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EIRIE, [=e]'ri, _n._ Same as EERIE.

EISTEDDFOD, es-teth'vod, _n._ a congress of Welsh bards and musicians held in various towns for the preservation and cultivation of national poetry and music. [W.; lit. 'session,' _eistedd_, to sit.]

EITHER, _[=e]'_th_[.e]r_, or _[=i]'_th_[.e]r_, _adj._ or _pron._ the one or the other: one of two: each of two.--_conj._ correlative to _or_: (_B._) or. [A.S. _['ae]ger_, a contr. of _['ae]ghthwaeer_=_a_, aye, the pfx. _ge-_, and _hwaether_, the mod. _whether_. See also EACH.]

EJACULATE, e-jak'[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to eject: to utter with suddenness.--_v.i._ to utter ejaculations.--_n._ EJACUL[=A]'TION, a sudden utterance in prayer or otherwise: what is so uttered.--_adjs._ EJAC'ULATIVE; EJAC'ULATORY, uttered in short, earnest sentences. [L. _e_, out, and _jacul[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_jac[)e]re_, to throw.]

EJECT, e-jekt', _v.t._ to cast out: to dismiss: to dispossess of: to expel.--_ns._ E'JECT, a coinage of Prof. Clifford for an inferred existence, a thing thrown out of one's own consciousness, as distinguished from _object_, a thing presented in one's consciousness; EJEC'TION, discharge: expulsion: state of being ejected: vomiting: that which is ejected.--_adj._ EJEC'TIVE.--_ns._ EJECT'MENT, expulsion; dispossession: (_law_) an action for the recovery of the possession of land; EJECT'OR, one who ejects or dispossesses another of his land: any mechanical apparatus for ejecting. [L. _eject[=a]re_, freq. of _ejic[)e]re_, _ejectum_--_e_, out, _jac[)e]re_, to throw.]

EKE, [=e]k, _v.t._ to add to or increase: to lengthen.--_n._ E'KING, act of adding: what is added.--EKE OUT, to supplement: to prolong. [A.S. _ecan_, akin to L. _aug[=e]re_, to increase.]

EKE, [=e]k, _adv._ in addition to: likewise. [A.S. _eac_; Ger. _auch_; from root of _eke_, _v.t_.]

ELABORATE, e-lab'or-[=a]t, _v.t._ to labour on: to produce with labour: to take pains with: to improve by successive operations.--_adj._ wrought with labour: done with fullness and exactness: highly finished.--_adv._ ELAB'ORATELY.--_ns._ ELAB'ORATENESS; ELABOR[=A]'TION, act of elaborating: refinement: the process by which substances are formed in the organs of animals or plants.--_adj._ ELAB'ORATIVE.--_ns._ ELAB'ORATOR, one who elaborates; ELAB'ORATORY=LABORATORY. [L. _elabor[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, out, _labor[=a]re_--_labor_, labour.]

eLAN, [=a]-long', _n._ impetuosity, dash. [Fr.]

ELANCE, e-lans', _v.t._ to throw out, as a lance. [Fr. _elancer_.]

ELAND, [=e]'land, _n._ the South African antelope, resembling the elk in having a protuberance on the larynx. [Dut.; Ger. _elend_, the elk--Lith.

_elnis_, the elk.]

ELAPSE, e-laps', _v.i._ to slip or glide away: to pass silently, as time.--_n._ ELAP'SION. [L. _elapsus_, _elabi_--_e_, out, away, _labi_, _lapsus_, to slide.]

ELASMOBRANCHIATE, e-las-mo-brang'ki-[=a]t, _adj._ pertaining to a class, subclass, or order of fishes including sharks and skates, having lamellar branchiae or plate-like gills.

ELASTIC, e-las'tik, _adj._ having a tendency to recover the original form: springy: able to recover quickly a former state or condition after a shock: flexible: yielding.--_n._ a piece of string, cord, &c. made elastic by having india-rubber woven in it.--_adv._ ELAS'TICALLY.--_ns._ ELASTIC'ITY, springiness: power to recover from depression; ELAS'TICNESS. [Coined from Gr. _elastikos_, _elaunein_, fut. _elasein_, to drive.]

