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FIORITE, f[=i]-[=o]'r[=i]t, _n._ a kind of siliceous incrustation found in the vicinity of volcanoes and hot springs. [From Santa _Fiore_ in Tuscany.]

FIR, f[.e]r, _n._ the name of several species of cone-bearing, resinous trees, valuable for their timber.--_adj._ FIR'RY, abounding in firs. [A.S.

_furh_ (_wudu_); cf. Ger. _fohre_.]

FIRE, f[=i]r, _n._ the heat and light caused by burning: flame: anything burning, as fuel in a grate, &c.: a conflagration: torture or death by burning: severe trial: anything inflaming or provoking: ardour of passion: vigour: brightness of fancy: enthusiasm: sexual passion.--_v.t._ to set on fire: to inflame: to irritate: to animate: to cause the explosion of: to discharge.--_v.i._ to take fire: to be or become irritated or inflamed: to discharge firearms.--_n._ FIRE'-ALARM', an alarm of fire, an apparatus for giving FIRE'ARMS, arms or weapons which are discharged by fire exploding gunpowder.--_ns._ FIRE'-AR'ROW, a small iron dart or arrow furnished with a combustible for setting fire to ships; FIRE'BALL, a ball filled with combustibles to be thrown among enemies: a meteor; FIRE'-BALLOON', a balloon carrying a fire placed in the lower part for rarefying the air to make itself buoyant: a balloon sent up arranged to ignite at a certain height; FIRE'-BAS'KET, a portable grate for a bedroom; FIRE'-BLAST, a blast or blight affecting plants, in which they appear as if scorched by the sun; FIRE'-BOAT, a steamboat fitted up to extinguish fires in docks; FIRE'BOX, the box or chamber (usually copper) of a steam-engine, in which the fire is placed; FIRE'BRAND, a brand or piece of wood on fire: one who inflames the passions of others; FIRE'BRICK, a brick so made as to resist the action of fire, used for lining furnaces, &c.; FIRE'-BRIGADE', a brigade or company of men for extinguishing fires or conflagrations; FIRE'-BUCK'ET, a bucket for carrying water to extinguish a fire; FIRE'CLAY, a kind of clay, capable of resisting fire, used in making firebricks; FIRE'COCK, a cock or spout to let out water for extinguishing fires; FIRE'DAMP, a gas, carburetted hydrogen, in coal-mines, apt to take fire and explode when mixed with atmospheric air; FIRE'-DOG (same as ANDIRON); FIRE'-DRAKE, a fiery meteor, a kind of firework; FIRE'-EAT'ER, a juggler who pretends to eat fire: one given to needless quarrelling, a professed duellist; FIRE'-EN'GINE, an engine or forcing-pump used to extinguish fires with water; FIRE'-ESCAPE', a machine used to enable people to escape from fires.--_adj._ FIRE'-EYED (_Shak._), having fiery eyes.--_ns._ FIRE'-FLAG (_Coleridge_), FIRE'FLAUGHT (_Swinburne_), a flash of lightning; FIRE'-FLY, a name applied to many phosphorescent insects, all included with the _Coleoptera_ or beetles, some giving forth a steady light, others flashing light intermittently (glow-worms, &c.); FIRE'-GUARD, a framework of wire placed in front of a FIRE'-[=I]'RONS, the irons--poker, tongs, and shovel--used for a fire.--_ns._ FIRE'LIGHT'ER, a composition of pitch and sawdust, or the like, for kindling fires; FIRE'LOCK, a gun in which the fire is caused by a lock with steel and flint; FIRE'MAN, a man whose business it is to assist in extinguishing fires: a man who tends the fires, as of a steam-engine; FIRE'-MAS'TER, the chief of a fire-brigade.--_adj._ FIRE'-NEW, new from the fire: brand new: bright.--_ns._ FIRE'-PAN, a pan or metal vessel for holding fire; FIRE'PLACE, the place in a house appropriated to the fire: a hearth; FIRE'PLUG, a plug placed in a pipe which supplies water in case of fire; FIRE'-POL'ICY, a written instrument of insurance against fire up to a certain amount; FIRE'-POT, an earthen pot filled with combustibles, used in military operations.--_adj._ FIRE'PROOF, proof against fire.--_ns._ FIRE'-PROOFING, the act of rendering anything fireproof: the materials used; FIR'ER, an incendiary; FIRE'-RAIS'ING, the crime of arson.--_adj._ FIRE'-ROBED (_Shak._), robed in fire.--_ns._ FIRE'-SCREEN, a screen for intercepting the heat of the fire; FIRE'-SHIP, a ship filled with combustibles, to set an enemy's vessels on fire; FIRE'SIDE, the side of the fireplace: the hearth: home.--_adj._ homely, intimate.--_ns._ FIRE'-STICK, the implement used by many primitive peoples for obtaining fire by friction; FIRE'STONE, a kind of sandstone that bears a high degree of heat; FIRE'-WA'TER, ardent spirits; FIRE'WOOD, wood for FIRE'WORKS, artificial works or preparations of gunpowder, sulphur, &c., to be fired chiefly for display or amusement.--_ns._ FIRE'-WOR'SHIP, the worship of fire, chiefly by the Parsees in Persia and India; FIRE'-WOR'SHIPPER; FIR'ING, a putting fire to: discharge of guns: firewood: fuel: cauterisation; FIR'ING-PAR'TY, a detachment told off to fire over the grave of one buried with military honours, or to shoot one sentenced to death; FIR'ING-POINT, the temperature at which an inflammable oil will take fire spontaneously.--FIRE OFF, to discharge a shot; FIRE OUT (_Shak._), to expel; FIRE UP, to start a fire: to fly into a passion.--SET THE THAMES ON FIRE, to do something striking; TAKE FIRE, to begin to burn: to become aroused about something. [A.S. _fr_; Ger. _feuer_; Gr. _pyr_.]

