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MASSAGE, ma-sazh', _n._ in medicine, a system of treatment in which the manipulation and exercise of parts (_passive movement_) are employed for the relief of morbid conditions--by stroking, pressing, tapping, kneading, friction with kneading, &c.--_v.t._ to subject to massage.--_ns._ MASSA'GIST, MASSEUR':--_fem._ MASSEUSE'. [Fr., from Gr. _massein_, to knead.]

MASSE, ma-s[=a]', _n._ in billiards, a sharp stroke made with the cue perpendicular or nearly so. [Fr.]

MASSETER, mas-[=e]'t[.e]r, _n._ a muscle which raises the under jaw, and thus closes the mouth. [Gr. _mas[=e]t[=e]r_--_masasthai_, to chew.]

MASSICOT, mas'i-kot, _n._ protoxide of lead or yellow oxide of lead. [Fr.]

MASSIF, ma-s[=e]f, _n._ a central mountain-mass; an orographic fault-block.


MASSORAH, MASORA, mas'[=o]-ra, _n._ the tradition by which Jewish scholars tried to preserve the text of the Old Testament--a collection of critical notes on the text of the Old Testament, first committed to writing in Tiberias between the 6th and 9th cent. A.D.--the _Great Massorah_ was finally arranged about the 11th century; the _Small Massorah_ is an extract therefrom.--_ns._ MASS'ORETE, MASS'ORITE.--_adjs._ MASSORET'IC, MASORET'IC.--MASSORETIC POINTS and ACCENTS, the vowel-points in Hebrew furnished by the Massorah. [Heb., 'tradition.']

MAST, mast, _n._ a long upright pole for bearing the yards, rigging, &c. in a ship.--_v.t._ to supply with a mast or masts.--_adj._ MAST'ED.--_n._ MAST'-HEAD, the head or top of the mast of a ship.--_v.t._ to raise to the mast-head: to punish by sending a sailor to the mast-head for a certain time.--_n._ MAST'-HOUSE, the place in dockyards where masts are made.--_adj._ MAST'LESS, having no mast. [A.S. _maest_, the stem of a tree; Ger. _mast_.]

MAST, mast, _n._ the fruit of the oak, beech, chestnut, and other forest trees, on which swine feed: nuts, acorns.--_adjs._ MAST'FUL; MAST'LESS; MAST'Y. [A.S. _maest_; Ger. _mast_, whence _masten_, to feed.]

MASTER, mas't[.e]r, _n._ one who commands: a lord or owner: a leader or ruler: a teacher: an employer: the commander of a merchant-ship: formerly the navigator or sailing-master of a ship-of-war: one eminently skilled in anything: the common title of address to a young gentleman, &c.: a title of dignity or office--a degree conferred by universities, as _Master of Arts_, &c., the title of the eldest son of a Scotch viscount or baron, the head of some corporations, as Balliol College, &c., of a lodge of freemasons, &c.: a husband.--_adj._ the chief, predominant: belonging to a master, chief, principal, as in _Master-builder_, &c.--_v.t._ to become master of: to overcome: to become skilful in: to execute with skill.--_ns._ MAS'TER-BUILD'ER, a chief builder, one who directs or employs others; MAS'TERDOM, power of control.--_adj._ MAS'TERFUL, exercising the authority or power of a master: imperious: having the skill of a master.--_adv._ MAS'TERFULLY, in a masterful or imperious manner.--_ns._ MAS'TERFULNESS; MAS'TER-HAND, the hand of a master: a person highly skilled; MAS'TERHOOD; MAS'TER-JOINT, the most marked system of joints or divisional planes by which a rock is intersected; MAS'TERKEY, a key that opens many locks: a clue fitted to guide one out of many difficulties.--_adj._ MAS'TERLESS, without a master or owner: ungoverned: unsubdued: beyond control.--_n._ MAS'TERLINESS, quality of being masterly: masterly skill.--_adj._ MAS'TERLY, like a master: with the skill of a master: skilful: excellent: overbearing.--_adv._ with the skill of a master.--_ns._ MAS'TER-MAR'INER, the captain of a merchant-vessel or fishing-vessel; MAS'TER-M[=A]'SON, a freemason who has attained the third degree; MAS'TER-MIND; MAS'TER-PASS'ION; MAS'TERPIECE, a piece of work worthy of a master: a work of superior skill: chief excellence; MAS'TERSHIP, the office of master: rule or dominion: superiority; MAS'TERSTROKE, a stroke or performance worthy of a master: superior performance; MAS'TER-WHEEL, the wheel in a machine which imparts motion to other parts; MAS'TER-WORK, work worthy of a master: masterpiece; MAS'TERWORT, a perennial umbelliferous herb, native to northern Europe, its root reputed as a stomachic, sudorific, diuretic, &c.; MAS'TERY, the power or authority of a master: dominion: victory: superiority: the attainment of superior power or skill.--MASTER OF CEREMONIES, OF THE ROLLS, &c. (see CEREMONIES, ROLLS, &c.); MASTER OF THE HORSE, the Roman _Magister Equitum_, an official appointed by the dictator to act next under himself: an equerry, esp. the exalted official bearing this name at the British court; MASTER OF THE TEMPLE, the preacher of the Temple Church in London; MASTERS OF THE SCHOOLS, at Oxford, the conductors of the first examination (_Responsions_) for the degree of B.A.--MASTERLY INACTIVITY, the position or part of a neutral or a Fabian combatant, carried out with diplomatic skill, so as to preserve a predominant influence without risking anything.--PASSED, or PAST, MASTER, one who has occupied the office of master, esp. among freemasons--hence any one known to possess ample knowledge of some subject; THE LITTLE MASTERS, a 16th-17th cent. group of followers of Durer, notable for fine work on wood and copper; THE OLD MASTERS, a term applied collectively to the great painters about the time of the Renaissance, esp. the Italians.--BE MASTER OF ONE'S SELF, to have one's passions or emotions under control. [O. Fr. _maistre_ (Fr. _maitre_)--L. _magister_, from root of _magnus_, great.]

