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GARNET, gar'net, _n._ a precious stone belonging to a group of minerals crystallising in the cubical system. [O. Fr. _grenat_--Low L. _granatum_, pomegranate; or Low L. _granum_, grain, cochineal, red dye.]

GARNISH, gar'nish, _v.t._ to adorn: to furnish: to surround with ornaments, as a dish.--_n._ entrance-money: something placed round a principal dish at table, whether for embellishment or relish: a gift of money, esp. that formerly paid by a prisoner to his fellow-prisoners on his first admission.--_ns._ GAR'NISHEE, a person warned not to pay money owed to another, because the latter is indebted to the garnisher who gives the warning (_v.t._ to attach a debtor's money in this way); GARNISHEE'MENT; GAR'NISHER, one who garnishes; GAR'NISHING, GAR'NISHMENT, GAR'NITURE, that which garnishes or embellishes: ornament: apparel: trimming; GAR'NISHRY, adornment. [O. Fr. _garniss_-, stem of _garnir_, to furnish, old form _warnir_, from a Teut. root seen in A.S. _warnian_, Ger. _warnen_, Eng.


GARRET, gar'et, _n._ (_Shak._) a watch-tower: a room next the roof of a house.--_p.adj._ GARR'ETED, provided with garrets: lodged in a garret.--_ns._ GARRETEER', one who lives in a garret: a poor author; GARR'ET-MAS'TER, a cabinet-maker, locksmith, &c., working on his own account for the dealers. [O. Fr. _garite_, a place of safety, _guarir_, _warir_, to preserve (Fr. _guerir_)--Teut., Old High Ger. _warjan_, to defend.]

GARRISON, gar'i-sn, _n._ a supply of soldiers for guarding a fortress: a fortified place.--_v.t._ to furnish a fortress with troops: to defend by fortresses manned with troops.--GARRISON TOWN, a town in which a garrison is stationed. [O. Fr. _garison_--_garir_, _guerir_, to furnish--Teut., Old High Ger. _warjan_, to defend.]

GARRON, gar'on, _n._ a small horse.--Also GARR'AN. [Ir.]

GARROT, gar'ot, _n._ a name applied to various ducks. [Fr.]

GARROT, gar'ot, _n._ (_surg._) a tourniquet. [Fr.]

GARROTTE, GAROTTE, gar-rot', _n._ a Spanish mode of strangling criminals.--_v.t._ to strangle by a brass collar tightened by a screw, whose point enters the spinal marrow: to suddenly render insensible by semi-strangulation, and then to rob:--_pr.p._ garrott'ing, garott'ing; _pa.p._ garrott'ed, garott'ed.--_ns._ GARROTT'ER, GAROTT'ER, one who garrottes; GARROTT'ING, GAROTT'ING. [Sp. _garrote_; cf. Fr. _garrot_, a stick.]

GARRULOUS, gar'[=u]-lus, _adj._ talkative.--_ns._ GARRUL'ITY, GARR'ULOUSNESS, talkativeness: loquacity.--_adv._ GARR'ULOUSLY. [L.

_garrulus_--_garr[=i]re_, to chatter.]

GARTER, gar't[.e]r, _n._ a band used to tie the stocking to the leg: the badge of the highest order of knighthood in Great Britain, called the _Order of the Garter_.--_v.t._ to bind with a garter.--GARTER KING-OF-ARMS, the chief herald of the Order of the Garter. [O. Fr. _gartier_ (Fr.

_jarretiere_)--O. Fr. _garet_ (Fr. _jarret_), the ham of the leg, prob.

Celt. as Bret. _gar_, the shank of the leg.]

GARTH, garth, _n._ an enclosure or yard: a garden: a weir in a river for catching fish. [Ice. _garr_, a court; cf. A.S. _geard_; Ger. _garten_, yard.]

GARUDA, gar'[=oo]-da, _n._ a Hindu demigod, with the body and legs of a man, the head and wings of a bird, emblem of strength and speed. [Sans.]

GARVIE, gar'vi, _n._ (_Scot._) a sprat.--Also GAR'VOCK. [Gael. _garbhag_.]