FIRK, f[.e]rk, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to whip or beat: to rouse.

FIRKIN, f[.e]r'kin, _n._ a measure equal to the fourth part of a barrel: 9 gallons: 56 lb. of butter. [With dim. suff. _-kin_, from Old Dut. _vierde_, fourth.]

FIRLOT, f[.e]r'lot, _n._ an old Scotch dry measure, the fourth part of a boll.

FIRM, f[.e]rm, _adj._ fixed: compact: strong: not easily moved or disturbed: unshaken: resolute: decided.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to fix, establish, confirm.--_adj._ FIRM'LESS, wavering.--_adv._ FIRM'LY.--_n._ FIRM'NESS. [O.

Fr. _ferme_--L. _firmus_.]

FIRM, f[.e]rm, _n._ the title under which a company transacts business: a business house or partnership. [It. _firma_, from L. _firmus_. See FARM.]

FIRMAMENT, f[.e]r'ma-ment, _n._ the solid sphere in which the stars were thought to be fixed: the sky.--_adj._ FIRMAMENT'AL, pertaining to the firmament: celestial. [Fr.,--L. _firmamentum_--_firmus_, firm.]

FIRMAN, f[.e]r'man, or fer-man', _n._ any decree emanating from the Turkish government. [Pers. _ferman_; Sans. _pramana_, command.]

FIRN, firn, or fern, _n._ snow on high glaciers while still granular--the French _neve_. [Ger. _firn_, of last year; cf. obs. Eng. _fern_, former.]