MASTIC, MASTICH, mas'tik, _n._ a species of gum-resin from the lentisk-tree: a cement from mastic: the tree producing mastic. [Fr.,--L.

_mastiche_--Gr. _mastich[=e]_--_mas-tizein_, to chew.]

MASTICATE, mas'ti-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to chew: to grind with the teeth.--_adj._ MAS'TICABLE, that may be chewed.--_ns._ MASTIC[=A]'TION, act or process of chewing; MASTIC[=A]'TOR, a machine for cutting up meat for people unable to chew: a machine used in purifying india-rubber.--_adj._ MAS'TICATORY, chewing: adapted for chewing.--_n._ a substance chewed to increase the saliva. [L. _mastic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_mastiche_, mastic.]


MASTIFF, mas'tif, _n._ a thick-set and powerful variety of dog much used as a watch-dog. [Skeat follows Scheler and Diez in explaining _mastiff_ as 'house-dog,' from an assumed O. Fr. _mastif_, prob. a variant of O. Fr.

_mastin_ (Fr. _matin_)--Low L. _masnata_, a family--L. _mansion-em_, a house. Others explain as O. Fr. _mestif_ (Fr. _metif_), of mixed breed, mongrel, or O. Fr. _mestis_ (_metis_), mongrel, or even as the above O. Fr.

mastin (Fr. matin), all, through Low L. forms, from L. _mixtus_, _mistus_, _misc[=e]re_, to mix.]

MASTITIS, mas-t[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation of the mammary gland.--_n._ MASTODYN'IA, pain in the breast.--_adj._ MAS'TOID, like a nipple or teat: denoting a part or process of the temporal bone.--_n._ MASTOL'OGY, mammology. [Gr. _mastos_, a nipple.]

MASTODON, mas'to-don, _n._ a genus of extinct elephants, so named from the mamillary cusps or teat-like prominences on the molar teeth. [Gr. _mastos_, the breast, _odous_, _odontos_, a tooth.]

MASTURBATION, mas-tur-b[=a]'shun, _n._ self-defilement, onanism.--_v.i._ MAS'TURBATE, to commit self-abuse.--_n._ MAS'TURBATOR, one guilty of this.

[L. _masturb[=a]ri_.]

MAT, mat, _n._ a texture of sedge, rushes, straw, &c. for cleaning the feet on: a web of rope-yarn: an ornamental border for a picture: a piece of cloth, &c. put below dishes on a table: anything like a mat in appearance, thick and closely set: any interwoven structure used as a revetment on river-banks, &c.: a sack of matting used to cover tea and coffee chests, such a sack containing a certain quantity of coffee: the closely-worked portion of lace: any annular pad to protect the head in bearing burdens.--_v.t._ to cover with mats: to interweave: to entangle:--_pr.p._ mat'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ mat'ted. [A.S. _meatta_--L. _matta_, a mat.]

MAT, mat, _adj._ and _n._ having a dull or dead surface, without lustre: an instrument by means of which such is produced.--_v.t._ to produce such a surface on metal. [Ger. _matt_, dull.]

