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GRATITUDE, grat'i-t[=u]d, _n._ warm and friendly feeling towards a benefactor: thankfulness. [Fr.,--Low L. _gratitudo_---L. _gratus_.]

GRATUITY, gra-t[=u]'i-ti, _n._ a present: an acknowledgment of service, generally pecuniary.--_adj._ GRAT[=U]'ITOUS, done or given for nothing: voluntary: without reason, ground, or proof.--_adv._ GRAT[=U]'ITOUSLY.

[Fr.,--Low L. _gratuitatem_--L. _gratus_.]

GRATULATORY, grat'[=u]-la-tor-i, _adj._ congratulatory.--_adj._ GRAT'ULANT, congratulatory.--_v.t._ GRAT'UL[=A]TE, to congratulate.--_n._ GRATUL[=A]'TION, congratulation.

GRAVAMEN, grav-[=a]'men, _n._ grievance: the substantial or chief ground of complaint or accusation: the name for the statement of abuses, grievances, &c. sent by the Lower to the Upper House of Convocation. [L.,--_gravis_, heavy.]

GRAVE, gr[=a]v, _v.t._ to carve or cut on a hard substance: to engrave.--_v.i._ to engrave:--_pa.p._ graved or gr[=a]v'en.--_n._ a pit graved or dug out, esp. one in which to bury the dead: any place of burial: the abode of the dead: (_fig._) death: GRAVE'-CLOTHES, the clothes in which the dead are buried.--_n._ GRAVE'-DIG'GER, one who digs graves.--_adj._ GRAVE'LESS (_Shak._), without a grave, unburied.--_ns._ GRAVE'-MAK'ER (_Shak._), a grave-digger; GRAVE'-STONE, a stone laid over, or placed at the head of, a grave as a memorial; GRAVE'YARD, a yard or enclosure used as a burial-ground.--WITH ONE FOOT IN THE GRAVE, on the very borders of death. [A.S. _grafan_; Dut.

_graven_, Ger. _graben_; Gr. _graphein_, to scratch, L. _scrib[)e]re_, to write.]

GRAVE, gr[=a]v, _v.t._ to smear with graves or greaves, a mixture of tallow, rosin, &c. boiled GRAVES, GREAVES, tallow-drippings. [See GREAVES.]

GRAVE, gr[=a]v, _adj._ of importance: serious: not gay or showy: sober: solemn; weighty: (_mus._) not acute: low.--_n._ the grave accent, or its sign (').--_adv._ GRAVE'LY.--_n._ GRAVE'NESS. [Fr.,--L. _gravis_.]

GRAVE, gr[=a]v, _n._ a count, prefect, a person holding office, as in landgrave, margrave, burgrave, &c. [Dut. _graaf_, Ger. _graf_.]

GRAVEL, grav'el, _n._ small stones often intermixed with sand: small collections of gravelly matter in the kidneys or bladder.--_v.t._ to cover with gravel: to puzzle, perplex:--_pr.p._ grav'elling; _pa.p._ grav'elled.--_adj._ GRAV'ELLY.--_ns._ GRAV'EL-PIT, a pit from which gravel is dug; GRAV'EL-WALK, a footpath covered with gravel. [O. Fr. _gravele_ (Fr. _gravier_); prob. Celt., as in Bret. _grouan_, sand, W. _gro_, pebbles.]

GRAVEN, gr[=a]v'n, _pa.p._ of _grave_, to carve, engrave.

GRAVEOLENT, grav'[=e]-o-lent, _adj._ giving forth an offensive smell.--_n._ GRAV'EOLENCE.

GRAVER, gr[=a]v'[.e]r, _n._ an engraver: a tool for engraving on hard substances, a burin.

GRAVID, grav'id, _adj._ heavy, esp. as being with child: pregnant. [L.

_gravidus_--_gravis_, heavy.]

GRAVIGRADE, grav'i-gr[=a]d, _adj._ walking heavily.--_n._ an animal like the megatherium, &c.

GRAVING, gr[=a]v'ing, _n._ an act of graving or cutting out on hard substances: that which is graved or cut out: carved-work: act of cleaning a ship's bottom.--_n._ GRAV'ING-DOCK, a dock into which ships are taken to have their bottoms cleaned.

GRAVITY, grav'i-ti, _n._ weightiness: that attraction between bodies, or acceleration of one toward another, of which the fall of a body to the ground is an example: state of being grave or sober: relative importance: (_mus._) lowness of a note.--_n._ GRAVIM'ETER, an instrument for determining specific gravities.--_v.i._ GRAV'IT[=A]TE, to be acted on by gravity: to tend towards the earth: to be strongly attracted towards anything.--_n._ GRAVIT[=A]'TION, act of gravitating: the tendency of all bodies to attract each other.--_adj._ GRAV'IT[=A]TIVE.--SPECIFIC GRAVITY (see SPECIFIC). [Fr. _gravite_--L. _gravitat-em_--_gravis_, heavy.]

