GOSSOON, go-s[=oo]n', _n._ a boy-servant in Ireland. [From Fr. _garcon_, a boy.]
GOSSYPIUM, go-sip'i-um, _n._ a malvaceous genus of herbs and shrubs, native to the tropics, yielding the cotton of commerce. [L. _gossypion_.]
GOT, GOTTEN. See under GET.
GOTH, goth, _n._ one of an ancient Teutonic nation, originally settled on the southern coasts of the Baltic, which migrated to Dacia in the 3d century, and later founded kingdoms in Italy, southern France, and Spain: a rude or uncivilised person, a barbarian.--_adj._ GOTH'IC, belonging to the Goths or their language: barbarous: romantic: denoting a style of architecture with high-pointed arches, clustered columns, &c. (applied in reproach at the time of the Renaissance).--_v.t._ GOTH'ICISE, to make Gothic: to bring back to barbarism.--_n._ GOTH'ICISM, a Gothic idiom or style of building: rudeness of manners. [The native names _Gutans_ (sing.
_Guta_) and _Gutos_ (sing. _Guts_), _Gutthiuda_, 'people of the Goths;'
Latinised as _Gothi_, _Gotthi_.]
GOTHAMITE, goth'a-m[=i]t, GOTHAMIST, goth'a-mist, _n._ a simpleton: a wiseacre. [From _Gotham_, a village of Nottinghamshire, with which name are connected many of the simpleton stories of immemorial antiquity. So of Gordon in Scotland, Kampan in Holland, the Schildburgers in Germany, &c.]
GOUACHE, gwash, _n._ a method of water-colour painting with opaque colours, mixed with water, honey, and gum, presenting a dead surface: work painted according to this method. [Fr.]
GOUDA, gow'da, _n._ a kind of cheese from _Gouda_.
GOUGE, gowj, or g[=oo]j, _n._ a chisel, with a hollow blade, for cutting grooves or holes.--_v.t._ to scoop out, as with a gouge: to force out, as the eye with the thumb. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _guvia_, a kind of chisel.]
GOUJEERS, g[=oo]'j[=e]rz, _n._ (_Shak._) venereal disease.--_Goujere_, often GOOD YEAR, used as a slight imprecation, as pox; cf. 2 _Henry IV._, II. iv. 64. [Perh. Fr. _gouge_, a prostitute, _goujat_, a blackguard.]
GOURA, gow'ra, _n._ a genus of beautifully crested, ground-loving pigeons, native to New Guinea.
GOURAMI. See GORAMY.
GOURD, g[=o]rd, or g[=oo]rd, _n._ a large fleshy fruit: rind of a gourd used as a drinking-cup: the gourd plant: (_pl._) hollow dice used by cheating gamblers.--_ns._ GOURD'INESS; GOURD'-WORM, a fluke or trematode worm, esp. the liver-fluke.--_adj._ GOURD'Y, having the legs swollen--of a horse. [O. Fr. _gourde_, contr. from _cougourde_--L. _cucurbita_, a gourd.]
GOURMAND, g[=oo]r'mand, _n._ one who eats greedily: a glutton.--_adj._ voracious: gluttonous--also GOR'MAND.--_n._ GOURMET (goor-m[=a]', or -met'), an epicure, originally one with a delicate taste in wines. [Fr.
_gourmand_, a glutton; origin unknown.]
GOUSTY, gows'ti, _adj._ dreary.--_adj._ GOUS'TROUS, stormy: (_Scot._) rude.
[Same as GUSTY.]
GOUT, gowt, _n._ an acute inflammation of the smaller joints, and esp. of the great toe, in persons of luxurious habits and past middle life: (_obs._) a drop.--_adv._ GOUT'ILY.--_ns._ GOUT'INESS; GOUT'WORT, GOUT'WEED, an umbelliferous European plant, long supposed to be good for gout.--_adj._ GOUT'Y, relating to gout: diseased with or subject to gout. [O. Fr.
_goutte_--L. _gutta_, a drop, the disease supposed to be caused by a defluxion of humours.]
GOUT, g[=oo], _n._ taste: relish. [Fr.,--L. _gustus_, taste.]