ELATE, e-l[=a]t', _adj._ lifted up: puffed up with success: exalted.--_v.t._ to raise or exalt: to elevate: to make proud.--_adv._ ELAT'EDLY.--_ns._ ELAT'EDNESS; EL'ATER, an elastic filament in certain liverworts and scale-mosses: a skip-jack beetle; ELAT[=E]'RIUM, a substance contained in the juice of the fruit of the squirting cucumber, yielding the purgative ELAT'ERIN; EL[=A]'TION, pride resulting from success. [L.

_el[=a]tus_, pa.p. of _efferre_--_e_, out, _ferre_, to carry.]

ELBOW, el'b[=o], _n._ the joint where the arm bows or bends: any sharp turn or bend.--_v.t._ to push with the elbow: to jostle.--_ns._ EL'BOW-CHAIR, an arm-chair; EL'BOW-GREASE, humorously applied to vigorous rubbing; EL'BOW-ROOM, room to extend the elbows: space enough for moving or acting: freedom.--AT ONE'S ELBOW, close at hand; BE OUT AT ELBOW, to wear a coat ragged at the elbows; UP TO THE ELBOWS, completely engrossed. [A.S.

_elnboga_--_el-_, allied to L. _ulna_, the arm, _boga_, a bend--_bugan_, to bend. See ELL; BOW, _n._ and _v.t._]

ELCHEE, elt'shi, _n._ an ambassador.--Also EL'CHI, ELT'CHI. [Turk.]

ELD, eld, _n._ old age, senility: former times, antiquity.

ELDER, eld'[.e]r, _n._ a genus of plants consisting chiefly of shrubs and trees, with pinnate leaves, small flowers (of which the corolla is wheel-shaped and five-cleft), and three-seeded berries--the Common Elder is the Scotch _Bourtree_.--_ns._ ELD'ER-BERR'Y, the acidulous purple-black drupaceous fruit of the elder; ELD'ER-GUN, a popgun made of elder-wood by extracting the pith; ELD'ER-WINE, a pleasant wine made from elder-berries.--ELDER-FLOWER WATER, distilled water, with an agreeable odour, made from the flowers. [A.S. _ellaern_, _ellen_.]

ELDER, eld'[.e]r, _adj._ older: having lived a longer time: prior in origin.--_n._ one who is older: an ancestor: one advanced to office on account of age: one of a class of office-bearers in the Presbyterian Church--equivalent to the _presbyters_ of the New Testament.--_n._ ELD'ERLINESS.--_adj._ ELD'ERLY, somewhat old: bordering on old age.--_n._ ELD'ERSHIP, state of being older: the office of an elder.--_adj._ ELD'EST, oldest. [A.S. _eldra_, _yldra_, comp. of _eald_, old.]

ELDING, el'ding, _n._ (_prov._) fuel. [Ice.,--_eldr_, fire.]

EL DORADO, el d[=o]-ra'd[=o], the golden land of imagination of the Spanish conquerors of America: any place where wealth is easily to be made. [Sp.

_el_, the, _dorado_, pa.p. of _dorar_, to gild.]

ELDRITCH, el'drich, _adj._ (_Scot._) weird, hideous. [Der. obscure: perh.

conn. with _elf_.]

ELEATIC, el-e-at'ik, _adj._ noting a school of philosophers, specially connected with _Elea_, a Greek city of Lower Italy, and including Zenophanes, Parmenides, and Zeno.--_n._ one belonging to this school.

ELECAMPANE, el'e-kam-p[=a]n', _n._ a composite plant allied to Aster, formerly much cultivated for its medicinal root. [Formed from Low L. _enula campana_.]

ELECT, e-lekt', _v.t._ to choose out: to select for any office or purpose: to select by vote.--_adj._ chosen: taken by preference from among others: chosen for an office but not yet in it (almost always after the noun, as 'consul elect').--_n._ one chosen or set apart.--_n._ ELEC'TION, the act of electing or choosing: the public choice of a person for office, usually by the votes of a constituent body: freewill: (_theol._) the exercise of God's sovereign will in the predetermination of certain persons to salvation: (_B._) those who are elected.--_v.i._ ELECTIONEER', to labour to secure the election of a candidate.--_n._ ELECTIONEER'ER.--_n._ and _adj._ ELECTIONEER'ING, the soliciting of votes and other business of an election.--_adj._ ELECT'IVE, pertaining to, dependent on, or exerting the power of choice.--_adv._ ELECT'IVELY.--_ns._ ELECTIV'ITY; ELECT'OR, one who elects: one who has a vote at an election: the title formerly belonging to those princes and archbishops of the German Empire who had the right to elect the Emperor:--_fem._ ELECT'RESS, ELECT'ORESS.--_adjs._ ELECT'ORAL, ELECT[=O]'RIAL, pertaining to elections or to electors: consisting of electors.--_ns._ ELECT'ORATE, the dignity or the territory of an elector: the body of electors; ELECT'ORSHIP.--THE ELECT (_theol._), those chosen by God for salvation. [L. _e_, out, _leg[)e]re_, to choose.]