GRAVY, gr[=a]v'i, _n._ the juices from meat while cooking.--_n._ GRAV'Y-BOAT, a vessel for gravy or sauce. [Earlier _greavy_; prob.

originally an adj. formed _greaves_, the dregs of tallow.]

GRAY, GREY, gr[=a], _adj._ of a white colour mixed with black: ash-coloured: (_fig._) aged, gray-haired, mature.--_n._ a gray colour: an animal of a grayish colour, as a horse, &c.--_v.t._ to cause to become gray: to give a soft effect to a photograph by covering the negative while printing with a ground-glass plate: to depolish.--_v.i._ to grow or become gray.--_n._ GRAY'BEARD, one with a gray beard--hence an old man: a coarse earthenware vessel for holding liquors, a bellarmine.--_adjs._ GRAY'-COAT'ED (_Shak._), having a gray coat; GRAY'-EYED (_Shak._), having gray eyes.--_n._ GRAY'-FLY (_Milt._), the trumpet or gad fly.--_adjs._ GRAY'-HAIRED, GRAY'-HEAD'ED, having gray hair.--_n._ GRAY'HOUND (same as GREYHOUND).--_adj._ GRAY'ISH, somewhat gray.--_ns._ GRAY'-LAG, the common gray or wild goose; GRAY'LING, a silvery gray fish of the salmon family, but with a smaller mouth and teeth, and larger scales.--_adv._ GRAY'LY.--_ns._ GRAY'NESS; GRAY'-OWL, the common tawny owl; GRAY'STONE, a grayish or greenish volcanic rock allied to basalt; GRAYWETH'ER (see GREYWETHER).--GRAY MARE (see MARE). [A.S. _gr['ae]g_; allied to Ger. _grau_, and L. _ravus_, tawny.]

GRAYWACKE, GREYWACKE, gra'wak-e, _n._ a kind of sandstone, consisting of rounded pebbles and sand firmly united together. [Ger. _grauwacke_--_grau_, gray, _wacke_, a flint.]

GRAZE, gr[=a]z, _v.t._ to eat or feed on grass: to feed or supply with grass: (_obs._) to tend while grazing.--_v.i._ to eat grass: to supply grass.--_ns._ GRAZ'ER, an animal which grazes; GRAZIER (gr[=a]'zh[.e]r), one who grazes or pastures cattle and rears them for the market; GRAZ'ING, the act of feeding on grass: the feeding or raising of cattle. [From _grass_.]

GRAZE, gr[=a]z, _v.t._ to pass lightly along the surface. [Ety. dub.; perh.

only a special use of _graze_ above; perh. coined from _rase_ (Fr.

_raser_), the initial _g_ due to the analogy of _grate_.]

GREASE, gr[=e]s, _n._ soft thick animal fat: oily matter of any kind: an inflammation in the heels of a horse, marked by swelling, &c.--_v.t._ (sometimes pron. gr[=e]z) to smear with grease, to lubricate--also used figuratively, to cause to go easily: (_obs._) to bribe--as in to 'grease the palm.'--_adv._ GREAS'ILY.--_n._ GREAS'INESS.--_adj._ GREAS'Y, of or like grease or oil: smeared with grease: smooth: fat. [O. Fr. _gresse_, fatness, _gras_, fat--L. _crassus_, gross.]

GREAT, gr[=a]t, _adj._ large: long continued: superior: distinguished: highly gifted: noble: mighty: sublime: of high rank: chief: proud, arrogant: weighty: difficult: important: pregnant, teeming: indicating one degree more remote in the direct line of descent, as GREAT'-GRAND'FATHER, GREAT'-GRAND'SON.--_adj._ GREAT'-BEL'LIED (_Shak._), pregnant.--_n._ GREAT'COAT, an overcoat.--_v.t._ GREAT'EN (_Browning_), to make great.--_v.i._ to become great.--_ns._ GREAT'-GRAND'CHILD, the child of a grandchild; GREAT'-GRAND'MOTHER, the mother of a grand-parent.--_adj._ GREAT'-HEART'ED, having a great or noble heart: high-spirited: noble.--_adv._ GREAT'LY.--_ns._ GREAT'NESS; GREAT'-PRIM'ER (see PRIMER); GREATS, the final examination in the Honours Schools at Oxford, &c.; GREAT'-UN'CLE, usually grand-uncle, a grandfather's or grandmother's brother.--GREAT DANE, one of a breed of large close-haired dogs from Denmark, a boar-hound; GREAT POWERS, the chief countries of Europe--France, Germany, Russia, Great Britain, Austro-Hungary; GREAT SCHISM, the division between the Latin and Greek Churches, begun in the 9th century, and culminating in 1054; GREAT SEA, the Mediterranean; GREAT UNWASHED, an absurd term sometimes applied to the working classes generally.--GREATER BRITAIN, the whole colonial empire of Great Britain.--THE GREAT, people of rank. [A.S. _great_; Dut. _groot_, Ger. _gross_; perh. allied to _grand_, _gross_, _grow_.]

