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HAMSTRING, ham'string, _n._ the great tendon at the back of the knee or hock of the hind-leg of a quadruped.--_v.t._ to lame by cutting the hamstring.

HAN, han (_Spens._), _pl._ of _have_.



HANCE, hans, _n._ (_naut._) a curved rise from a lower to a higher part--sometimes HANCH, HAUNCH: (_archit._) the arc of smaller radius at the springing of an elliptical or many-centred arch--also HAUNCH. [O. Fr.

_hauce_, _haulce_, rise.]

HANCH, hansh, _v.i._ and _v.t._ to snap at with the jaws.

HAND, hand, _n._ the extremity of the arm below the wrist: that which does the duty of a hand by pointing, as the hand of a clock: the fore-foot of a horse: a measure of four inches: an agent or workman: (_pl._) work-people in a factory: performance, agency, co-operation: power or manner of performing: skill: possession: style of handwriting, sign-manual: side: direction: the set of cards held by a single player at whist, &c.: a single round at a game.--_v.t._ to give with the hand: to lead or conduct: (_naut._) to furl, as sails.--_ns._ HAND'-BAG, a bag for small articles, carried in the hand; HAND'-BALL, the sport of throwing and catching a ball; HAND'-BARR'OW, a barrow without a wheel, carried by men: HAND'-BAS'KET, a small portable basket; HAND'-BELL, a small bell held by the hand when rung, a table-bell; HAND'BILL, a pruning-hook used in the hand: a bill or loose sheet with some announcement; HAND'BOOK, a manual or book of reference: a guide-book for travellers; HAND'BREADTH, the breadth of a hand: a palm; HAND'-CART, a small cart drawn by hand.--_adj._ HAND'ED (_Milt._), with hands joined: (_Shak._) having a hand of a certain sort.--_ns._ HAND'ER; HAND'FAST, a firm grip, handle: a contract, esp. a betrothal.--_adj._ bound, espoused: tight-fisted.--_adj._ HAND'FASTED, betrothed.--_n._ HAND'FASTING, betrothal: a private or even probationary form of marriage.--_adj._ Hand'-foot'ed, having feet like hands, chiropod.--_ns._ HAND'FUL, as much as fills the hand: a small number or quantity:--_pl._ HAND'FULS; HAND'-GALL'OP, an easy gallop, in which the speed of the horse is restrained by the bridle-hand; HAND'-GLASS, a glass or small glazed frame used to protect plants: a small mirror; HAND'-GRENADE', a grenade to be thrown by the hand; HAND'GRIP, grasp, grip, close struggle; HAND'ICUFFS, HAND'YCUFFS, fighting hand to hand.--_adj._ HAND'LESS, awkward.--_ns._ HAND-LINE, a fishing-line worked by hand without a rod; HAND'-LIST, a list for easy reference; HAND'-LOOM, a weaver's loom worked by hand, as distinguished from a power-loom.--_adj._ HAND'-MADE, manufactured by hand, not by a machine.--_ns._ HAND'MAID, HAND'MAIDEN, a female servant; HAND'-MILL, a mill worked by hand for coffee, pepper, &c., a quern; HAND'-OR'GAN, a portable organ, played by means of a crank turned by the hand; HAND'-P[=A]'PER, a particular make of paper, early in use at the Record Office, with the water-mark of a hand pointing; HAND'-POST, a finger-post, guide; HAND'-PROM'ISE, a form of betrothal amongst the Irish peasantry; HAND'RAIL, a rail supported by balusters, as in staircases, to hold by.--_adv. phrase_, HAND'-RUN'NING, straight on, continuously.--_ns._ HAND'-SAW, a saw manageable by the hand--also the same as HERN'SHAW, in the proverb, 'not to know a hawk from a handsaw;' HAND'-SCREEN, a small screen used to protect the face from the heat of the fire or sun; HAND'-SCREW, an appliance for raising heavy weights, a jack; HAND'SPIKE, a bar used with the hand as a HAND'STAVES (_B._), probably javelins.