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_Iberia_, Spain.]

IBEX, [=i]'beks, _n._ a genus of goats, inhabiting the Alps and other mountainous regions. [L.]

IBIDEM, ib-[=i]'dem, _adv._ in the same place. [L.]

IBIS, [=i]'bis, _n._ a genus of wading birds related to the stork, one species of which was worshipped by the ancient Egyptians. [L.,--Gr.; an Egyptian word.]

ICARIAN, [=i]-k[=a]'ri-an, _adj._ belonging to, or like, Icarus. [L.

_Icarius_--Gr. _Ikarios_--_Ikaros_, who fell into the sea on his flight from Crete, his waxen wings being melted by the sun.]

ICE, [=i]s, _n._ water congealed by freezing: concreted sugar, a frozen confection of sweetened cream or the juice of various fruits.--_v.t._ to cover with ice: to freeze: to cover with concreted sugar:--_pr.p._ ic'ing; _pa.p._ iced.--_ns._ ICE'-AGE (_geol._), the glacial epoch, its records included in the Pleistocene system, the chief relics morainic materials, boulder-clay or till, believed to have been formed under glacial ice; ICE'-AN'CHOR, an anchor with one arm for securing a vessel to an ice-floe; ICE'-BIRD, the little auk or sea-dove; ICE'BLINK, the peculiar appearance in the air reflected from distant masses of ice; ICE'BOAT, a boat used for forcing a passage through or being dragged over ice.--_adj._ ICE'-BOUND, bound, surrounded, or fixed in with ice.--_ns._ ICE'-BROOK, a frozen brook; ICE'-CREAM, ICED'-CREAM, cream sweetened or flavoured, and artificially frozen.--_adj._ ICED, covered with ice: encrusted with sugar.--_n._ ICE'-FALL, a ICE'-FEATH'ERS, peculiar feather-like forms assumed by ice at the summits of mountains.--_ns._ ICE'-FERN, the fern-like encrustation which is found on windows during frost; ICE'FIELD, a large field or sheet of ice; ICE'FLOAT, ICE'FLOE, a large mass of floating ice; ICE'FOOT, a belt of ice forming round the shores in Arctic regions--also ICE'-BELT, ICE'-LEDGE, ICE'-WALL; ICE'HOUSE, a house for preserving ice; ICE'-[=I]'SLAND, an island of floating ice; ICE'MAN, a man skilled in travelling upon ice: a dealer in ice: a man in attendance at any frozen pond where skating, &c., are going on; ICE'PACK, drifting ice packed together; ICE'-PAIL, a pail filled with ice for cooling bottles of wine; ICE'-PLANT, a plant whose leaves glisten in the sun as if covered with ice; ICE'-PLOUGH, an instrument for cutting grooves in ice to facilitate its removal; ICE'-SAW, a large saw for cutting through ice to free ships, &c.; ICE'-SPAR, a variety of feldspar remarkable for its transparent ice-like crystals; ICE'-WA'TER, water from melted ice: iced water.--_adv._ IC'ILY.--_ns._ IC'INESS; IC'ING, a covering of ice or concreted sugar.--_adjs._ IC'Y, composed of, abounding in, or like ice: frosty: cold: chilling: without warmth of affection; IC'Y-PEARLED (_Milt._), studded with pearls or spangles of ice.--BREAK THE ICE (see BREAK). [A.S. _is_; Ger.

_eis_, Ice., Dan. _is_.]

ICEBERG, [=i]s'b[.e]rg, _n._ a mountain or huge mass of floating ice. [From Scand., Norw., and Sw. _isberg_. See _ice_ and _berg_=mountain.]

ICELANDER, [=i]s'land-[.e]r, _n._ a native of _Iceland_.--_n._ ICE'LAND-DOG, a shaggy white dog, sharp-eared, imported from Iceland.--_adj._ ICELAND'IC, relating to Iceland.--_n._ the language of the Icelanders.--_ns._ ICE'LAND-MOSS, a lichen found in Iceland, Norway, &c., valuable as a medicine and for food; ICE'LAND-SPAR, a transparent variety of calcite or calcium carbonate.