FIRST, f[.e]rst, _adj._ foremost: preceding all others in place, time, or degree: most eminent: chief.--_adv._ before anything else, in time, space, rank, &c.--_adjs._ FIRST'-BEGOT'TEN, begotten or born first: eldest; FIRST'-BORN, born first.--_n._ the first in the order of birth: the eldest child.--_adj._ FIRST'-CLASS, of the first class, rank, or quality.--_ns._ FIRST'-DAY, Sunday; FIRST'-FLOOR (see FLOOR); FIRST'-FOOT (_Scot._), the first person to enter a house after the beginning of the new year; FIRST'-FRUIT, FIRST'-FRUITS, the fruits first gathered in a season: the first profits or effects of anything, bishoprics, benefices, &c.--_adj._ FIRST'-HAND, obtained without the intervention of a second party.--_n._ FIRST'LING, the first produce or offspring, esp. of animals.--_adv._ FIRST'LY, in the first place.--_adjs._ FIRST'-RATE, of the first or highest rate or excellence: pre-eminent in quality, size, or estimation; FIRST'-WA'TER, the first or highest quality, purest lustre--of diamonds and pearls. [A.S. _fyrst_; the superl. of _fore_ by adding _-st_.]

FIRTH, f[.e]rth. Same as FRITH.

FISC, fisk, _n._ the state treasury: the public revenue: one's purse.--_adj._ FISC'AL, pertaining to the public treasury or revenue.--_n._ a treasurer: a public prosecutor, the chief law officer of the crown under the Holy Roman Empire: (_Scot._) an officer who prosecutes in petty criminal cases--fully, _Procurator-fiscal_. [O. Fr.,--L. _fiscus_, a purse.]



FISH, fish, _n._ a vertebrate that lives in water, and breathes through gills: the flesh of fish: a piece of wood fixed alongside another for strengthening:--_pl._ FISH, or FISH'ES.--_v.t._ to search for fish: to search by sweeping: to draw out or up: (_naut._) to strengthen, as a weak spar: to hoist the flukes of: to seek to obtain by artifice.--_ns._ FISH'-BALL, -CAKE, a ball of chopped fish and mashed potatoes, fried.--_adj._ FISH'-BELL'IED, swelled out downward like the belly of a fish.--_ns._ FISH'-CARV'ER, a large flat implement for carving fish at table--also _Fish'-knife_, _Fish'-slice_, and _Fish'-trow'el_; FISH'-COOP, a square box with a hole in its bottom, used in fishing through a hole in the ice; FISH'-CREEL, an angler's basket, a wicker-basket used for carrying fish; FISH'-DAY, a day on which fish is eaten instead of meat; FISH'ER, one who fishes, or whose occupation is to catch fish: a North American carnivore--a kind of marten or sable, the pekan or wood-shock; FISH'ERMAN, a fisher; FISH'ERY, the business of catching fish: a place for catching fish; FISH'-FAG, a woman who sells fish; FISH'-GARTH, an enclosure on a river for the preserving or taking of fish--also FISH'-WEIR; FISH'-GOD, a deity in form wholly or partly like a fish, like the Philistine Dagon; FISH'-HOOK, a barbed hook for catching fish.--_v.t._ FISH'IFY (_Shak._), to turn to fish.--_n._ FISH'INESS.--_adj._ FISH'ING, used in fishery.--_n._ the art or practice of catching fish.--_ns._ FISH'ING-FROG, the angler-fish; FISH'ING-ROD, a long slender rod to which a line is fastened for angling; FISH'ING-TACK'LE, tackle--nets, lines, &c.--used in fishing; FISH'-JOINT, a joint or splice made with fish-plates; FISH'-KETT'LE, a long oval dish for boiling fish; FISH'-LADD'ER, FISH'-WAY, an arrangement for enabling a fish to ascend a fall, &c.; FISH'-LOUSE, a name widely applied to any of the Copepod crustaceans which occur as external parasites, both on fresh-water and marine fishes; FISH'-MEAL (_Shak._), a meal of fish: abstemious diet; FISH'MONGER, a dealer in fish; FISH'-PACK'ING, the process of packing or canning fish for the market; FISH'-PLATE, an iron plate fitted to the web of a rail, used in pairs, one on each side of the junction of two rails; FISH'-POND, a pond in which fish are kept; FISH'-SALES'MAN, one who receives consignments of fish for sale by auction to retail dealers; FISH'-SAUCE, sauce proper to be eaten with fish, as anchovy, &c.; FISH'-SCRAP, fish or fish-skins from which oil or glue has been extracted; FISH'-SPEAR, a spear or dart for striking fish; FISH'-STRAIN'ER, a metal colander for taking fish from a boiler.--_adj._ FISH'-TAIL, shaped like the tail of a fish.--_ns._ FISH'-TORP[=E]'DO, a self-propelling torpedo; FISH'-WIFE, FISH'-WOM'AN, a woman who sells fish about the streets.--_adj._ FISH'Y, consisting of fish: like a fish: abounding in fish: dubious, as a story: equivocal, unsafe.--_ns._ BAIT'-FISH, such fish as are used for bait, fish that may be caught with bait; BOTT'OM-FISH, those that feed on the bottom, as halibut, &c.--FISH FOR, to seek to gain by cunning or indirect means; FISHERMAN'S LUCK, getting wet and catching no fish; FISHERMAN'S RING, a signet-ring with the device of St Peter fishing, used in signing papal briefs.--A QUEER FISH, a person of odd habits; BE NEITHER FISH NOR FLESH, or NEITHER FISH, FLESH, NOR FOWL, to be neither one thing nor another, in principle, &c.; HAVE OTHER FISH TO FRY, to have something else to do, or to take up one's mind; MAKE FISH OF ONE AND FLESH (or FOWL) OF ANOTHER, to make invidious distinctions, show undue partiality. [A.S. _fisc_; Ger. _fisch_; Ice.