GOVERN, guv'[.e]rn, _v.t._ to direct: to control: to rule with authority: (_gram._) to determine the mood, tense, or case of.--_v.i._ to exercise authority: to administer the laws.--_adj._ GOV'ERNABLE.--_ns._ GOV'ERNALL (_Spens._), government; GOV'ERNANCE, government: control: direction: behaviour; GOVERNANTE (guv-[.e]r-nant', or guv'-), a governess (_obs._); GOV'ERNESS, a lady who has charge of the instruction of young ladies: a tutoress (_Daily-governess_, one who goes every day to her pupils' house; _Nursery_-, having charge of young children only, tending as well as teaching them; _Resident_-, living in the family of her pupils).--_v.i._ to act as governess.--_n._ GOV'ERNESS-CART, a light two-wheeled vehicle with two face-to-face seats at the sides only.--_adj._ GOV'ERNING, having control.--_n._ GOV'ERNMENT, a ruling or managing: control: system of governing: the body of persons authorised to administer the laws, or to govern a state: the territory over which sovereign power extends: (_gram._) the power of one word in determining the form of another: (_Shak._) conduct.--_adj._ of or pursued by government.--_adj._ GOVERNMENT'AL, pertaining to or sanctioned by government.--_ns._ GOV'ERNOR, a ruler: one invested with supreme authority: a tutor: (_slang_) a father or master: (_mach._) a regulator, or contrivance for maintaining uniform velocity with a varying resistance: (_B._) a pilot; GOV'ERNOR-GEN'ERAL, the supreme governor in a country: a viceroy; GOV'ERNORSHIP.--GOVERNMENTAL THEORY (see GROTIAN). [O. Fr. _governer_--L. _gubern[=a]re_--Gr. _kybernan_.]
GOWAN, gow'an, _n._ (_Scot._) the wild daisy. [Ir. and Gael. _gugan_, bud, daisy.]
GOWD, Scotch for _gold_.
GOWF, gowf, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to strike, cuff. [A modification of _golf_.]
GOWK, GOUK, gowk, _n._ a stupid fellow, a fool.
GOWL, gowl, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to cry or howl. [M. E. _goulen_--Scand., Ice.
_gaula_, to bellow.]
GOWN, gown, _n._ a woman's upper garment: a long loose robe worn officially by clergymen, lawyers, college lecturers, &c.--_v.t._ to invest with the gown.--_adj._ GOWNED, dressed in a gown.--_ns._ GOWN'MAN, GOWNS'MAN, one whose professional habit is a gown, as a divine or lawyer, and esp. a member of an English university. [M. E. _goune_--W. _gwn_, akin to _gwnio_, to stitch; Ir. _gunn_, Gael. _gun_.]
GOWPEN, gowp'en, _n._ (_Scot._) the hollow of the hand or of the two hands held together: a handful. [Scand.; Ice. _gaupn_, Sw. _gopen_, Dan. _govn_; Low Ger. _gopse_, _gopsch_, Ger. dial. _gauf_, _gaufel_.]
GRAAFIAN, gra'fi-an, _adj._ pertaining to the follicle or little sac in the ovary in which an ovum matures--in mammals. [Named from the discoverer of these, Regnier de _Graaf_, 1641-73.]
GRAAL. Same as GRAIL, a dish.
GRAB, grab, _n._ a vessel on the Malabar coast, having two or three masts.
GRAB, grab, _v.t._ (_coll._) to seize or grasp suddenly: to lay hands on:--_pr.p._ grab'bing; _pa.p._ grabbed.--_n._ a sudden grasp or catch, acquisition by violent or unjust means: that which is seized: a simple card game.--_ns._ GRAB'-BAG, a bag containing a variety of articles to be obtained by putting in the hand and seizing one, as at charity bazaars, &c.: any dishonest means of seizing such profit or spoil as comes handiest; GRAB'BER. [Scand.; Sw. _grabba_, to grasp; Ger. _greifen_, to seize.]
GRABBLE, grab'l, _v.i._ to grope. [Freq. of _grab_.]