ICHNEUMON, ik-n[=u]'mun, _n._ a small carnivorous animal in Egypt, destroying crocodiles' eggs: an insect which lays its eggs on the larva of other insects. [L.,--Gr., _ichneuein_, to hunt after--_ichnos_, a track.]

ICHNITE, ik'n[=i]t, _n._ a fossil footprint. [Gr. _ichnos_.]

ICHNOGRAPHY, ik-nog'raf-i, _n._ a tracing out: (_archit._) a ground-plan of a work or building.--_adjs._ ICHNOGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_adv._ ICHNOGRAPH'ICALLY.

[Gr. _ichnographia_--_ichnos_, a track, _graphein_, to grave.]

ICHNOLITE, ik'no-l[=i]t, _n._ a stone retaining the impression of an extinct animal's footprint. [Gr. _ichnos_, a footprint, _lithos_, a stone.]

ICHNOLOGY, ik-nol'o-ji, _n._ footprint lore: the science of fossil footprints.--Also ICHNOLITHOL'OGY. [Gr. _ichnos_, a track, a footprint, _logia_, discourse.]

ICHOR, [=i]'kor, _n._ (_myth._) the ethereal juice in the veins of the gods: a watery humour: colourless matter from an ulcer.--_adj._ I'CHOROUS.

[Gr. _ich[=o]r_.]

ICHTHINE, ik'thin, _n._ an albuminous substance found in fishes' eggs. [Gr.

_ichthys_, a fish.]

ICHTHYODORULITE, ik'thi-[=o]-dor'[=oo]-l[=i]t, _n._ the name given to fossil fish-spines in stratified rocks. [Gr. _ichthys_, a fish, _doru_, a spear, _lithos_, a stone.]

ICHTHYOGRAPHY, ik-thi-og'ra-fi, _n._ a description of fishes. [Gr.

_ickthys_, a fish, _graphein_, to write.]

ICHTHYOID, -AL, ik'thi-oid, -al, _adj._ having the form or characteristics of a fish--also ICH'THYIC.--_n._ ICHTHYOCOL'LA, fish-glue, isinglass. [Gr.

_ichthys_, a fish, _eidos_, form.]

ICHTHYOLATRY, ik-thi-ol'a-tri, _n._ fish-worship.--_adj._ ICHTHYOL'ATROUS.

ICHTHYOLITE, ik'thi-[=o]-l[=i]t, _n._ a fossil fish. [Gr. _ichthys_, a fish, _lithos_, a stone.]

ICHTHYOLOGY, ik-thi-ol'o-ji, _n._ the branch of natural history that treats of fishes.--_adj._ ICHTHYOLOG'ICAL.--_n._ ICHTHYOL'OGIST, one skilled in ichthyology. [Gr. _ichthys_, a fish, _logia_, discourse.]

ICHTHYOPHAGY, ik-thi-of'a-ji, _n._ the practice of eating fish.--_n._ ICHTHYOPH'AGIST.--_adj._ ICHTHYOPH'AGOUS. [Gr. _ichthys_, a fish, _phagein_, to eat.]

ICHTHYOPSIDA, ik-thi-op'si-da, one of three primary groups of vertebrates in Huxley's classification (the other two, _Sauropsida_ and _Mammalia_), comprising the amphibians or batrachians and the fish and fish-like vertebrates. [Gr. _ichthys_, fish, _opsis_, appearance.]

ICHTHYORNIS, ik-thi-or'nis, _n._ a fossil bird with vertebrae like those of fishes, and with teeth set in sockets. [Gr. _ichthys_, a fish, _ornis_, a bird.]

ICHTHYOSAURIA, ik-thi-o-sawr'i-a, _n._ an order of gigantic extinct marine reptiles, uniting some of the characteristics of the Saurians with those of fishes.--_adj._ ICHTHYOSAUR'IAN.--_n._ ICH'THYOSAURUS. [Gr. _ichthys_, a fish, _sauros_, a lizard.]

