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GRAINING, gr[=a]n'ing, _n._ a kind of dace found in the Mersey and in Swiss lakes: a small fish of the same genus, resembling the dace.

GRAIP, gr[=a]p, _n._ (_Scot._) a three or four pronged fork used for lifting dung or digging potatoes. [A form of _grope_. Cf. Sw. _grepe_, Dan.


GRAITH, gr[=a]th, _n._ apparatus for work, travelling, &c., equipment.--_v.t._ (_Scot._) to make ready, to dress.--_adjs._ GRAITH, GR[=A]DE, ready, free.--LIFT ONE'S GRAITH, to collect one's tools and leave the mine. [Ice. _greidhr_, ready; cf. A.S. _ger['ae]de_, ready.]


GRALLae, gral'[=e], GRALLATORES, gral-a-t[=o]'r[=e]z, an old order of wading and running birds, including rails, snipes and curlews, cranes, herons and bitterns, storks, and numerous other families.--_adjs._ GRALLAT[=O]'RIAL, GRALL'ATORY, GRALL'IC, GRALL'INE. [L.

_grallator_--_grallae_, stilts, contr. of _gradulae_, dim. of _gradus_, a step--_gradi_, to step.]

GRALLOCH, GRALLOCK, gral'ok, _v.t._ to disembowel.

GRAM, gram, _n._ (_Rossetti_) misery.--Also GRAME. [A.S. _grama_, anger.]

GRAM, gram, _n._ a word used in commerce for chick peas exported from British India. [Anglo-Ind., perh. from Port, _gro_--L. _granum_, a grain.]

GRAM, GRAMME, gram, _n._ the unit of mass in the metric system, equal to 15.432 troy grains. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _gramma_, a letter, a small weight.]

GRAMARY, gram'a-ri, _n._ magic: enchantment.--Also GRAM'ARYE. [M. E.

_gramery_, skill in grammar, hence magic--O. Fr. _gramaire_, grammar.]

GRAMERCY, gra-m[.e]r'si, _interj._ great thanks--an obsolete expression of obligation, with surprise. [O. Fr. _grammerci_, _grantmerci_, great thanks.]

GRAMINEae, gr[=a]-min'[=e]-[=e], the order of grasses.--_adjs._ GRAMIN[=A]'CEOUS, GRAMIN'EAL, GRAMIN[=E]'OUS, like or pertaining to grass: grassy; GRAMINIF[=O]'LIOUS, bearing leaves; GRAMINIV'OROUS, feeding or subsisting on grass and herbs. [L. _gramen_, _graminis_, grass, _folium_, a leaf, _vor[=a]re_, to eat greedily.]

GRAMMAR, gram'ar, _n._ the science of the right use of language: a book which teaches grammar: any elementary work.--_ns._ GRAMM[=A]'RIAN, one versed in, or who teaches, grammar; GRAMM'AR-SCHOOL, a school in which grammar, esp. Latin grammar, is taught: a higher school, in which Latin and Greek are taught.--_adjs._ GRAMMAT'IC, -AL, belonging to, or according to, the rules of grammar.--_adv._ GRAMMAT'ICALLY.--_n._ GRAMMAT'ICASTER, a piddling grammarian.--_v.t._ GRAMMAT'IC[=I]SE, to make grammatical.--_v.i._ to act the grammarian.--_ns._ GRAMMAT'ICISM, a point of grammar; GRAMM'ATIST, a grammarian. [O. Fr. _gramaire_; from Low L. _gramma_, a letter, with the termination _-arius_--Gr. _gramma_, a letter--_graphein_, to write.]


GRAMOPHONE, gram'o-f[=o]n, _n._ an instrument of the phonograph type for recording and reproducing articulate speech--invented by E. Berliner. [Gr.

_gramma_, a letter, _ph[=o]n[=e]_, sound.]