GREAVE, gr[=e]v, _n._ (_Spens._) a groove, a grove.


GREAVES, gr[=e]vz, the sediment of melted tallow pressed into cakes for dogs' food.--Also GRAVES. [Prov. Sw. _grevar_, tallow-leavings; cf.

Ger. _griebe_.]

GREAVES, gr[=e]vz, ancient armour for the legs, of leather, &c. [O.

Fr. _greves_--_greve_, shin-bone.]

GREBE, gr[=e]b, _n._ an aquatic bird, having a long conical beak, short wings, and no tail. [Fr. _grebe_; from Celt., as in Bret. _krib_, a comb, W. _crib_, crest.]

GRECIAN, gr[=e]'shan, _adj._ pertaining to Greece.--_n._ a native of Greece: one well versed in the Greek language and literature: (_B._) a Hellenising Jew, or Jew who spoke Greek: one of the senior boys of Christ's Hospital: (_slang_) an Irish labourer newly over.--_v.t._ GR[=E]'CISE, to make Grecian: to translate into Greek.--_v.i._ to speak Greek.--_n._ GR[=E]'CISM, an idiom of the Greek language.--_adj._ GR[=E]'CO-R[=O]'MAN, of or pertaining to both Greece and Rome, esp. to the art cultivated by Greeks under Roman domination (see also WRESTLING).--GRECIAN BEND, a foolish mode of walking with a slight bend forward, at one time affected by a few women who fondly thought to imitate the pose of a figure like the Venus of Milo. [Fr. _Grec_--L. _Graecus_--Gr. _Graikos_.]

GRECQUE, grek, _n._ a vessel with a perforated bottom for making coffee without grounds: a Greek fret.

GREE, gr[=e], _n._ (_Spens._) good-will, favour: the prize of the day.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to agree. [O. Fr. _gre_--L. _gratus_, pleasing. See AGREE.]

GREE, gr[=e], _n._ degree, rank: a step:--_pl._ GREES, GRECE, GRESE, steps--in turn used as a sing. and spelt GREECE, GREESE, GRIECE, GRIZE, a flight of steps, a staircase, a degree (GREES'ING, GRES'SING, and even GR[=E]'CIAN are obs. forms).--_adj._ GRIECED, having steps. [O. Fr.

_gre_--L. _gradus_. See GRADE.]

GREEDY, gr[=e]d'i, _adj._ having a voracious appetite: covetous: eagerly desirous.--_n._ GREED, an eager desire or longing: covetousness.--_adv._ GREED'ILY.--_n._ GREED'INESS. [A.S. _gr['ae]dig_; Dut. _gretig_.]

GREEK, gr[=e]k, _adj._ Grecian.--_n._ a Grecian: the language of Greece: (_B._) a Greek by race, or more frequently a Gentile as opposed to a Jew, a Hellenising Jew, a Jew naturalised in foreign countries: a cunning rogue, a merry fellow: any language of which one is ignorant, jargon, anything unintelligible.--_adj._ GREEK'ISH.--GREEK ARCHITECTURE, the orders developed in ancient Greece (Corinthian, Doric, Ionic); GREEK CHURCH, the church of those Christians who follow the ancient rite of the East and accept the first seven councils, rejecting all later innovations and papal supremacy--it is called Orthodox by reason of its vindications of dogma, and Eastern from its geographical distribution; GREEK CROSS (see CROSS); GREEK FIRE, a composition, burning either in or under water, supposed to have been made of asphalt, nitre, and sulphur, long kept secret by the Greeks of the Byzantine empire for their exclusive use in war; GREEK GIFT, a treacherous gift (from Virgil's _aeneid_, ii. 49).--AT THE GREEK CALENDS, never, the Greeks having no calends.

