSE.
HARRIDAN, har'i-dan, _n._ a vixenish old woman. [Prob. O. Fr. _haridelle_, a lean horse, a jade.]
HARRIER, har'i-[.e]r, _n._ a small kind of dog with a keen smell, for hunting hares: (_pl._) a name taken by some clubs of cross-country runners (see HARE-AND-HOUNDS). [Formed from _hare_, like _graz-i-er_.]
HARROVIAN, har-[=o]'vi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Harrow_.--_n._ one educated at the public school there.
HARROW, har'[=o], _n._ a frame of wood or iron toothed with spikes for smoothing and pulverising ploughed land, and for covering seeds sown.--_v.t._ to draw a harrow over: to harass: to tear.--_adj._ HARR'OWING, acutely distressing to the mind.--_adv._ HARR'OWINGLY.--_n._ CHAIN'-HARR'OW, a harrow composed of rings for breaking clods of earth.--UNDER THE HARROW, in distress or anxiety. [A.S. _hearge_; cf. Ice.
_herfi_, Dan. _harv_.]
HARROW. See HARO.
HARRY, har'i, _v.t._ to plunder: to ravage: to destroy: to harass:--_pr.p._ harr'ying; _pa.p._ harr'ied.--_n._ HARR'IER, one who, or that which, harries: a kind of hawk so named from its harrying or destroying small animals.--HARRYING, or HARROWING, OF HELL, the spoiling of hell, the delivery by Christ, upon His descent into hell after the crucifixion, of the souls of patriarchs and prophets there held in bondage by Satan (1 Pet.
iii. 19)--a favourite subject of Christian art, and of our own medieval writers of Mysteries. [A.S. _hergian_, from A.S. _here_, gen. _herg-es_, an army; Ger. _heer_.]
HARSH, harsh, _adj._ rough: bitter: jarring: abusive: severe: unkind.--_v.t._ HARSH'EN, to render harsh.--_adv._ HARSH'LY.--_n._ HARSH'NESS. [M. E. _harsk_, a northern word; cf. Sw. _harsk_ and Dan.
_harsk_, rancid, Ger. _harsch_, hard.]
HART, hart, _n._ the stag or male deer from the age of six years, when the crown or sur-royal antler begins to appear:--_fem._ HIND.--_ns._ HART'EBEEST, HART'BEEST, a South African antelope; HARTS'HORN, the antlers of the red deer: a solution of ammonia, orig. a decoction of the shavings of a hart's horn; HARTS'TONGUE, a genus of widely distributed ferns, one species native to Britain, common in moist woods.--HART OF GREASE, a hart of the season when fat. [A.S. _heort_; Dut. _hert_, Ger. _hirsch_.]
HARUM-SCARUM, h[=a]'rum-sk[=a]'rum, _adj._ flighty: rash.--_n._ a giddy, rash person. [Prob. compounded of _hare_, from the sense of haste and fright, and _scare_.]
HARUSPEX, ha-rus'peks, _n._ (_pl._ HARUS'PICES) a soothsayer or diviner among the Etruscans, and from them adopted by the Romans, who foretold future events from the inspection of the entrails of animals offered in sacrifice--also HARUS'PICE.--_ns._ HARUSPIC[=A]'TION, HARUS'PICY, divination as by a haruspex. [L., from an assumed _haru_, cog. with Sans.
_hira_, entrails, and L. _spec[)e]re_, to view.]
HARVEST, har'vest, _n._ the time of gathering in the ripened crops: the crops gathered in: fruits: the product of any labour: consequences.--_v.t._ to reap and gather in.--_ns._ HAR'VEST-BUG, -LOUSE, -TICK, a mite or tick of minute size, abundant late in summer, and very troublesome to people with delicate skins; HAR'VESTER, a reaper in harvests; HAR'VEST-FEAST, the feast made at the ingathering of harvest; HAR'VEST-FIELD, a field where a harvest is or has been; HAR'VEST-FLY, in U.S. the popular name for a species of cicada; HAR'VEST-HOME, the bringing home of the harvest: the feast held at the bringing home of the harvest; HAR'VEST-LORD, the head-reaper at the harvest; HAR'VEST-MAN (_B._), a labourer in harvest; HAR'VEST-MOON, the full moon nearest the autumnal equinox, rising nearly at the same hour for several days; HAR'VEST-MOUSE, a very small species of mouse, building its nest in the stalks of growing corn; HAR'VEST-QUEEN, an image of Ceres, the queen or goddess of fruits, in ancient times carried about on the last day of harvest. [A.S. _haerfest_; Ger. _herbs_t, Dut.