GAS, gas, _n._ a vaporous substance not condensed into a liquid at ordinary terrestrial temperatures and pressures--esp. that obtained from coal, used in lighting houses: (_coll._) frothy talk:--_pl._ GAS'ES.--_v.t._ to supply with gas: (_U.S._) to impose on by talking gas.--_v.i._ to vapour, talk boastfully.--_ns._ GASALIER', GASELIER', a hanging frame with branches for gas-jets, formed on false analogy from _chandelier_; GAS'-BAG, a bag for holding gas: a boastful, talkative person; GAS'-BRACK'ET, a pipe, mostly curved, projecting from the wall of a room, used for illuminating purposes; GAS'-BURN'ER, a piece of metal fitted to the end of a gas-pipe, with one or more small holes so arranged as to spread out the flame; GAS'-COAL, any coal suitable for making illuminating gas; GAS'-CONDENS'ER, an apparatus for freeing coal-gas from tar; GAS[=E]'ITY, G[=A]'SEOUSNESS.--_adj._ GASEOUS (g[=a]'se-us).--_ns._ GAS'-EN'GINE, an engine in which motion is communicated to the piston by the alternate admission and condensation of gas in a closed cylinder; GAS'-FIT'TER, one who fits up the pipes and brackets for gas-lighting; GAS'-FIX'TURE, a bracket or chandelier for gas; GAS'-FUR'NACE, a furnace of which the fuel is gas; GAS'HOLDER, a large vessel for storing gas; GASIFIC[=A]'TION, the process of converting into gas.--_v.t._ GAS'IFY, to convert into gas.--_ns._ GAS'-JET, a gas-burner; GAS'-LAMP, a lamp lighted by gas; GAS'-MAIN, one of the principal underground pipes conveying gas from the works to the places where it is consumed; GAS'-MAN, a man employed in the manufacture of gas: the man who controls the lights of the stage; GAS'-M[=E]'TER, an instrument for measuring the quantity of gas consumed at a particular place in a given time; GAS'OGENE (same as GAZOGENE); GAS'OLENE, rectified petroleum; GASOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring gas: a place for holding gas.--_adjs._ GASOMET'RIC, -AL.--_ns._ GAS'-PIPE, a pipe for conveying gas; GAS'SING, idle talking; GAS'-STOVE, an apparatus in which coal-gas is used for heating and cooking purposes.--_adj._ GAS'SY, full of gas, gaseous: (_slang_) given to vain and boastful talk.--_ns._ GAS'-TANK, a reservoir for coal-gas; GAS'-TAR, coal-tar.--_adj._ GAS'-TIGHT, sufficiently close to prevent the escape of gas.--_ns._ GAS'-WA'TER, water through which coal-gas has been passed; GAS'-WORKS, an establishment where illuminating gas is manufactured. [A word invented by the Dutch chemist J. B. Van Helmont (1577-1644)--the form suggested by Gr. _chaos_.]

GASCONADE, gas-ko-n[=a]d', _n._ boasting talk.--_ns._ GAS'CON, a native of Gascony; GAS'CONISM. [Fr.,--_Gascon_, from their proverbial boastfulness.]

GASH, gash, _v.t._ to make a deep cut into anything, esp. into flesh.--_n._ a deep, open wound. [Formerly _garse_--O. Fr. _garser_, pierce with a lancet--Low L. _garsa_. Perh. corrupted from Gr. _charassein_, to cut.]

GASH, gash, _adj._ (_Scot._) shrewd: talkative: trim.--_v.i._ to tattle.

[Prob. a corr. of _sagacious_.]

GASH, gash, _adj._ (_Scot._) ghastly, hideous--also GASH'FUL, GASH'LY.--_n._ GASH'LINESS.--_adv._ GASH'LY. [From _ghastful_, through association with _gash_.]

GASKET, gas'ket, _n._ (_naut._) a canvas band used to bind the sails to the yards when furled: a strip of tow, &c., for packing a piston, &c.--Also GAS'KIN. [Cf. Fr. _garcette_, It. _gaschetta_; ety. dub.]

GASKINS, gas'kinz, _n._ (_Shak._). See GALLIGASKINS.

GASP, gasp, _v.i._ to gape in order to catch breath: to desire eagerly.--_n._ the act of opening the mouth to catch the breath.--_pr.p._ and _adj._ GASP'ING, convulsive, spasmodic.--_adv._ GASP'INGLY.--THE LAST GASP, the utmost extremity. [Ice. _geispa_, to yawn, by metathesis from _geipsa_, cf. _geip_, idle talk.]