--_ns._ HANDS'-TURN, a helping hand, aid; HAND'WORK, work done by hand, as distinguished from machinery; HAND'WRITING, the style of writing peculiar to each person: writing.--_adj._ HAND'-WROUGHT, made with the hands, not by machinery.--HAND AND [IN] GLOVE (_with_), on very intimate terms; HAND DOWN, to transmit in succession; HAND IN HAND, in union, conjointly; HAND OF GOD, a term used for unforeseen unpreventable accidents, as lightning, tempest, &c.; HAND OVER HAND, by passing the hands alternately one before or above the other; HAND OVER HEAD, rashly; HANDS DOWN, with ease; HANDS OFF! keep off! refrain from blows! HANDS UP, a bushranger's call to surrender; HAND TO HAND, at close quarters; HAND TO MOUTH, without thought for the future, precariously.--A BIRD IN THE HAND, any advantage at present held; A COOL HAND, a person not easily abashed; AT ANY HAND, IN ANY HAND (_Shak._), at any rate, in any case; AT FIRST HAND, from the producer or seller, or from the first source direct; AT HAND, near in place or time; AT SECOND HAND, from an intermediate purchaser or source; BEAR A HAND, make haste to help; BEAR IN HAND (_Shak._), to keep in expectation; BE HAND AND GLOVE, to be very intimate and familiar; BELIEVED ON ALL HANDS, generally believed; BLOODY, or RED, HAND, granted to baronets of Great Britain and Ireland in 1611; BY THE STRONG HAND, by force; CAP IN HAND, humbly; CHANGE HANDS, to pass from one owner to another; COME TO ONE'S HAND, to be easy to do; DEAD MAN'S HAND, HAND-OF-GLORY, a charm to discover hidden treasure, &c., made from a mandrake root, or the hand of a man who has been executed, holding a candle; FOR ONE'S OWN HAND, on one's own account; FROM GOOD HANDS, from a reliable source; GAIN THE UPPER HAND, to obtain the mastery; GET ONE'S HAND IN, to become familiar with.--HANDWRITING ON THE WALL, any sign foreshadowing disaster (from Dan. v. 5).--HAVE A HAND IN, to be concerned in; HAVE CLEAN HANDS, to be honest and incorruptible; HAVE FULL HANDS, to be fully occupied; HOLD HAND (_Shak._), to compete successfully; HOLD IN HAND, to restrain; IN HAND, as present payment: in preparation: under control; KISS THE HAND, in token of submission; LAY HANDS ON, to seize; LAYING ON OF HANDS, the laying on of the hands of a bishop or presbyters in ordination; LEND A HAND, to give assistance; OFF-HAND, OUT OF HAND, at once, immediately, without premeditation; OFF ONE'S HANDS, no longer under one's responsible charge; OLD HAND, one experienced, as opposed to _Young hand_; ON ALL HANDS, on all sides; ON HAND, ready, available: in one's possession; ON ONE'S HANDS, under one's care or responsibility; POOR HAND, an unskilful one; SECOND-HAND, inferior, not new; SET THE HAND TO, to engage in, undertake; SHOW ONE'S HAND, to expose one's purpose to any one; STAND ONE'S HAND (_slang_), to pay for a drink to another; STRIKE HANDS, to make a contract; TAKE IN HAND, to undertake; TAKE OFF ONE'S HANDS, to relieve of something troublesome; TO ONE'S HAND, in readiness; UNDER ONE'S HAND, with one's proper signature attached; WASH ONE'S HANDS (_of_), to disclaim the responsibility for anything (Matt.

xxvii. 24); WITH A HEAVY HAND, oppressively; WITH A HIGH HAND, without taking other people into consideration, audaciously. [A.S. _hand_; in all Teut. tongues, perh. rel. to Goth. _hinthan_, to seize.]

HANDCUFF, hand'kuf, _n._ esp. in _pl._ HAND'CUFFS, shackles for the hand locked upon the wrists of a prisoner.--_v.t._ to put handcuffs on:--_pr.p._ hand'cuffing; _pa.p._ hand'cuffed (-kuft). [_Hand_ and _cuff_.]