ELECTRIC, e-lek'trik, _adj._ pertaining to or produced by electricity.--_n._ any electric substance: a non-conductor of electricity, as amber, glass, &c.--_adj._ ELEC'TRICAL.--_adv._ ELEC'TRICALLY.--_ns._ ELEC'TRIC-EEL (see GYMNOTUS); ELECTRI'CIAN, one who studies, or is versed in, the science of electricity; ELECTRIC'ITY, name of the cause of certain phenomena of attraction and repulsion: the phenomena themselves: the science which investigates the nature and laws of these phenomena.--_adj._ ELEC'TRIF[=I]ABLE.--_n._ ELECTRIFIC[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ ELEC'TRIFY, to communicate electricity to: to excite suddenly: to astonish: to adapt to electricity as the motive power:--_pa.p._ elec'trified.--_n._ ELEC'TRISATION.--_v.t._ ELEC'TR[=I]SE, to electrify.--_ns._ ELEC'TRODE, either of the poles of a galvanic battery; ELEC'TROLIER, a device for suspending a group of incandescent lamps; ELEC'TRUM, amber: an alloy of gold and silver.--ELECTRIC RAILWAY, a railway on which electricity is the motive-power; ELECTRIC SPARK, one of the forms in which accumulated electricity discharges itself; ELECTRIC STORM, a violent disturbance in the electrical condition of the earth. [L. _electrum_--Gr. _elektron_, amber, in which electricity was first observed.]

ELECTRO-BIOLOGY, e-lek'tro-b[=i]-ol'o-ji, _n._ the science which treats of the electricity developed in living organisms: that view of animal magnetism according to which the actions, feelings, &c. of a person are controlled by the will of the operator.--_adj._ ELEC'TRO-BALLIS'TIC, of an apparatus for determining by electricity the velocity of a projectile.--_ns._ ELEC'TRO-BIOL'OGIST; ELEC'TRO-CHEM'ISTRY, that branch of chemical science which treats of the agency of electricity in effecting chemical changes.--_v.t._ ELEC'TROCUTE, to inflict a death penalty by means of electricity.--_ns._ ELECTROC[=U]'TION, capital punishment by electricity; ELEC'TRO-DYNAM'ICS, the branch of physics which treats of the action of electricity; ELEC'TRO-DYNAMOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the strength of electro-dynamic action; ELEC'TRO-ENGRAV'ING, an etching process in which the etched plate is placed in an electro-bath to deepen the 'bite;' ELEC'TRO-GILD'ING, electroplating with gold; ELEC'TRO-KINET'ICS, that branch of science which treats of electricity in motion; ELECTROL'OGY, the science of applied electricity.--_v.t._ ELEC'TROLYSE, to subject to electrolysis.--_ns._ ELECTROL'YSIS, the process of chemical decomposition by electricity; ELEC'TROLYTE, a body which admits of electrolysis.--_adj._ ELECTROLYT'IC.--_n._ ELEC'TRO-MAG'NET, a piece of soft iron rendered magnetic by a current of electricity passing through a coil of wire wound round it.--_adj._ ELEC'TRO-MAGNET'IC.--_ns._ ELEC'TRO-MAG'NETISM, a branch of science which treats of the relation of electricity to magnetism; ELEC'TRO-MET'ALLURGY, a name given to certain processes by which electricity is applied to the working of metals, as in electroplating and electrotyping; ELECTROM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the quantity of electricity.--_adjs._ ELECTROMET'RIC, -AL, pertaining to the measurement of electricity.--_ns._ ELECTROM'ETRY, the science of electrical measurements; ELEC'TRO-M[=O]'TION, the passage of an electric current in a voltaic circuit: motion produced by electricity employed as power.--_adjs._ ELEC'TRO-M[=O]'TIVE, pertaining to the motion of electricity or the laws governing it.--_n._ ELEC'TRO-M[=O]'TOR, an apparatus for applying electricity as a motive-power.--_adj._ ELEC'TRO-NEG'ATIVE, appearing, as an element in electrolysis, at the positive electrode: having the property of becoming negatively electrified by contact with a dissimilar substance.--_ns._ ELEC'TROPH[=O]NE, an instrument for producing sounds resembling trumpet-tones by electric currents of high tension; ELECTROPH'ORUS, an instrument for obtaining statical electricity by means of induction; ELEC'TRO-PHYSIOL'OGY, the study of the electric phenomena of living organisms.--_v.t._ ELEC'TROPLATE, to plate or cover with silver by electrolysis.--_n._ ELEC'TROPLATING.--_adjs._ ELEC'TRO-P[=O]'LAR, having, as an electrical conductor, one end or surface positive and the other negative; ELEC'TRO-POS'ITIVE, attracted by bodies negatively electrified, or by the negative pole of a voltaic battery: assuming positive potential when in contact with another substance.--_ns._ ELEC'TROSCOPE, an instrument for detecting the presence of electricity in a body and the nature of it; ELEC'TRO-STAT'ICS, that branch of science which treats of electricity at rest; ELEC'TRO-TINT, a style of etching by means of galvanism; ELEC'TROTYPE, the art of copying an engraving or type on a metal deposited by electricity.--_adj._ ELECTROTYP'IC.--_ns._ ELEC'TROTYPIST; ELEC'TROTYPY, the art of copying.--_adj._ ELEC'TRO-V[=I]'TAL, electrical and dependent upon vital processes.