GRAMPUS, gram'pus, _n._ a large voracious fish of the dolphin family, common in almost all seas. [A sailor's corr. of It. _gran pesce_, or Sp.

_gran pez_, great fish--L. _grandis piscis_, great fish.]

GRANADILLA, gran-a-dil'a, _n._ the edible fruit of a species of passion-flower. [Sp.]

GRANARY, gran'ar-i, _n._ a storehouse for grain or threshed corn. [L.


GRAND, grand, _adj._ of great size, extent, power, or dignity: splendid: illustrious: noble: sublime: chief: covering the whole field, or including all details: (_mus._) containing all the parts proper to a given form of composition: of the second degree of parentage or descent, as _Grand'father_, a father or mother's father; _Grand'child_, a son or daughter's child; so _Grand'mother_, _Grand'son_, _Grand'daughter_, &c.--_ns._ GRAN'DAM, an old dame or woman: a grandmother; GRAND'-DUKE, a title of sovereignty over a grand-duchy, first created by the Pope in 1569 for the rulers of Florence and Tuscany, assumed by certain German reigning princes and by the princes of the imperial family of Russia; GRANDEE', since the 13th century the most highly privileged class of nobility in the kingdom of Castile, in which the members of the royal family were included: a man of high rank or station; GRANDEE'SHIP; GRANDEUR (grand'[=u]r), vastness: splendour of appearance: loftiness of thought or deportment; GRANDIL'OQUENCE.--_adj._ GRANDIL'OQUENT, speaking grandly or bombastically: pompous--(_rare_) GRANDIL'OQUOUS.--_adv._ GRANDIL'OQUENTLY.--_adj._ GRAN'DIOSE, grand or imposing: bombastic.--_adv._ GRAN'DIOSELY.--_ns._ GRANDIOS'ITY; GRAND'-JU'ROR, member of a GRAND'-JU'RY, a special jury which decides whether there is sufficient evidence to put an accused person on trial.--_adv._ GRAND'LY.--_ns._ GRAND'MAMMA, GRAND'MA, a grandmother; GRAND'-MAS'TER, title of the head of the religious orders of knighthood (Hospitallers, Templars, and Teutonic Knights): the head, for the time being, of the Freemasons, &c.--_adj._ GRAND'MOTHERLY, like a grandmother, over-anxious to direct the whole life of another.--_ns._ GRAND'-NEPH'EW, the grandson of a brother or sister; GRAND'NESS; GRAND'-NIECE, the granddaughter of a brother or sister; GRAND'PAPA, GRAND'PA, a grandfather; GRAND'-PAR'ENT, a grandfather or grandmother; GRAND'-PIa'NO, a large kind of piano, of great compass and power; GRAND'SIRE, a grandfather: any ancestor; GRAND'STAND, an elevated erection on a race-course, &c., affording a good view; GRAND'-UN'CLE, the brother of a grandfather or grandmother--also GREAT'-UN'CLE.--GRAND SEIGNIOR (see SEIGNIOR); GRAND VIZIR (see VIZIR). [Fr. _grand_--L. _grandis_, great.]

GRANDISONIAN, gran-di-s[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ like the novelist Richardson's hero, Sir Charles _Grandison_, polite and chivalrous to an extreme and tedious degree.

GRANGE, gr[=a]nj, _n._ a farm-house with its stables and other buildings: (_Milt._) a granary: (_U.S._) a lodge of the order of 'Patrons of Husbandry.'--_n._ GRAN'GER, a member of a farmer's grange.--_adj._ pertaining to such. [O. Fr. _grange_, barn--Low L. _granea_--L. _granum_, grain.]

GRANGERISM, gr[=a]n'jer-izm, _n._ the practice of cutting plates and title-pages out of many books to illustrate one book.--_v.t._ GRAN'GERISE, to practise grangerism. [From James _Granger_ (1716-76), whose _Biographical History of England_ (1769) gave an impetus to this.]