ICHTHYOSIS, ik-thi-[=o]'sis, _n._ a disease in which the skin becomes hardened, thickened, rough, and almost horny in severe cases.--_adj._ ICHTHYOT'IC. [Gr. _ichthys_, a fish.]

ICTHYOTOMY, ik-thi-ot'o-mi, _n._ the anatomy of fishes.--_n._ ICHTHYOT'OMIST.

ICHTHYS, ik'this, _n._ an emblem or motto ([Greek: ICHTHYS]) supposed to have a mystical connection with Jesus Christ, being the first letters of the Greek words meaning 'Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour.'

ICICLE, [=i]s'i-kl, _n._ a hanging point of ice formed by the freezing of dropping water. [A.S. _isgicel_, for _isesgicel_; _ises_ being the gen. of _is_, ice, and _gicel_, an icicle; cf. Ice. _jokull_.]

ICON, [=i]'kon, _n._ a figure, esp. in the Greek Church, representing Christ, or a saint, in painting, mosaic, &c.--_adj._ ICON'IC.--_n._ ICONOG'RAPHY, the art of illustration.--_adj._ ICONOMAT'IC, expressing ideas by means of pictured objects.--_ns._ ICONOMAT'ICISM; ICONOPH'ILISM, a taste for pictures, &c.; ICONOPH'ILIST, a connoisseur of pictures, &c.; ICONOS'TASIS, a wooden wall which in Byzantine churches separates the choir from the nave--the icons are placed on it. [L.,--Gr. _eik[=o]n_, an image.]

ICONOCLASM, [=i]-kon'o-klazm, _n._ act of breaking images.--_n._ ICON'OCLAST, a breaker of images, one opposed to idol-worship, esp. those at the commencement in the Eastern Church, who from the 8th century downwards opposed the use of sacred images, or at least the paying of religious honour to such: any hot antagonist of the beliefs of others.--_adj._ ICONOCLAST'IC, pertaining to iconoclasm. [Gr. _eik[=o]n_, an image, _klast[=e]s_, a breaker--_klan_, to break.]

ICONOLOGY, [=i]-kon-ol'o-ji, _n._ the doctrine of images, especially with reference to worship.--_ns._ ICONOL'ATER, an image-worshipper; ICONOL'ATRY, the worship of images; ICONOL'OGIST; ICONOM'ACHIST, one opposed to the cultus of icons; ICONOM'ACHY, opposition to the same. [Gr. _eik[=o]n_, an image, _logia_, discourse.]

ICOSAHEDRON, [=i]-kos-a-h[=e]'dron, _n._ (_geom._) a solid having twenty equal sides or faces.--_adj._ ICOSAH[=E]'DRAL. [Gr. _eikosi_, twenty, _hedra_, base.]

ICOSANDRIA, [=i]-ko-san'dri-a, _n._ a class of plants having not less than twenty stamens in the calyx.--_adjs._ ICOSAN'DRIAN, ICOSAN'DROUS. [Gr.

_eikosi_, twenty, an[=e]r, _andros_, a male.]

ICTERUS, ik'te-rus, _n._ the jaundice: a yellowish appearance in plants.--_adjs._ ICTER'IC, -AL, affected with jaundice; IC'TERINE, yellow, or marked with yellow, as a bird; ICTERIT'IOUS, yellow. [Gr. _ikteros_, jaundice.]

ICTUS, ik'tus, _n._ a stroke: rhythmical or metrical stress.--_adj._ IC'TIC, abrupt. [L., 'a blow.']

I'D, [=i]d, contracted from _I would_, or _I had_.

IDALIAN, [=i]-d[=a]'li-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Idalia_, in Cyprus, or to Venus, to whom it was sacred.