ELECTUARY, e-lek't[=u]-ar-i, _n._ a composition of medicinal powders with honey or sugar. [Low L. _electuarium_--Gr. _ekleikton_--_ekleichein_, to lick up.]

ELECTRON. See page 1208.

ELEEMOSYNARY, el-e-mos'i-nar-i, _adj._ relating to charity or almsgiving: dependent on charity: given in charity. [Gr. _ele[=e]mosyn[=e]_, compassionateness, alms--_eleos_, pity. See ALMS.]

ELEGANT, el'e-gant, _adj._ pleasing to good taste: graceful: neat: refined: nice: richly ornamental.--_ns._ EL'EGANCE, EL'EGANCY, the state or quality of being elegant: the beauty of propriety: refinement: that which is elegant; ELEGANTE (el-e-gangt'), a lady of fashion.--_adv._ EL'EGANTLY.

[Fr.,--L. _elegans_, _-antis_--_e_, out, and root of _leg[)e]re_, to choose.]

ELEGY, el'e-ji, _n._ a song of mourning: a funeral-song: a poem written in elegiac metre.--_adj._ ELEG[=I]'AC, belonging to elegy: mournful: used in elegies, esp. noting the kind of metre, alternate hexameter and pentameter lines.--_n._ elegiac verse.--_adj._ ELEG[=I]'ACAL.--_ns._ EL[=E]'GIAST, EL'EGIST, a writer of elegies.--_v.i._ EL'EG[=I]SE, to write an elegy.--_v.t._ to write an elegy on. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _elegos_, a lament.]

ELEMENT, el'e-ment, _n._ a first principle: one of the essential parts of anything: an ingredient: the proper state or sphere of any thing or being: (_pl._) the rudiments of learning: the bread and wine used in the Eucharist: fire, air, earth, and water, supposed by the ancients to be the foundation of everything: (_chem._) the simplest known constituents of all compound substances: (_astron._) those numerical quantities, and those principles deduced from astronomical observations and calculations, which are employed in the construction of tables exhibiting the planetary motions.--_adj._ ELEMENT'AL, pertaining to elements or first principles: fundamental: belonging to or produced by elements.--_n._ ELEMENT'ALISM, the theory which resolves the divinities of antiquity into the elemental powers.--_adv._ ELEMENT'ALLY.--_adj._ ELEMENT'ARY, of a single element: primary: uncompounded: pertaining to the elements: treating of first principles.--ELEMENTAL SPIRITS, beings in medieval belief who presided over the four 'elements,' living in and ruling them. [Fr.,--L. _elementum_, pl.

_elementa_, first principles.]

ELEMI, el'em-i, _n._ a fragrant resinous substance, obtained from the Manila pitch-tree, Arbol de la Brea.--_n._ EL'EMIN, the crystallisable portion of elemi. [Cf. Fr. _elemi_, Sp. _elemi_; perh. Ar.]

ELENCH, e-lengk', ELENCHUS, e-lengk'us, _n._ refutation: a sophism.--_adjs._ ELENCH'IC, -AL, ELENC'TIC. [L.,--Gr.