GRANIFEROUS, gran-if'[.e]r-us, _adj._ bearing seeds like grain.--_adjs._ GRAN'IFORM, formed or shaped like a grain or seed; GRANIV'OROUS, eating grain: feeding on seeds. [L. _granum_, grain, _ferre_, to carry, _forma_, form, _vor[=a]re_, to devour.]

GRANITE, gran'it, _n._ an igneous crystalline rock, composed of grains of quartz, feldspar, and mica, and of a whitish, grayish, or reddish colour.--_adj._ GRANIT'IC, pertaining to, consisting of, or like granite.--_n._ GRANITIFIC[=A]'TION.--_adjs._ GRANIT'IFORM, GRAN'ITOID, of the form of or resembling granite; GRANOLITH'IC, composed of cement formed of pounded granite. [It. _granito_, granite, lit. grained--L. _granum_, grain.]

GRANNY, gran'i, _n._ a grandmother: an old woman--also GRAND'AM.--_n._ GRANN'Y-KNOT, a knot like a reef-knot, but having the second tie across, difficult to untie when jammed.

GRANT, grant, _v.t._ to bestow or give over: to give possession of: to admit as true what is not yet proved: to concede.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to consent.--_n._ a bestowing: something bestowed, an allowance: a gift: (_Eng. law_) conveyance of property by deed.--_adj._ GRANT'ABLE.--_ns._ GRANT[=EE]' (_law_), the person to whom a grant, gift, or conveyance is made; GRANT'ER, GRANT'OR (_law_), the person by whom a grant or conveyance is made.--TAKE FOR GRANTED, to presuppose as certainly true. [O. Fr.

_graanter_,_ craanter_, _creanter_, to promise, as if from a Low L.

_credent[=a]re_--L. _cred[)e]re_, to believe.]

GRANULE, gran'[=u]l, _n._ a little grain: a fine particle.--_adjs._ GRAN'[=U]LAR, GRAN'[=U]LARY, GRAN'[=U]LOSE, GRAN'[=U]LOUS, consisting of or like grains or granules.--_adv._ GRAN'[=U]LARLY.--_v.t._ GRAN'[=U]L[=A]TE, to form or break into grains or small masses: to make rough on the surface.--_v.i._ to be formed into grains.--_adj._ granular: having the surface covered with small elevations.--_n._ GRAN[=U]L[=A]'TION, act of forming into grains, esp. of metals by pouring them through a sieve into water while hot: (_pl._) the materials of new texture as first formed in a wound or on an ulcerated surface.--_adjs._ GRAN[=U]LIF'EROUS; GRAN'[=U]LIFORM.--_n._ GRAN'[=U]L[=I]TE, a schistose but sometimes massive aggregate of quartz and orthoclase with garnets. [L. _granulum_, dim. of _granum_, grain.]

GRAPE, gr[=a]p, _v.i._ a Scotch form of _grope_.

GRAPE, gr[=a]p, _n._ the fruit of the grape-vine, or of any of the many species of the genus _Vitis_: a mangy tumour on the legs of horses: grapeshot.--_n._ GRAPE'-HY'ACINTH, a genus of bulbous-rooted plants, nearly allied to the hyacinths.--_adj._ GRAPE'LESS, without the flavour of the grape, said of wine.--_ns._ GRAP'ERY, a place where grapes are grown; GRAPE'SHOT, shot or small iron balls clustered or piled on circular plates round an iron pin, which scatter on being fired; GRAPE'-STONE, the stone or seed of the grape; GRAPE'-SU'GAR, dextrose; GRAPE'-VINE, the vine that bears grapes.--_adj._ GRAP'Y, made of or like grapes.--SOUR GRAPES, things despised because they cannot be attained (from aesop's fable of the fox and the grapes). [O. Fr. _grappe_, a cluster of grapes; from Old High Ger.

_chrapho_, a hook. It properly meant a hook, then clustered fruit, hooked on, attached to, a stem (Brachet).]