GRACE, gr[=a]s, _n._ easy elegance in form or manner: what adorns and commends to favour: embellishment: favour: pardon: the undeserved mercy of God: divine influence: eternal life or salvation: a short prayer at meat: an act or decree of the governing body of an English university: a ceremonious title in addressing a duke or an archbishop: (_pl._) favour, friendship (with _good_): (_myth._) the three sister goddesses in whom beauty was deified (the Greek Charites), Euphrosyne, Aglaia, Thalia.--_v.t._ to mark with favour: to adorn.--_n._ GRACE'-CUP, a cup or health drunk at the last of the feast.--_adjs._ GRACED (_Shak._), virtuous, chaste; GRACE'FUL, elegant and easy: marked by propriety or fitness, becoming.--_adv._ GRACE'FULLY.--_n._ GRACE'FULNESS.--_adjs._ GRACE'LESS, wanting grace or excellence: depraved: wicked.--_adv._ GRACE'LESSLY.--_n._ GRACE'LESSNESS.--_ns._ GRACE'-NOTE (_mus._), a note introduced as an embellishment, not being essential to the harmony or melody; GRACE'-STROKE, a finishing stroke, _coup de_ _grace_; GRACI[=O]'SO, a clown in Spanish comedy, a favourite.--_adj._ GR[=A]'CIOUS, abounding in grace or kindness: benevolent: proceeding from divine favour: acceptable.--_adv._ GR[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ GR[=A]'CIOUSNESS, state or quality of being gracious, affability; GR[=A]CIOUS'ITY, the same, but usually in a bad sense, as implying duplicity.--DAYS OF GRACE, three days allowed for the payment of a note or bill of exchange, after being due according to its date; FALL FROM GRACE, to backslide, to lapse from the state of grace and salvation--an impossibility according to Calvinists.--GOOD GRACIOUS, an exclamation of surprise.--IN THE GOOD GRACES OF, in the friendship of; SAVING GRACE, divine grace so bestowed as to lead to salvation; TAKE HEART OF GRACE, to take courage from favour shown. [Fr.,--L. _gratia_, favour--_gratus_, agreeable; Gr. _charis_, grace.]
GRACILE, gras'il, _adj._ slender, gracefully slight in form.--_n._ GRACIL'ITY. [L. _gracilis_, slender.]
GRACKLE, grak'l, _n._ the common name of many birds of the starling family, all tropical or subtropical.--Also GRAK'LE. [L. _graculus_, a jackdaw.]
GRADE, gr[=a]d, _n._ a degree or step in rank or dignity: the degree of slope on a road as compared with the horizontal: a class of animals produced by crossing a common breed with one purer--also _adj._: a group of animals branching off from a common stem.--_v.t._ GR[=A]'DATE, to cause to blend gradually from one tint of colour to another.--_v.i._ to effect gradation.--_adv._ GRAD[=A]'TIM, gradually.--_n._ GRAD[=A]'TION, a rising step by step: progress from one degree or state to another: position attained: state of being arranged in ranks: (_mus._) a diatonic succession of chords: (_paint._) the gradual blending of tints.--_adjs._ GRAD[=A]'TIONAL; GRAD[=A]'TIONED, formed by gradations or stages; GRAD'ATORY, proceeding step by step, adapted for walking or forward movement; GR[=A]'DIENT, gradually rising: rising with a regular slope.--_n._ the degree of slope on a road or railway: the difference in the height of the barometer between one place and another place at some distance: an incline.--_ns._ GR[=A]D'IENTER, a surveyor's instrument for determining grades; GR[=A]D'IN, GRADINE', one of a series of rising seats, as in an amphitheatre: a raised step or ledge behind an altar; GRADIN'O, a decoration for the gradin.--_adj._ GRAD'[=U]AL, advancing by grades or degrees: regular and slow.--_n._ in the Roman Church, the portion of the mass between the epistle and the gospel, formerly always sung from the steps of the altar: the book containing such anthems--also GRAIL.--_ns._ GRAD'[=U]ALISM, GRAD[=U]AL'ITY.--_adv._ GRAD'[=U]ALLY.--_v.t._ GRAD'[=U][=A]TE, to divide into regular intervals: to mark with degrees: to proportion.--_v.i._ to pass by grades or degrees: to pass through a university course and receive a degree.--_n._ one admitted to a degree in a college, university, or society.--_p.adj._ GRAD'[=U][=A]TED, marked with degrees, as a thermometer.--_ns._ GRAD'UATESHIP; GRAD[=U][=A]'TION; GRAD'[=U][=A]TOR, a mathematical instrument for graduating or dividing lines into regular intervals; GRADUC'TION (_astron._), the division of circular arcs into degrees, minutes, &c.; GR[=A]'DUS, a dictionary of Greek or Latin prosody--contraction of _gradus ad Parnassum_, a step or stair to Parnassus, the abode of the Muses.--DOWN, and UP, GRADE, a descending or ascending part, as of a road. [Fr.,--L. _gradus_, a step--_gradi_, to step.]