GAST, gast, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to make aghast, to frighten or terrify. [A.S.

_g['ae]stan_; cf. AGHAST.]

GASTEROPOD, gas'ter-o-pod, _n._ one of a class of molluscs, embracing whelks, limpets, snails, &c., having in general a muscular disc under the belly, which serves them as feet--also GAS'TROPOD:--_pl._ GASTEROP'ODA.--_adj._ GASTEROP'ODOUS. [Formed from Gr. _gast[=e]r_, the stomach, _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

GASTRaeA, gas-tr[=e]'a, _n._ (_biol._) a hypothetic animal form assumed by Haeckel as the ancestor of all metazoic animals:--_pl._ GASTRae'ae.--_n._ GAS'TRULA, that embryonic form of metazoic animals which consists of a two-layered sac enclosing a central cavity and having an opening at one end:--_pl._ GRAS'TRULae.--_adj._ GAS'TRULAR.

GASTRALGIA, gas-tral'ji-a, _n._ pain in the stomach or bowels. [Gr.

_gast[=e]r_, the stomach, _algos_, pain.]

GASTRIC, gas'trik, _adj._ belonging to the stomach--also GAS'TRAL.--_ns._ GASTR[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the stomach; GASTROL'OGER.--_adj._ GASTROLOG'ICAL.--_n._ GASTROL'OGY, cookery, good eating.--GASTRIC FEVER, a bilious remittent fever; GASTRIC JUICE, the digestive liquid secreted by the glands of the stomach. [Gr. _gast[=e]r_, the belly.]

GASTROCNEMIUS, gas-trok-n[=e]'mi-us, _n._ a superficial muscle of the posterior tibial region helping to extend the foot. [Gr. _gast[=e]r_, stomach, _kn[=e]m[=e]_, the leg.]

GASTROMANCY, gas'tro-man-si, _n._ a means of divination by ventriloquism: divination by large-bellied glasses. [Gr. _gast[=e]r_, belly, _manteia_, soothsaying.]

GASTRONOME, gas'tro-n[=o]m, _n._ one who pays great attention to his diet, an epicure--also GASTRON'OMER, GASTRON'OMIST.--_adjs._ GASTRONOM'IC, -AL, pertaining to gastronomy.--_ns._ GASTRON'OMY, the art or science of good eating; GAS'TROPHILE, GAS'TROPHILIST, GAS'TROPHILITE; GAS'TROPHILISM, love of good eating; GAS'TROSOPH, one skilled in matters of eating; GASTROS'OPHER; GASTROS'OPHY. [Gr. _gast[=e]r_, belly, _nomos_, law--_nemein_, to distribute.]

GASTROSTOMY, gas-tros'to-mi, _n._ an operation performed in a case of stricture of the gullet, to introduce food into the stomach through an external opening. [Gr. _gast[=e]r_, belly, _stoma_, mouth.]

GASTROTOMY, gas-trot'o-mi, _n._ the operation of cutting open the belly.

[Gr. _gast[=e]r_, belly, _tom[=e]_, a cutting--_temnein_, to cut.]

GASTRO-VASCULAR, gas-tr[=o]-vas'k[=u]-lar, _adj._ common to the functions of digestion and circulation.

GAT, gat (_B._) _pa.t._ of _get_.

GAT, gat, _n._ an opening between sandbanks, a strait. [Ice.]

GATE, g[=a]t, _n._ a passage into a city, enclosure, or any large building: a narrow opening or defile: a frame in the entrance into any enclosure: an entrance.--_v.t._ to supply with a gate: at Oxford and Cambridge, to punish by requiring the offender to be within the college gates by a certain hour.--_adj._ G[=A]'TED, punished with such restriction.--_ns._ GATE'-FINE, the fine imposed for disobedience to such orders; GATE'-HOUSE (_archit._), a building over or near the gate giving entrance to a city, abbey, college, &c.; GATE'-KEEP'ER, GATE'MAN, one who watches over the opening and shutting of a gate.--_adj._ GATE'LESS, not having a gate.--_ns._ GATE'-MON'EY, the money taken for entrance to an athletic or other exhibition, sometimes simply 'gate;' GATE'-TOW'ER, a tower built beside or over a gate; GATE'-VEIN, the great abdominal vein; GATE'WAY, the way through a gate: the gate itself: any entrance.--GATE OF JUSTICE, a gate as of a city, temple, &c., where a sovereign or judge sat to dispense justice; GATES OF DEATH, a phrase expressing the near approach of death.--BREAK GATES, at Oxford and Cambridge, to enter college after the prescribed hour; IVORY GATE, in poetical imagery, the semi-transparent gate of the house of sleep, through which dreams appear distorted into pleasant and delusive shapes; STAND IN THE GATE (_B._), to occupy a position of defence. [A.S. _geat_, a way; Dut.