_fiskr_; L. _piscis_; Gr. _ichthys_; Gael. _iasg_.]

FISKERY, fisk'er-i, _n._ (_Carlyle_) friskiness.--_v.i._ FISK (_obs._), to jump about. [Prob. a freq. of A.S. _fsan_, to hurry, or of _fesian_, to feeze; Sw. _fjaska_, to fidget.]

FISSILE, fis'il, _adj._ that may be cleft or split in the direction of the grain.--_adjs._ FISSICOS'TATE, having the ribs divided; FISSILING'UAL, having the tongue cleft.--_ns._ FISSIL'ITY, cleavableness; FIS'SION, a cleaving or breaking up into two parts.--_adj._ FISS'IVE. [L. _fissilis_, from _find[)e]re_, _fissum_, to cleave.]

FISSIPAROUS, fis-sip'a-rus, _adj._ propagated by spontaneous fission or self-division.--_ns._ FISSIP'ARISM, FISSIPA'RITY.--_adv._ FISSIP'AROUSLY.

[L. _fissus_, pa.p. of _find[)e]re_, to cleave, _par[)e]re_, to bring forth.]

FISSIPED, fis'i-ped, _adj._ cloven-footed--also _n._

FISSIROSTRAL, fis-i-ros'tral, _adj._ having a deeply cleft or gaping beak, as swallows, &c. [L. _fissus_, cleft, _rostrum_, a beak.]

FISSLE, fis'l, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to rustle: to whistle.

FISSURE, fish'[=u]r, _n._ a narrow opening or chasm: a cleft, slit, or furrow: any groove or sulcus, esp. one of the furrows on the surface of the brain, as the longitudinal fissure separating the hemispheres.--_adj._ FISS'[=U]RED, cleft, divided. [Fr.,--L. _fiss[=u]ra_, from _find[)e]re_, _fissum_, to cleave.]

FIST, fist, _n._ the closed or clenched hand.--_v.t._ to strike or grip with the fist.--_n._ FISTI[=A]'NA, anecdotes about boxing and boxers.--_adj._ FIST'IC (_Dickens_), pugilistic.--_ns._ FIST'ICUFF, a blow with the fist: (_pl._) boxing, blows; FIST'-LAW, the law of brute force.--_adj._ FIST'Y. [A.S. _fst_; Ger. _faust_.]