_elengchos_--_elengchein_, to refute.]

ELEPHANT, el'e-fant, _n._ the largest quadruped, having a very thick skin, a trunk, and two ivory tusks: a special size of paper.--_ns._ ELEPHAN'TIAC, one affected with elephantiasis; ELEPHANT[=I]'ASIS, a disease chiefly of tropical climates, consisting of an overgrowth of the skin and connective tissue of the parts affected, with occasional attacks of inflammation resembling erysipelas.--_adjs._ ELEPHANT'INE, pertaining to an elephant: like an elephant: very large or ungainly; ELEPHANT'OID, elephant-like.--_ns._ EL'EPHANT-SEAL, the largest of the seals, the male measuring about 20 feet in length; EL'EPHANT'S-FOOT, a plant of which the root-stock forms a large fleshy mass resembling an elephant's foot, used as food by the Hottentots; EL'EPHANT-SHREW, name applied to a number of long-nosed, long-legged Insectivora, natives of Africa, and notable for their agile jumping over loose sand.--A WHITE ELEPHANT, a gift which occasions the recipient more trouble than it is worth--a white elephant being a common gift of the kings of Siam to a courtier they wished to ruin.

[M. E. _olifaunt_--O. Fr. _olifant_--L. _elephantum_, _elephas_, _-antis_--Gr. _elephas_, acc. to some from Heb. _eleph_, _aleph_, an ox.]

ELEUSINIAN, el-[=u]-sin'i-an, _adj._ relating to _Eleusis_ in Attica.--ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES, the mysteries of Demeter celebrated at Eleusis.

ELEUTHERIAN, el-[=u]-th[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ bountiful.

ELEUTHEROMANIA, el-[=u]th-er-o-m[=a]'ni-a, _n._ mad zeal for freedom.--_n._ ELEUTHEROM[=A]'NIAC (_Carlyle_), one possessed with such. [Formed from Gr.

_eleutheros_, free, and _mania_.]

ELEVATE, el'e-v[=a]t, _v.t._ to raise to a higher position: to raise in mind and feelings: to improve: to cheer: to exhilarate: to intoxicate.--_p.adjs._ EL'EVATE, -D, raised: dignified: exhilarated.--_ns._ ELEV[=A]'TION, the act of elevating or raising, or the state of being raised: exaltation: an elevated place or station: a rising ground: height: (_archit._) a representation of the flat side of a building, drawn with mathematical accuracy, but without any attention to effect: (_astron._, _geog._) the height above the horizon of an object on the sphere, measured by the arc of a vertical circle through it and the zenith: (_gun._) the angle made by the line of direction of a gun with the plane of the horizon; EL'EVATOR, the person or thing that lifts up: a lift or machine for raising grain, &c., to a higher floor: a muscle raising a part of the body.--_adj._ EL'EVATORY, able or tending to raise. [L. _elev[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, out, up, _lev[=a]re_, to raise--_levis_, light. See LIGHT (2).]

ELeVE, [=a]-lev', _n._ a pupil. [Fr.]

ELEVEN, e-lev'n, _n._ the cardinal number next above ten: the figure (11 or xi.) denoting eleven: a team of eleven cricketers.--_adj._ noting the number eleven.--_adj._ and _n._ ELEV'ENTH, the ordinal number corresponding to eleven.--ELEVENTH HOUR, the very last moment, referring to Matt. xx. 6, 9. [A.S. _endleofon_; cf. Goth. _ainlif_.]

ELF, elf, _n._ in European folklore, a supernatural being, generally of human form but diminutive size, more malignant than a fairy: a dwarf: a tricky being:--(_pl._) ELVES.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) of the hair, to entangle.--_n._ ELF'-CHILD, a changeling, or a child supposed to have been left by elves in place of one stolen by them.--_adj._ ELF'IN, of or relating to elves.--_n._ a little elf: a child.--_adjs._ ELF'ISH, ELV'AN, ELV'ISH, elf-like, mischievous: tricky: disguised.--_n._ ELF'-LAND, the land of the elves or ELF'-LOCKS (_Shak._) locks of hair clotted together, supposed to have been done by elves.--_ns._ ELF'-SHOT, ELF'-BOLT, ELF'-AR'ROW, an arrow-head of flint or stone. [A.S. _aelf_; cf.

Ice. _alfr_, Sw. _elf_.]

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