GRAPH, graf, _n._ a representation by means of lines, exhibiting the nature of the law according to which some phenomena vary: _-graph_ is used as a terminal in many Greek compounds to denote an agent which writes, &c., as _telegraph_, _seismograph_, or the thing written, as in _autograph_, &c.--_adjs._ GRAPH'IC, -AL, pertaining to writing, describing, or delineating: picturesquely described: vivid.--_adv._ GRAPH'ICALLY.--_ns._ GRAPH'ICNESS; GRAPHIOL'OGY, the science or art of writing or delineating, or a treatise thereon; GRAPH'IS, a genus of lichens, remarkable for the resemblance which the fructification assumes to the forms of the letters of Oriental alphabets; GRAPH'[=I]TE, a mineral, commonly called blacklead or plumbago (though containing no lead), largely used in making pencils.--_adj._ GRAPHIT'IC.--_ns._ GRAPH'IUM, a stylus; GRAPHOL'OGY, the science of estimating character, &c., from handwriting.--GRAPHIC ARTS, painting, drawing, engraving, as opposed to music, sculpture, &c.; GRAPHIC GRANITE, a variety of granite with markings like Hebrew characters. [Gr.

_graph[=e]_, a writing--_graphein_, to write.]

GRAPHOLITE, graf'o-l[=i]t, _n._ a kind of slate for writing on.--_n._ GRAPHOM'ETER, an instrument used by surveyors for measuring angles.--_adjs._ GRAPHOMET'RIC, -AL, pertaining to or determined by a graphometer.--_ns._ GRAPH'OPHONE, an instrument for recording sounds, based on the principle of the phonograph; GRAPH'OTYPE, a process intended to supersede wood-engraving, but superseded by zincotype. [Gr. _graphein_, to write, _lithos_, a stone, _metron_, a measure, _phon[=e]_, a sound, _typos_, an impression.]

GRAPNEL, grap'nel, _n._ a small anchor with several claws or arms: a grappling-iron. [Fr. _grappin_--_grappe_, a hook, with dim. suff. _-el_.]

GRAPPLE, grap'l, _v.t._ to seize: to lay fast hold of.--_v.i._ to contend in close fight.--_ns._ GRAPP'LEMENT (_Spens._), a grappling, close fight; GRAPP'LING-[=I]'RON, a large grapnel for seizing hostile ships in naval engagements. [O. Fr. _grappil_--_grappe_, a hook.]

GRAPTOLITE, grap'to-l[=i]t, _n._ one of a group of fossil hydrozoa, having simple or branched polyparies, usually strengthened by a horny-like rod--the 'solid axis.' [Gr. _graptos_--_graphein_, to write, _lithos_, a stone.]

GRASP, grasp, _v.t._ to seize and hold by clasping with the fingers or arms: to catch at: to comprehend.--_v.i._ to endeavour to seize: to catch (with _at_).--_n._ gripe of the hand: reach of the arms: power of seizing: mental power of apprehension.--_adj._ GRASP'ABLE.--_n._ GRASP'ER.--_p.adj._ GRASP'ING, seizing: avaricious: encroaching.--_adv._ GRASP'INGLY.--_n._ GRASP'INGNESS.--_adj._ GRASP'LESS, feeble, relaxed. [M. E.

_graspen_--_grapsen_, as clasp--M. E. _claspen_; allied to _grope_, _grapple_.]