FISTULA, fist'[=u]-la, _n._ a narrow passage or duct: the tube through which the wine of the eucharist was once sucked from the chalice--also _Calamus_.--_adjs._ FIST'ULAR, hollow like a pipe; FIST'ULATE, -D, hollowed like a fistula.--_v.i._ FIST'ULATE, to assume such a form.--_adjs._ FIST'ULIFORM; FIST'ULOSE, FIST'ULOUS, of the form of a fistula. [L.

_fistula_, a pipe.]

FIT, fit, _adj._ adapted to any particular end or standard, prepared for: qualified: convenient: proper: properly trained and ready, as for a race.--_v.t._ to make fit or suitable: to suit one thing to another: to be adapted to: to qualify.--_v.i._ to be suitable or becoming:--_pr.p._ fit'ting; _pa.p._ fit'ted.--_advs._ FIT'LIEST (_Milt._), most fitly; FIT'LY.--_ns._ FIT'MENT (_Shak._), something fitted to an end; FIT'NESS; FIT'TER, he who, or that which, makes fit.--_adj._ FIT'TING, fit: appropriate.--_n._ anything used in fitting up, esp. in _pl._--_adv._ FIT'TINGLY.--_ns._ FIT'TING-OUT, a supply of things, fit and necessary; FIT'TING-SHOP, a shop in which pieces of machinery are fitted together.--FIT OUT, to furnish, supply with stores, as a ship; FIT UP, to provide with things suitable.--NOT FIT TO HOLD A CANDLE TO (see CANDLE).

[First recorded about 1440; app. cog. with FIT, _n._]

FIT, fit, _n._ a sudden attack by convulsions, as apoplexy, epilepsy, &c.: convulsion or paroxysm: a temporary attack of anything, as laughter, &c.: a sudden effort or motion: a passing humour.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to wrench, as by a fit.--_adj._ FIT'FUL, marked by sudden impulses: spasmodic.--_adv._ FIT'FULLY.--_n._ FIT'FULNESS.--FIT OF THE FACE, a grimace; FITS AND STARTS, spasmodic and irregular bursts of activity; BY FITS, irregularly. [A.S.

_fitt_, a struggle--prob. orig. 'juncture,' 'meeting;' cf. Ice. _fitja_, to knit, Dut. _vitten_, to accommodate.]

FIT, fit, _n._ a song, or part of a song or ballad.--Also FITT, FITTE, FYTTE. [A.S. _fitt_, a song.]

FITCH, fich, _n._ now _vetch_: (_B._) Isa. xxviii. 25, black cummin (_Nigella sativa_): in Ezek. iv. 9, a kind of bearded wheat, spelt. [See VETCH.]

FITCHe, FITCHeE, fich'[=a], _adj._ (_her._) cut to a point. [Fr. _ficher_, to fix.]

FITCHEW, fich'[=oo], _n._ a polecat.--Also FITCH'ET. [O. Fr. _fissel_, from root of Dut. _visse_, nasty.]

FITZ, fits, _n._ (a prefix) son of: used in England, esp. of the illegitimate sons of kings and princes, as _Fitzclarence_, &c. [Norman Fr.

_fiz_ (Fr. _fils_)--L. _filius_.]

FIVE, f[=i]v, _adj._ and _n._ four and one.--_n._ FIVE'-FING'ER, a name for various plants (cinque-foil, oxlip, &c.): a species of starfish.--_adj._ FIVE'FOLD, five times folded, or repeated in fives.--_ns._ FIV'ER (_coll._), a five-pound note; FIVE'-SQUARE (_B._), having five corners or angles.--FIVE ARTICLES, FIVE POINTS, statements of the distinctive doctrines of the Arminians and Calvinists respectively--the former promulgated in 1610, the latter sustained by the Synod of Dort in 1619 (see CALVINISM).--BUNCH OF FIVES, the fist. [A.S. _fif_; Ger. _funf_; Goth.