HANDICAP, hand'i-kap, _v.t._ to impose special disadvantages or impediments upon in order to offset advantages, and make a better contest--in a horse-race the superior horse carries a heavier weight, while foot-runners are placed at different distances, or start at different times: (_fig._) to place at a disadvantage by some burden or disability.--_n._ any contest so adjusted, or the condition imposed.--_n._ HAND'ICAPPER, one who handicaps.

[_Hand_ in the _cap_, from the usage in an ancient kind of sport and method of settling a bargain by arbitration.]

HANDICRAFT, hand'i-kraft, _n._ a manual craft or trade.--_n._ HAND'ICRAFTSMAN, a man skilled in a manual art:--_fem._ HAND'ICRAFTSWOMAN.

HANDIWORK, HANDYWORK, hand'i-wurk, _n._ work done by the hands, performance generally: work of skill or wisdom: creation.

HANDJAR, HANJAR, hand'jar, _n._ a Persian dagger.

HANDKERCHIEF, hang'k[.e]r-chif, _n._ a piece of linen, silk, or cotton cloth for wiping the nose, &c.: a neckerchief.--THROW THE HANDKERCHIEF, to call upon next--from the usage in a common game.

HANDLE, hand'l, _v.t._ to touch, hold, or use with the hand: to make familiar by frequent touching: to manage: to discuss: to practise: to trade or do business in.--_v.i._ to use the hands.--_n._ that part of anything held in the hand: (_fig._) that of which use is made: a tool: occasion, opportunity, pretext.--_ns._ HAND'LER, a person skilful in any special kind of manipulation; HAND'LING, the touching or managing with the hand: action: manner of touch.--A HANDLE TO THE NAME, an adjunct of honour, as 'Dr,'

'Col.,' &c.; GIVE A HANDLE, to furnish an occasion to. [A.S.

_handlian_--_hand_, a hand.]

HANDSEL, HANSEL, hand'sel, han'sel, _n._ the first sale or using of anything: earnest-money or part-payment by way of binding a bargain: (_Scot._) a gift made on the first Monday of the year to a child or servant: a New-year's gift.--_v.t._ to give a handsel: to use or do anything the first time. [A.S. _handselen_, a giving into the hands of another; or Ice. _handsal_.]

HANDSOME, han'sum, _adj._ good-looking, well-proportioned, graceful: with dignity: liberal or noble: generous: ample.--_adv._ HAND'SOMELY.--_n._ HAND'SOMENESS. [_Hand_ and -_some_; cf. Dut. _handzaam_.]

HANDY, han'di, _adj._ dexterous: ready to the hand: convenient: near.--_adv._ HAND'ILY.--_ns._ HANDI'NESS; HAND'Y-MAN, a man for doing odd jobs.

HANDY-DANDY, hand'i-dand'i, _n._ (_Shak._) an old game among children, in which something is rapidly changed from one hand into the other, while another guesses in which hand it is. [A jingle on _hand_.]