GREEN, gr[=e]n, _adj._ of the colour of growing plants: growing: vigorous: new: unripe: inexperienced, simple, raw, easily imposed on: young.--_n._ the colour of growing plants: a small green or grassy plat, esp. that common to a village or town for public or merely ornamental purposes: the plot of grass belonging to a house or group of houses, usually at the back: (_golf_) the whole links on which the game is played, the putting-ground round the individual holes, generally counted as 20 yards from the hole all round: (_pl._) fresh leaves: wreaths: the leaves and stems of green vegetables for food, esp. plants of the cabbage kind, spinach, &c.: a political party at Constantinople, under Justinian, opposed to the Blues.--_ns._ GREEN'BACK, popular name for the paper money first issued by the United States in 1862; GREEN'-CLOTH, a gaming-table: a department of the royal household, chiefly concerned with the commissariat--from the green cloth on the table round which its officials sat; GREEN'-CROP, a crop of green vegetables, as grasses, turnips, &c.; GREEN'-EARTH, a mineral of a green colour and earthy character, used as a pigment by painters in water-colours; GREEN'ERY, green plants: verdure.--_adj._ GREEN'-EYED, having green eyes: (_fig._) jealous--GREEN-EYED MONSTER, jealousy.--_ns._ GREEN'FINCH, GREEN LINNET, a native bird of the finch family, of a green colour, slightly mixed with gray and brown; GREEN'GROCER, a grocer or dealer who retails greens, or fresh vegetables and fruits; GREEN'-HAND, an inferior sailor; GREEN'-HEART, or _Bebeeru_, a very hard variety of wood found in the West Indies and South America; GREEN'HORN, a raw, inexperienced youth; GREEN'HOUSE, a building, chiefly covered with glass and artificially heated, for the protection of exotic plants, or to quicken the cultivation of other plants or fruit; GREEN'ING (_Keats_), a becoming green: a kind of apple green when ripe.--_adj._ GREEN'ISH, somewhat green.--_n._ GREEN'ISHNESS.--_adv._ GREEN'LY, immaturely, unskilfully.--_ns._ GREEN'NESS; GREEN'ROOM, the retiring-room of actors in a theatre, which originally had the walls coloured green; GREEN'SAND, a sandstone in which green specks of iron occur; GREEN'SHANK, a bird of the snipe family, in the same genus as the redshank and some of the sandpipers; GREEN'-SICK'NESS, chlorosis (see under CHLORINE); GREEN'-SNAKE, a harmless colubrine snake common in the southern United States; GREEN'STONE, a rock term, now disused, for any dark-green basic crystalline (trap-rock); GREEN'SWARD, sward or turf green with grass; GREEN'-TEA (see TEA); GREENTH, greenness, verdure; GREEN'-TUR'TLE (see TURTLE); GREEN'-VIT'RIOL (see VIT'RIOL); GREEN'-WEED, a name given to certain half-shrubby species of genista; GREEN'WOOD, a wood or collection of trees covered with leaves: wood newly cut--also used as an _adj._, as in 'the greenwood shade.'--_adj._ GREEN'Y.--GREEN IN MY EYE, in a colloquial question=Do I look credulous or easily imposed on?--GREEN, or EMERALD, ISLE, IRELAND.--GREENSTICK FRACTURE (see FRACTURE). [A.S. _grene_; Ger. _grun_, Dut. _groen_, green, Ice. _graenn_, allied to _grow_.]

GREENGAGE, gr[=e]n'g[=a]j, _n._ a green and very sweet variety of plum.

[Said to be named from Sir W. _Gage_ of Hengrave Hall, near Bury, before 1725.]


GREET, gr[=e]t, _v.t._ to salute or address with kind wishes: to send kind wishes to: to congratulate.--_v.i._ to meet and salute:--_pr.p._ greet'ing; _pa.p._ greet'ed.--_n._ GREET'ING, expression of kindness or joy: salutation. [A.S. _gretan_, to go to meet; Dut. _groeten_, Ger. _grussen_, to salute.]

GREET, gr[=e]t, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to cry, weep.--_adj._ GREET'ING, mournful.--_n._ weeping. [A.S. _gr['ae]tan_; Goth. _gretan_.]

GREEVE, gr[=e]v, _n._ (_Scot._) a reeve, a steward.--Also GREAVE, GRIEVE.

[Not like _reeve_ from A.S. _gerefa_; but from Ice. _greifi_; cf. Ger.


GREFFIER, gref'ier, _n._ a registrar, a prothonotary. [Fr.]

GREGARIOUS, gre-g[=a]'ri-us, _adj._ associating or living in flocks and herds.--_adj._ GREG[=A]'RIAN.--_n._ GREG[=A]-RIANISM.--_adv._ GREG[=A]'RIOUSLY.--_n._ GREG[=A]'RIOUSNESS. [L. _gregarius_--_grex_, _gregis_, a flock.]

GREGORIAN, gre-g[=o]'ri-an, _adj._ belonging to or established by Pope _Gregory_; as the Gregorian chant or tones, introduced by Gregory I. (6th century), and the calendar, reformed by Gregory XIII. (1582): one of an 18th-century English brotherhood.

GREIT, gr[=e]t. Same as GREET (2).

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