_fimf_; W. _pump_; L. _quinque_; Gr. _pente_, _pempe_; Sans. _pancha_.]

FIVES, f[=i]vz, _n._ (_Shak._) vives, a disease of horses.

FIVES, f[=i]vz, a game of handball played in a roomy court against a wall, chiefly at the great public schools of England.

FIX, fiks, _v.t._ to make firm or fast: to establish: to drive into: to settle: to put into permanent form: to establish as a fact: to direct steadily: to regulate: to deprive of volatility.--_v.i._ to settle or remain permanently: to become firm: to congeal.--_n._ (_coll._) a difficulty: a dilemma.--_adj._ FIX'ABLE, capable of being fixed.--_ns._ FIX[=A]'TION, act of fixing, or state of being fixed: steadiness, firmness: state in which a body does not evaporate; FIX'ATIVE, that which fixes or sets colours; FIX'ATURE, a gummy preparation for fixing the hair.--_adj._ FIXED, settled: not apt to evaporate: steadily directed towards: fast, lasting, permanent: substantively for fixed stars (_Par. Lost_, III.

481).--_adv._ FIX'EDLY.--_ns._ FIX'EDNESS; FIX'ER; FIXID'ITY, FIX'ITY, FIX'INGS, things needed for putting in order, arrangement.--_adj._ FIX'IVE.--_ns._ FIX'TURE, a movable that has become fastened to anything, as to land or to a house: a fixed article of furniture: a fixed or appointed time or event, as a horse-race; FIX'URE (_Shak._), stability, position, firmness.--FIXED AIR, the name given by Dr Joseph Black in 1756 to what in 1784 was named by Lavoisier carbonic acid; FIXED BODIES (_chem._), a term applied to those substances which remain fixed, and are not volatilised at moderately high temperatures; FIXED OILS, those which, on the application of heat, do not volatilise without decomposition; FIXED STARS, stars which appear always to occupy the same position in the heavens--opp. to _Planets_. [L., _fixus_, _fig[)e]re_, to fix, prob. through O. Fr. _fix_, or Low L. _fix[=a]re_.]

FIZGIG, fiz'gig, _n._ a giddy girl: a firework of damp powder: a gimcrack: a crotchet.--Also FIS'GIG.

FIZZ, fiz, _v.i._ to make a hissing or sputtering sound.--_n._ any frothy drink, as soda-water, or esp. champagne.--_adj._ FIZ'ZENLESS (_Scot._), pithless--also F[=U]'SIONLESS.--_v.i._ FIZ'ZLE, to hiss or sputter: to come to a sudden stop, to fail disgracefully.--_n._ a state of agitation or worry: an abortive effort.--_adj._ FIZ'ZY, given to fizz. [Formed from the sound.]

FLABBERGAST, flab'[.e]rgast, _v.t._ (_coll._) to stun, confound. [Prob.

conn. with _flabby_, and _gast_, to astonish.]

FLABBY, flab'i, _adj._ easily moved: soft, yielding: hanging loose.--_n._ FLABB'INESS. [From _flap_.]

FLABELLATE, fla-bel'[=a]t, _adj._ fan-shaped--also FLABELL'IFORM.--_ns._ FLABELL[=A]'TION, the action of fanning; FLAB'ELLUM (_eccles._), a fan, anciently used to drive away flies from the chalice during the celebration of the eucharist. [L., a fan.]

FLACCID, flak'sid, _adj._ flabby: lax: easily yielding to pressure: soft and weak.--_adv._ FLAC'CIDLY.--_ns._ FLAC'CIDNESS, FLACCID'ITY, want of firmness. [Fr.,--L. _flaccidus_--_flaccus_, flabby.]

FLACK, flak, _v.i._ (_prov._), to flap, flutter.--_v.t._ to flap or flick with something.

FLACKER, flak'[.e]r, _v.i._ (_prov._) to flap, flutter.

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