HANG, hang, _v.t._ to hook or fix to some high point: to suspend: to decorate with pictures, &c., as a wall: to put to death by suspending and choking.--_v.i._ to be hanging, so as to allow of free motion: to lean, or rest for support: to drag: to hover or impend: to be in suspense: to linger:--_pr.p._ hang'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ hanged or hung.--_n._ action of hanging, bending down, &c.: a declivity: mode in which anything hangs: a slackening of motion: a hanging mass (NOT A HANG, not a bit, not in the least).--_n._ HANGABIL'ITY.--_adj._ HANG'ABLE, liable to be hanged: punishable by hanging.--_n._ HANG'-DOG, a low fellow.--_adj._ like such a fellow, esp. in his sneaking look.--_ns._ HANG'ER, that on which anything is hung: a short sword, curved near the point; HANG'ER-ON, one who hangs on or sticks to a person or place: an importunate acquaintance: a dependent.--_adj._ HANG'ING, deserving death by hanging.--_n._ death by the halter: that which is hung, as drapery, &c.:--used chiefly in _pl._--_ns._ HANG'ING-BUTT'RESS, a buttress not standing solid on a foundation, but hanging or supported on a corbel; HANG'MAN, a public executioner; HANG'NAIL (see AGNAIL) HANG'-NESTS, a family of finch-like perching birds peculiar to America--often called _American orioles_, many weaving curious purse-like nests.--HANG BACK, to hesitate; HANG BY A THREAD, to be in a very precarious position--from the sword of Damocles; HANG, DRAW, AND QUARTER, to execute by hanging, cutting down while still alive, disembowelling, and cutting the body in pieces for exposure at different places; HANG FIRE, to be long in exploding or discharging, as a gun: to hesitate; HANG IN DOUBT, to remain in a state of uncertainty; HANG IN THE BALANCE, to be in doubt or suspense; HANG OFF, to let go, to hold off; HANG ON, to cling to, to regard with admiration: to depend upon: to weigh down or oppress: to be importunate; HANG OUT (_slang_), to lodge or reside; HANG OVER, to project over; HANG TOGETHER, to keep united; HANG UP ONE'S HAT, to make one's self completely at home in a house. [A.S. _hangian_, causal form of _hon_, pa.t. _heng_, pa.p. _hangen_; Dut. and Ger. _hangen_, Goth.


HANGAR, hang'ar, _n._ a covered shed for carriages.

HANK, hangk, _n._ two or more skeins of thread tied together: a string, clasp, or other means of fastening. [Ice. _hanki_, a hasp.]

HANKER, hangk'[.e]r, _v.i._ to long for with eagerness: to linger about (with _after_, _for_).--_n._ HANK'ERING, a lingering craving for something.

[A freq. of _hang_, in sense to hang on; cf. Dut. _hunkeren_.]

HANKY-PANKY, hangk'i-pangk'i, _n._ jugglery, trickery. [A meaningless jingle, like _hocus-pocus_, &c.]

HANOVERIAN, han-o-v[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Hanover_, as of the brown rat, and the dynasty that came to the throne of England in 1714.--_n._ a supporter of the house of Hanover, as opposed to a Jacobite.

HANSARD, han'sard, _n._ a name applied to the printed reports of the debates in parliament, from Luke _Hansard_ (1752-1828), whose descendants continued to print these down to the beginning of 1889.--_v.t._ HAN'SARDISE, to confront a member with his former opinions as recorded in his speeches in _Hansard_.

HANSE, hans, _n._ a league.--_adjs._ HANSE, HANSEAT'IC, applied to certain commercial cities in Germany whose famous league for mutual defence and commercial association began in a compact between Hamburg and Lubeck in 1241.--_ns._ HAN'ASTER, HAN'STER, the ancient Oxford name for persons paying the entrance-fee of the guild-merchant, and admitted as freemen of the city. [O. Fr. _hanse_--Old High Ger. _hansa_, a band of men (Ger.


HANSOM-CAB, han'sum-kab, _n._ a light two-wheeled cab or hackney-carriage with the driver's seat raised behind. [From the name of the inventor, Joseph Aloysius _Hansom_, 1803-82.]

HA'N'T, h[=a]nt, a coll. contr. for _have not_ or _has not_.

HANTLE, han'tl, _n._ (_Scot._) a considerable number. [Cf. Dan. _antal_, Dut. _aantal_, Ger. _anzahl_. Some explain as _hand_ and _tale_, number.]

HAP, hap, _n._ chance: fortune: accident.--_v.i._ to befall.--_n._ HAP-HAZ'ARD, that which happens by hazard: chance, accident.--_adj._ chance, accidental.--_adv._ at random.--_adv._ HAP-HAZ'ARDLY.--_n._ HAP-HAZ'ARDNESS.--_adj._ HAP'LESS, unlucky: unhappy.--_adv._ HAP'LESSLY.--_n._ HAP'LESSNESS.--_adv._ HAP'LY, by hap, chance, or accident: perhaps: it may be.--_v.i._ HAPP'EN, to fall out: to take place: to chance to be.--_n._ HAPP'ENING. [Ice. _happ_, good luck.]