MATADOR, MATADORE, mat-a-d[=o]r', _n._ the man who kills the bull in bull-fights: one of the three chief cards at ombre and quadrille. [Sp.

_matador_--_matar_, to kill--L. _mact[=a]re_, to kill, to honour by sacrifice--_mactus_, honoured.]

MATAFUNDA, mat-a-fun'da, _n._ an old military engine which slung stones.

[Low L., prob. Sp. _matar_, to kill, L. _funda_, a sling.]


MATCH, mach, _n._ a piece of inflammable material which easily takes or carries fire: a prepared rope for firing a gun, &c.: a lucifer.--_ns._ MATCH'-BOX, a box for holding matches; MATCH'LOCK, the lock of a musket containing a match for firing it: a musket so fired; MATCH'WOOD, wood cut down to a size suitable for making matches: wood broken into small pieces; QUICK'-MATCH, a match made of threads of cotton, and steeped in various inflammable substances so as to burn a yard in thirteen seconds; SAFE'TY-MATCH, a match which will only light when rubbed on a specially prepared surface; SLOW'-MATCH, a match made to burn at the rate of from four to five inches in an hour, for blasting, &c. [O. Fr. _mesche_ (Fr.

_meche_)--Low L. _myxus_--Gr. _myxa_, the snuff or wick of a lamp.]

MATCH, mach, _n._ anything which agrees with or suits another thing: an equal: one able to cope with another: a contest or game: a pairing, a marriage: one to be gained in marriage.--_v.i._ to be of the same make, size, &c., to correspond: to form a union with.--_v.t._ to be equal to, to set a counterpart to anything: to be able to compete with: to find an equal to: to set against as equal: to suit: to give in marriage.--_adj._ MATCH'ABLE.--_ns._ MATCH'BOARD, a board with a tongue cut along one edge and a groove in the opposite edge, their joining being called a MATCH'-JOINT; MATCH'ER.--_adj._ MATCH'LESS, having no match or equal: superior to all: peerless: unpaired.--_adv._ MATCH'LESSLY.--_ns._ MATCH'LESSNESS; MATCH'-MAK'ER, one who makes matches: one who plans to bring about marriages. [A.S. _gemaeca_, _gemaca_, a mate, a wife.]

MATE, m[=a]t, _n._ a companion: an equal: one of a pair, the male or female of animals that go in pairs: in a merchant-ship the first-mate is the second in command--in the navy the term is now confined to petty-officers, such as _boatswain's mate_, _gunner's mate_, &c.: an assistant, deputy.--_v.t._ to be equal to: to become a companion to: to marry.--_adj._ MATE'LESS, without a mate or companion. [A.S. _ge-maca_; Ice. _maki_, an equal, from the same root as _make_. Cf. _match_. Prob. _mate_ in its naut.

sense is Dutch--Old Dut. _maet_, mod. _maat_.]

MATE, m[=a]t, _n._ and _v.t._ in chess=_Checkmate_.

MATE, MATe, ma't[=a], _n._ a South American species of holly, the leaves and green shoots of which, dried and roughly ground, furnish the _yerba de mate_ of Paraguay and Brazil. [Sp. _mate_, orig. the vessel in which it was infused for drinking.]

MATE, m[=a]t, _v.t._ (_Bacon_) to weaken, to confound, to crush. [O. Fr.

_mater_; cf. Sp. _matar_, to weaken.]

MATELASSE, mat-las'[=a], _adj._ and _n._ having a raised pattern on the surface as if quilted, of silks. [Fr. _matelas_, a mattress.]

MATELOTE, mat'e-l[=o]t, _n._ fish stewed with wine-sauce, onions, &c. [Fr.

_matelot_, a sailor.]

MATEOLOGY, mat-[=e]-ol'o-ji, _n._ a foolish inquiry. [Gr. _mataios_, vain, _mat[=e]_, folly, _logia_, discourse.]

MATER, m[=a]'t[.e]r, _n._ a mother: one of the two membranes of the brain, outer and inner, separated by the arachnoid--the _dura mater_, or _dura_, and _pia mater_, or _pia_.--M[=A]'TER DOLOR[=O]'SA, the Virgin Mary represented as the sorrowing mother; M[=A]TERFAMIL'IAS, the mother of a family. [L.,--Gr. _m[=e]t[=e]r_.]