_gat_, Ice. _gat_; not in Goth. and High Ger.; prob. related to _get_ or _gate_.]

GATE, g[=a]t, _n._ (_Scot._) a way, path: manner of doing, esp. in adverbial phrases like 'this gate,' 'any gate,' 'some gate.' [Ice. _gata_; Da. _gade_, Ger. _gasse_.]

GATE, g[=a]t, _n._ (_Spens._) a goat. [A.S. _gat._]

GaTEAU, gat-[=o]', _n._ cake.--VEAL GATEAU, minced veal made up like a pudding, and boiled in a shape or mould. [Fr.]

GATHER, ga_th_'[.e]r, _v.t._ to collect: to acquire: in sewing, to plait: to learn by inference.--_v.i._ to assemble or muster: to increase: to suppurate.--_n._ a plait or fold in cloth, made by drawing the thread through (_pl._ that part of the dress which is gathered or drawn in).--_ns._ GATH'ERER, one who collects: a gleaner: in glass manufacturing, a workman who collects molten glass on the end of a rod preparatory to blowing; GATH'ERING, a crowd or assembly: a tumour or collection of matter; GATH'ERING-COAL, -PEAT, a coal, peat, put into a fire at night, with the hot embers gathered about it, to keep the fire alive till morning; GATH'ERING-CRY, a summons to assemble for war.--GATHER BREATH, to recover wind; GATHER GROUND, to gain ground; GATHER ONE'S SELF TOGETHER, to collect all one's powers, like one about to leap; GATHER TO A HEAD, to ripen: to come into a state of preparation for action or effect; GATHER WAY, to get headway by sail or steam so as to answer the helm. [A.S. _gaderian_, _gaederian_, _(to)gaedere_, together; cf. _geador_, together, _g['ae]d_, company.]


GAUCHE, g[=o]sh, _adj._ left-handed: clumsy.--_n._ GAUCHE'RIE (-r[=e]), clumsiness: awkwardness. [Fr.]

GAUCHO, gow'ch[=o], _n._ a native of the La Plata pampas of Spanish descent, noted for marvellous horsemanship.--Less correctly GUA'CHO.

GAUCIE, GAUCY, GAWCY, GAWSY, ga'si, _adj._ _(Scot.)_ portly, jolly.

GAUD, gawd, _n._ an ornament: a piece of finery:--_pl._ showy ceremonies, gaieties.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) make merry.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to adorn with gauds: to paint, as the cheeks.--_ns._ GAUDE[=A]'MUS, a rejoicing, students' merrymaking; GAUD'ERY, finery.--_adv._ GAUD'ILY.--_ns._ GAUD'INESS, showiness; GAUD'Y, an English university feast or festival.--_adj._ showy: gay.--_n._ GAUD'Y-DAY. [L. _gaudium_, delight--_gaud[=e]re_, to rejoice.]

GAUGE, GAGE, g[=a]j, _n._ a measuring-rod: a standard of measure: estimate.--_v.t._ to measure the contents of any vessel: to estimate ability.--_adj._ GAUGE'ABLE, capable of being gauged.--_ns._ GAUG'ER, an excise officer whose business is to gauge or measure the contents of casks; GAUG'ING, the art of measuring casks containing excisable liquors; GAUG'ING-ROD, an instrument for measuring the contents of casks; BROAD'-, NARR'OW-GAUGE, in railroad construction, a distance between the rails greater or less than 56 inches, called _standard gauge_. [O. Fr. _gauge_ (Fr. _jauge_), _gauger_; prob. related to _jale_, bowl, to _galon_, gallon, or to _jalon_, measuring stake.]

GAUL, gawl, _n._ a name of ancient France: an inhabitant of Gaul.--_adj._ GAUL'ISH. [Fr.,--L. _Gallus_; perh. conn. with A.S. _wealh_, foreign.]

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