HAP, hap, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to wrap up from the cold or rain.--_n._ a cloak or other covering.

HAPLODON, hap'l[=o]-don, _n._ a peculiar terrestrial rodent regarded as a connecting-link between beavers and squirrels, its single species (_H.

rufus_) popularly known as the _Sewellel_, _Boomer_, and _Mountain Beaver_.

[Gr. _haploos_, single, _odous_, _odontos_, tooth.]

HAPLOGRAPHY, hap-log'raf-i, _n._ the inadvertent writing of a letter or word, or series of letters or words, once, when it should be written twice.

[Gr. _haploos_, single, _graphia_, _graphein_, to write.]

HAP'ORTH, h[=a]'p[.e]rth, for _halfpennyworth_.

HAPPY, hap'i, _adj._ lucky, successful: possessing or enjoying pleasure or good: secure of good: furnishing enjoyment: dexterous, apt, felicitous.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to make happy.--_v.t._ HAPP'IFY, to make happy.--_adv._ HAPP'ILY.--_n._ HAPP'INESS.--_adj._ HAPP'Y-GO-LUCK'Y, easy-going: taking things as they come.--_adv._ in any way one pleases.--HAPPY DESPATCH, a euphemism for the _Hara-kiri_ (q.v.). [_Hap_.]

HAQUETON, hak'ton, _n._ a stuffed jacket worn under the mail--same as Acton (q.v.).

HARA-KIRI, har'a-kir'e, _n._ involuntary suicide by disembowelment, formerly practised in Japan by daimios and members of the military class, unable to outlive disgrace, or in order to anticipate execution. [Japanese _hara_, belly, _kiri_, cut.]

HARANGUE, ha-rang', _n._ a loud speech addressed to a multitude: a popular, pompous address.--_v.i._ to deliver a harangue.--_v.t._ to address by a harangue:--_pr.p._ haranguing (-rang'ing); _pa.p._ harangued (-rangd').--_n._ HARANG'UER. [O. Fr. _arenge_, _harangue_, from Old High Ger. _hring_ (Ger. _ring_), a ring of auditors.]

HARASS, har'as, _v.t._ to fatigue: to annoy or torment.--_p.adj._ HAR'ASSED.--_adv._ HAR'ASSEDLY.--_n._ HAR'ASSER.--_p.adj._ HAR'ASSING.--_adv._ HAR'ASSINGLY.--_n._ HAR'ASSMENT. [O. Fr. _harasser_; prob. from _harer_, to incite a dog.]

HARBINGER, har'bin-j[.e]r, _n._ a forerunner, pioneer, originally one who goes forward to provide lodging.--_v.t._ to precede, as a harbinger. [M. E.

_herbergeour_. See HARBOUR.]

HARBOUR, har'bur, _n._ any refuge or shelter: a port for ships--obs. form _Har'borough_.--_v.t._ to lodge or entertain: to protect: to possess or indulge, as thoughts.--_v.i._ to take shelter.--_n._ HAR'BOURAGE, place of shelter: HAR'BOUR-DUES, charges for the use of a harbour.--_n._ HAR'BOURER, one who harbours or entertains.--_adj._ HAR'BOURLESS.--_n._ HAR'BOUR-MAS'TER, the public officer who has charge of a harbour.--HARBOUR OF REFUGE, a harbour constructed to give shelter to ships on some exposed coast: any protection for one in distress. [M. E.

_herberwe_--an assumed A.S. _herebeorg_--_here_, army, _beorg_, protection; cf. Ger. _herberge_, Ice. _herbergi_.]