IDEA, [=i]-d[=e]'a, _n._ an image of an external object formed by the mind: a notion, thought, any product of intellectual action--of memory and imagination: an archetype of the manifold varieties of existence in the universe, belonging to the supersensible world, where reality is found and where God is (_Platonic_); one of the three products of the reason (the Soul, the Universe, and God) transcending the conceptions of the understanding--_transcendental ideas_, in the functions of mind concerned with the unification of existence (_Kantian_); the ideal realised, the absolute truth of which everything that exists is the expression (_Hegelian_).--_adjs._ ID[=E]'AED, ID[=E]'A'D, provided with an idea or ideas; ID[=E]'AL, existing in idea: mental: existing in imagination only: the highest and best conceivable, the perfect, as opposed to the real, the imperfect.--_n._ the highest conception of anything.--_adj._ ID[=E]'ALESS.--_n._ IDEALIS[=A]'TION, act of forming an idea, or of raising to the highest conception.--_v.t._ ID[=E]'ALISE, to form an idea: to raise to the highest conception.--_v.i._ to form ideas.--_ns._ ID[=E]'AL[=I]SER; ID[=E]'ALISM, the doctrine that in external perceptions the objects immediately known are ideas, that all reality is in its nature psychical: any system that considers thought or the idea as the ground either of knowledge or existence: tendency towards the highest conceivable perfection, love for or search after the best and highest: the imaginative treatment of subjects; ID[=E]'ALIST, one who holds the doctrine of idealism, one who strives after the ideal: an unpractical person.--_adj._ IDEALIST'IC, pertaining to idealists or to idealism.--_n._ IDEAL'ITY, ideal state: ability and disposition to form ideals of beauty and perfection.--_adv._ ID[=E]'ALLY, in an ideal manner: mentally.--_n._ ID[=E]'ALOGUE, one given to ideas: a theorist.--_v.i._ ID[=E]'ATE, to form ideas.--_adj._ produced by an idea.--_n._ the correlative or object of an idea.--_n._ IDE[=A]'TION, the power of the mind for forming ideas: the exercise of such power.--_adjs._ IDE[=A]'TIONAL, ID[=E]'ATIVE. [L.,--Gr.

_idea_--_idein_, to see.]

IDENTIFY, [=i]-den'ti-f[=i], _v.t._ to make to be the same: to ascertain or prove to be the same:--_pa.p._ iden'tified.--_adj._ IDEN'TIFIABLE.--_n._ IDENTIFIC[=A]'TION.--IDENTIFY ONE'S SELF WITH, to take an active part in the promotion of. [Fr. _identifier_--L., as if _identicus_--_idem_, the same, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

IDENTITY, [=i]-den'ti-ti, _n._ state of being the same: sameness.--_adj._ IDEN'TICAL, the very same: not different.--_adv._ IDEN'TICALLY.--_n._ IDEN'TICALNESS, identity. [Fr.,--Low L. _identitat-em_--L. _idem_, the same.]

IDEOGRAPHY, [=i]-de-og'ra-fi, _n._ the representation of things by pictures, and not by sound-symbols or letters.--_ns._ I'DEOGRAPH, such a character or symbol as represents an idea without expressing its name--also I'DEOGRAM.--_adjs._ IDEOGRAPH'IC, -AL, representing ideas by pictures, or directly instead of words.--_adv._ IDEOGRAPH'ICALLY, in an ideographic manner. [Gr. _idea_, idea, _graphein_, to write.]

IDEOLOGY, [=i]-de-ol'o-ji, _n._ the science of ideas, metaphysics.--_adjs._ IDEOLOG'IC, -AL.--_n._ IDEOL'OGIST, one occupied with ideas having no significance: a mere theorist--also ID[=E]'OLOGUE. [Gr. _idea_, idea, _logia_, discourse.]

IDEOPRAXIST, [=i]-de-[=o]-prak'sist, _n._ one who is impelled to carry out an idea. [Gr. _idea_, idea, _praxis_, doing.]

IDES, [=i]dz, _n.sing._ in ancient Rome, the 15th day of March, May, July, October, and the 13th of the other months. [Fr.,--L. _idus_, prob.


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