MATERIAL, ma-t[=e]'ri-al, _adj._ consisting of matter: corporeal, not spiritual: substantial: essential: important, esp. of legal importance: (_phil._) pertaining to matter and not to form, relating to the object as it exists.--_n._, esp. in _pl._, that out of which anything is to be made.--_n._ MATERIALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ MAT[=E]'RIAL[=I]SE, to render material: to reduce to or regard as matter: to occupy with material interests.--_ns._ MAT[=E]'RIALISM, the doctrine that denies the independent existence of spirit, and maintains that there is but one substance--viz.

matter--thus professing to find in matter (_monistic_ or _philosophical materialism_), or in material entities (_atomistic materialism_), or in material qualities and forces (scientific or physical materialism), a complete explanation of all life and existence whatsoever; MAT[=E]'RIALIST, one who holds the doctrine of materialism: one absorbed in material interests, who takes a low view of life and its responsibilities.--_adjs._ MATERIALIST'IC, -AL, pertaining to materialism.--_adv._ MAT[=E]'RIALLY.--_ns._ MAT[=E]'RIALNESS, MATERIAL'ITY.--MATERIAL BEING, existence in the form of matter; MATERIAL CAUSE, that which gives being to the thing; MATERIAL DISTINCTION, a distinction between individuals of the same species; MATERIAL EVIDENCE, evidence tending to prove or to disprove the matter under judgment; MATERIAL FALLACY, a fallacy in the matter or thought, rather than in the logical form; MATERIAL FORM, a form depending on matter; MATERIAL ISSUE (see ISSUE).--RAW MATERIAL, stuff as yet unworked into anything useful. [Fr.,--L. _materialis_--_materia_.]

MATERIA MEDICA, ma-t[=e]'ri-a med'i-ka, _n._ the various substances used in making up medicines: the science of the nature and use of substances used as medicines. [L. _materia_, material, _medicus_, medical.]

MATeRIEL, ma-t[=a]-re-el', _n._ the totality of materials or instruments employed (as in an army), as distinguished from the _personnel_ or men--applied esp. to military stores, arms, baggage, horses, &c. [Fr.]

MATERNAL, ma-t[.e]r'nal, _adj._ belonging to a mother: motherly.--_adv._ MATER'NALLY.--_n._ MATER'NITY, the state, character, or relation of a mother: motherhood: a lying-in hospital. [Fr. _maternel_ (It.

_maternale_)--L. _maternus_--_mater_, mother.]

MATH, math, _n._ a mowing.

MATHEMATIC, -AL, math-e-mat'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to, or done by, mathematics: very accurate.--_adv._ MATHEMAT'ICALLY.--_ns._ MATHEMATIC'IAN, one versed in mathematics; MATHEMAT'ICS, the science of magnitude and number, and of all their relations--usually divided into _Pure_, and _Mixed_ or _Applied_, the first including all deductions from the abstract, self-evident relations of magnitude and number--the second, the results arrived at by applying the principles so established to certain relations found by observation to exist among the phenomena of nature.--HIGHER MATHEMATICS, a term applied generally to all the scientifically treated branches of mathematics. [Fr. _mathematique_--L. _mathematica_--Gr.

_math[=e]matik[=e]_ (_epist[=e]m[=e]_, skill, knowledge), relating to learning--_math[=e]ma_--_manthanein_, to learn.]

MATHESIS, ma-th[=e]'sis, _n._ mental discipline. [Gr.]

MATICO, ma-t[=e]'ko, _n._ a Peruvian shrub, used in medicine as a styptic and astringent.

MATIN, mat'in, _adj._ morning: used in the morning.--_n._ in _pl._ the daily morning service of the Church of England: one of the seven canonical hours, usually sung between midnight and daybreak.--_adj._ MAT'INAL.--_n._ MATINeE (mat-i-n[=a]'), a musical entertainment or reception held in the day-time, usually in the afternoon: a woman's dress for wear in the forenoon or before dinner. [Fr.,--L. _matutinus_, belonging to the morning--_Matuta_, goddess of morning, prob. akin to _maturus_, early.]

MATRASS, mat'ras, _n._ a chemical vessel with a tapering neck, a cucurbit.

MATRIARCHY, m[=a]'tri-ar-ki, _n._ government by a mother or by mothers, esp. a primitive order of society existing in many Indian tribes, in which the mother takes precedence of the father in tracing line of descent and in inheritance: descent in the female line.--_ns._ M[=A]'TRIARCH, a woman in whom matriarchy rests: a patriarch's wife.--_adj._ MATRIAR'CHAL.--_ns._ MATRIAR'CHALISM, the character of possessing matriarchal customs; MATRIAR'CHATE, the position of a matriarch. [Gr. _m[=e]t[=e]r_, mother, _archos_, a ruler.]

MATRICE, m[=a]'tris, _n._ Same as MATRIX.

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