HARD, hard, _adj._ not easily penetrated, firm, solid: difficult to understand or accomplish: violent, vehement: rigorous: close, earnest, industrious: coarse, scanty: stingy, niggardly: difficult to bear, painful: unjust: difficult to please: unfeeling: severe: stiff: constrained: intractable, resistant in some use, as water, &c.: strong, spirituous: (of silk) without having the natural gum boiled off: surd or breathed, as opposed to sonant or voiced.--_n._ a firm beach or foreshore: hard labour.--_adv._ with urgency, vigour, &c.: earnestly, forcibly: with difficulty: close, near, as in HARD BY.--_adv._ HARD-A-LEE, close to the lee-side, &c.--_adj._ HARD'-AND-FAST', rigidly laid down and adhered to.--_adv._ HARD APORT! a command instructing the helmsman to turn the tiller to the left or port side of the ship, thus causing the ship to swerve to the right or starboard.--_ns._ HARD'-BAKE, a sweetmeat made of boiled sugar and almonds; HARD'BEAM, the hornbeam.--_adjs._ HARD'-BILLED, having a hard bill or beak--of birds; HARD'-BITT'EN, given to hard biting, tough in fight; HARD'-CURED, cured thoroughly, as fish, by drying in the sun.--_n._ HARD'-DRINK'ER, a constant drunkard.--_adj._ HARD'-EARNED, earned with toil or difficulty.--_v.t._ HARD'EN, to make hard or harder: to make firm: to strengthen: to confirm in wickedness: to make insensible.--_v.i._ to become hard or harder, either lit. or fig.--_adj._ HARD'ENED, made hard, unfeeling.--_n._ HARD'ENER.--_adj._ HARD'-FAV'OURED, having coarse features.--_n._ HARD'-FAV'OUREDNESS.--_adj._ HARD'-FEAT'URED, of hard, coarse, or forbidding features.--_n._ HARD'-FEAT'UREDNESS.--_adjs._ HARD'-FIST'ED, having hard or strong fists or hands: close-fisted: niggardly; HARD'-FOUGHT, sorely contested; HARD'-GOTT'EN, obtained with difficulty; HARD'-GRAINED, having a close firm grain: uninviting.--_n._ HARD'-HACK, the steeple-bush, an erect shrub of the rose family, with rose-coloured or white flowers.--_adjs._ HARD'-HAND'ED, having hard hands: rough: severe; HARD'-HEAD'ED, shrewd, intelligent; HARD'-HEART'ED, having a hard or unfeeling heart: cruel.--_adv._ HARD'-HEART'EDLY.--_n._ HARD'-HEART'EDNESS.--_adj._ HARD'ISH, somewhat hard.--_n._ HARD'-L[=A]'BOUR, labour imposed on certain classes of criminals during their imprisonment.--_adv._ HARD'LY, with difficulty: scarcely, not quite: severely, harshly.--_adj._ HARD'-MOUTHED, having a mouth hard or insensible to the bit: not easily managed.--_n._ HARD'-PAN, the hard detritus often underlying the superficial soil: the lowest level.--_adjs._ HARD'-RULED (_Shak._), ruled with difficulty; HARD'-RUN, greatly pressed; HARD'-SET, beset by difficulty: rigid; HARD'-SHELL, having a hard shell: rigidly orthodox.--_ns._ HARD'SHIP, a hard state, or that which is hard to bear, as toil, injury, &c.; HARD'-TACK, ship-biscuit.--_adj._ HARD'-VIS'AGED, of a hard, coarse, or forbidding visage.--_ns._ HARD'WARE, trade name for all sorts of articles made of the baser metals, such as iron or copper; HARD'WAREMAN.--_adj._ HARD'-WON, won with toil and HARD'WOOD-TREES, forest trees of comparatively slow growth, producing compact hard timber, as oak, ash, elm, walnut, beech, birch, &c.--HARD HIT, seriously hurt, as by a loss of money: deeply smitten with love; HARD LINES, a hard lot; HARD METAL, an alloy of two parts of copper with one of tin for gun metal; HARD MONEY, money emphatically, prop. coin; HARD OF HEARING, pretty deaf; HARD SWEARING, swearing (as a witness) persistently to what is false, perjury; HARD UP, short of money.--BE HARD PUT TO IT, to be in great straits or difficulty; DIE HARD, to die only after a desperate struggle for life.

[A.S. _heard_; Dut. _hard_, Ger. _hart_, Goth. _hardus_; allied to Gr.

_kratys_, strong.]

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