GRASS, gras, _n._ common herbage: an order of plants (_Gramineae_), the most important in the whole vegetable kingdom, with long, narrow leaves and tubular stem, including wheat, rye, oats, rice, millet, and all those which supply food for nearly all graminivorous animals: short for asparagus--sparrow-grass: time of grass, spring or summer: the surface of a mine.--_v.t._ to cover with grass: to feed with grass: to bring to the grass or ground, as a bird or a fish--(various perennial fodder grasses are _timothy_, _fox-tail_, _cock's-foot_, and the _fescue grasses_, _Italian rye-grass_, &c.).--_ns._ GRASS'-CLOTH, a name applied to different kinds of coarse cloth, the fibre of which is rarely that of a grass, esp. to the Chinese summer-cloth made from _Boehmeria nivea_, which is really a nettle; GRASS'-CUT'TER, one of the attendants on an Indian army, whose work is to provide provender for the baggage-cattle; GRASS'ER, an extra or temporary worker in a printing-office.--_adjs._ GRASS'-GREEN, green with grass: green as grass; GRASS'-GROWN, grown over with grass.--_ns._ GRASS'HOPPER, a saltatorial, orthopterous insect, nearly allied to locusts and crickets, keeping quiet during the day among vegetation, but noisy at night; GRASS'INESS; GRASS'ING, the exposing of linen in fields to air and light for bleaching purposes; GRASS'-LAND, permanent pasture; GRASS'-OIL, a name under which several volatile oils derived from widely different plants are grouped; GRASS'-PLOT, a plot of grassy ground; GRASS'-TREE, a genus of Australian plants, with shrubby stems, tufts of long wiry foliage at the summit, and a tall flower-stalk, with a dense cylindrical spike of small flowers; GRASS'-WID'OW, a wife temporarily separated from her husband, often also a divorced woman, or one deserted by her husband; GRASS'-WRACK, the eel-grass growing abundantly on the sea-coast.--_adj._ GRASS'Y, covered with or resembling grass, green.--GO TO GRASS, to be turned out to pasture, esp. of a horse too old to work: to go into retirement, to rusticate: to fall violently (of a pugilist); LET THE GRASS GROW UNDER ONE'S FEET, to loiter, linger.--SPANISH GRASS (see ESPARTO). [A.S. _gaers_, _graes_; Ice., Ger., Dut., and Goth. _gras_; prob. allied to _green_ and _grow_.]

GRASSUM, gras'um, _n._ (_Scots law_) a lump sum paid by persons who take a lease of landed property--in England, 'premium' and 'fine.'

GRATE, gr[=a]t, _n._ a framework composed of bars with interstices, esp.

one of iron bars for holding coals while burning.--_adj._ GRAT'ED, having a grating.--_ns._ GRATICUL[=A]'TION, the division of a design into squares for convenience in making an enlarged or diminished copy; GRAT'ING, the bars of a grate: a partition or frame of bars. [Low L. _grata_, a grate--L.

_crates_, a hurdle. See CRATE.]

GRATE, gr[=a]t, _v.t._ to rub hard or wear away with anything rough: to make a harsh sound: to irritate or offend.--_n._ GRAT'ER, an instrument with a rough surface for grating down a body.--_adj._ GRAT'ING, rubbing hard on the feelings: harsh: irritating.--_adv._ GRAT'INGLY. [O. Fr.

_grater_, through Low L., from Old High Ger. _chraz[=o]n_ (Ger. _kratzen_), to scratch, akin to Sw. _kratta_.]

GRATEFUL, gr[=a]t'f[=oo]l, _adj._ causing pleasure: acceptable: delightful: thankful: having a due sense of benefits.--_adv._ GRATE'FULLY.--_ns._ GRATE'FULNESS; GRATIFIC[=A]'TION, a pleasing or indulging: that which gratifies: delight; GRAT'IFIER.--_v.t._ GRAT'IFY, to do what is agreeable to: to please: to soothe; to indulge:--_pa.p._ grat'ified.--_p.adj._ GRAT'IFYING. [O. Fr. _grat_--L. _gratus_, pleasing, thankful, and suff.


GRATILLITY, gra-til'i-ti, _n._ (_Shak._) gratuity.

GRATIS, gr[=a]'tis, _adv._ for nothing: without payment or recompense. [L., contr. of _gratiis_, abl. pl. of _gratia_, favour--_gratus_.]

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