GRADELY, gr[=a]d'li, _adv._ (_prov._) readily, speedily.--Also GRAITH'LY.
GRADGRIND, grad'gr[=i]nd, _n._ one who regulates all human things by rule and compass and the mechanical application of statistics, allowing nothing for sentiment, emotion, and individuality. [From Thomas _Gradgrind_ in Dickens's _Hard Times_.]
GRAF, graf, _n._ a German title of dignity equivalent to Count:--_fem._ GRaFIN.
GRAFF, graf, _n._ (_Scot._) a grave. A variant of grave.
GRAFF, _n._ and _v._ (_B._). Same as GRAFT.
GRAFFITO, graf-f[=e]'to, _n._ the name given to certain classes of mural inscriptions, such as the scribblings of schoolboys and idlers, found at Pompeii, Rome, and other ancient cities:--_pl._ GRAFFITI (-f[=e]'t[=e]).
[It.--_graffiare_, to scratch--Low L. _graphium_, a style.]
GRAFT, graft, _v.t._ to make an incision in a tree or plant, and insert in it a small branch of another, so as to make a union of the two: to insert in something anything not belonging to it: to incorporate one thing with another: to transplant, as a piece of tissue, from one part to another.--_v.i._ to insert cuttings into a tree.--_n._ a small branch used in grafting.--_ns._ GRAFT'ER; GRAFT'ING. [O. Fr. _graffe_ (Fr.
_greffe_)--L. _graphium_--a style or pencil (which the inserted slip resembled)--Gr. _graphein_, to write.]
GRAIL, gr[=a]l, _n._ (_Spens._) small particles of any kind, as sand. [O.
Fr. _graile_ (Fr. _grele_), hail--L. _gracilis_, slender.]
GRAIL, See GRADUAL.
GRAIL, gr[=a]l, _n._ in medieval legend, the Holy Cup used by Christ at the Last Supper. [Orig. the _San Greal_, 'Holy Dish' (not _Sang Real_, 'Holy Blood'), in which it is said Joseph of Arimathea collected our Lord's blood; from O. Fr. _graal_ or _greal_, a flat dish--Low L. _gradale_, a flat dish, app. a corr. of Low L. _cratella_, a dim. of _crater_, a bowl.
Diez suggests as the origin a lost _cratalis_, from _cratus_, Low L. form of _crater_.]
GRAIN, gr[=a]n, _n._ a single small hard seed: (_coll._) the seeds of certain plants which form the chief food of man: corn, in general: a minute particle: a very small quantity: the smallest British weight, supposed to be the average weight of a seed or well-ripened ear of corn: the arrangement of the particles or fibres of anything, as stone or wood: texture, as of leather: the crimson dye made from cochineal insects, which, in the prepared state, resemble grains of seed--hence to _dye in grain_ is to dye deeply, also to dye in the wool: innate quality or character of anything.--_v.t._ to form into grains, cause to granulate: to paint in imitation of wood, marble, &c.: in tanning, to take the hair off.--_n._ GRAIN'AGE, duties on grain.--_adj._ GRAINED, rough: furrowed.--_ns._ GRAIN'ER, one who paints in imitation of the grain of wood; GRAIN'ING, painting so as to imitate the grain of wood: a process in tanning in which the grain of the leather is raised.--_adj._ GRAIN'Y, having grains or kernels.--GRAINS OF PARADISE, an aromatic and pungent seed imported from Guinea.--AGAINST THE GRAIN, against the fibre of the wood--hence against the natural temper or inclination; WITH A GRAIN OF SALT, with reservation, as of a story that cannot be admitted (L. _cum grano salis_). [Fr.,--L.
_granum_, seed, akin to _corn_.]
GRAIN, gr[=a]n, _n._ a prong, fork: a kind of harpoon.