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HYPOCAUST, hip'o-kawst, _n._ among the ancients, a vaulted chamber from which the heat of stoves was distributed to baths or rooms above: now applied to the fireplace of a stove or hothouse. [Gr.

_hypokauston_--_hypo_, under, _kaiein_, to burn.]

HYPOCHONDRIA, hip-o-kon'dri-a, _n._ a nervous malady, often arising from indigestion, and tormenting the patient with imaginary fears--more correctly, HYPOCHONDR[=I]'ASIS--also HYPOCHONR[=I]'ACISM, HYPOCHONDR[=I]'ASIS, HYPOCHON'DRIASM.--_n._ HYPOCHON'DRIAC, one suffering from hypochondria--also HYPOCHON'DRIAST.--_adjs._ HYPOCHON'DRIAC, -AL, relating to or affected with hypochondria: melancholy.--_n._ HYPOCHON'DRIUM (_anat._), that region of the abdomen situated on either side, under the costal cartilages and short ribs. [L.,--Gr., from _hypo_, under, _chrondos_, a cartilage.]

HYPOCIST, h[=i]'po-sist, _n._ an inspissated juice from a parasitic plant of the cytinus family.

HYPOCRISY, hi-pok'ri-si, _n._ a feigning to be what one is not: concealment of true character. [Gr. _hypokrisis_--_hypokrinesthai_, to play on the stage, from _hypo_, under, _krinein_, to decide.]

HYPOCRITE, hip'o-krit, _n._ one who practises hypocrisy.--_adj._ HYPOCRIT'ICAL, practising hypocrisy.--_adv._ HYPOCRIT'ICALLY.

[Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _hypokrit[=e]s_.]

HYPOCYCLOID, h[=i]-po-s[=i]'kloid, _n._ a curve generated by a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls on the inside of another circle.--_adj._ HYPOCYOLOID'AL.

HYPODERMIC, h[=i]-po-der'mik, _adj._ relating to the parts under the skin, subcutaneous, esp. of a method of injecting a drug in solution under the skin by means of a fine hollow needle to which a small syringe is attached--also HYPODER'MAL.--_n._ HYPODER'MA, the layer of colourless cells immediately beneath the epidermis of a leaf. [Gr. _hypo_, under, _derma_, the skin.]

HYPOGASTRIC, hip-o-gas'trik, _adj._ belonging to the lower part of the abdomen.--_ns._ HYPOGAS'TRIUM, the lower part of the belly; HYPOGAS'TROCELE, a hernia through the walls of the lower belly. [Gr.

_hypo_, under, _gast[=e]r_, the belly.]

HYPOGENE, h[=i]'po-j[=e]n, _adj._ (_geol._) of or pertaining to rocks which have assumed their present structure under the surface, plutonic:--opp. to _Epigene_.--_adj._ HYPOG'ENOUS (_bot._), produced below the surface, of fungi growing on the under side of leaves:--opp. to _Epigenous_ and _Epiphyllous_. [Gr. _hypo_, under, _gen[=e]s_, produced.]

HYPOGEUM, h[=i]-po-j[=e]'um, _n._ the part of a building below the ground, any underground chamber.--_adjs._ HYPOG[=E]'AL, HYPOGae'AN, HYPOG[=E]'AN, subterranean. [Gr. _hypo_, under, _g[=e]_, the ground.]

HYPOGLOSSAL, h[=i]-po-glos'al, _adj._ situated under the tongue. [Gr.

_hypo_, under, _gl[=o]ssa_, the tongue.]

HYPOGNATHOUS, h[=i]-pog'n[=a]-thus, _adj._ (_ornith._) having the under mandible longer than the upper, as the black skimmer.--_n._ HYPOG'NATHISM.

HYPOGYNOUS, h[=i]-poj'i-nus, _adj._ (_bot._) growing from beneath the ovary, said of certain parts of plants. [Gr. _hypo_, under, _gyn[=e]_, a woman.]

HYPONASTY, h[=i]'po-nas-ti, _n._ (_bot._) increased growth along the lower surface of an organ or part of a plant, causing the part to bend upward:--opp. to _Epinasty_.

HYPOPHOSPHITE, h[=i]-po-fos'f[=i]t, _n._ (_chem._) a salt obtained by the union of hypophosphorous acid with a salifiable base--also HYPOPHOS'PHATE.--_adjs._ HYPOPHOSPHOR'IC, HYPOPHOS'PHOROUS, containing less oxygen than phosphorous acid contains.

HYPOPHYSIS, h[=i]-pof'i-sis, _n._ the pituitary body of the brain: (_bot._) an inflated part of the pedicel under the capsule, in mosses; in flowering plants, a cell of the embryo producing the primary root and root-cap. [Gr.

_hypo_, under, _phyein_, to grow.]

HYPOSTASIS, h[=i]-pos'ta-sis, _n._ a substance: the essence or real personal subsistence or substance of each of the three divisions of the Godhead.--_adjs._ HYPOSTAT'IC, -AL.--_adv._ HYPOSTAT'ICALLY.--_v.t._ HYPOS'TAT[=I]SE. [L.,--Gr. _hypostasis_--_hyphist[=e]mi_--_hypo_, under, _hist[=e]mi_, I make to stand.]

HYPOSTROPHE, h[=i]-pos'tro-fe, _n._ return of a disease, relapse: (_rhet._) use of insertion or parenthesis.

HYPOSTYLE, h[=i]'po-st[=i]l, _adj._ (_archit._) having the roof supported by pillars. [Gr. _hypo_, under, _stylos_, a pillar.]

HYPOSULPHUROUS, h[=i]-po-sul'fer-us, _adj._ next in a series below sulphurous.--Also HYPOSULPH[=U]'RIC.

HYPOTAXIS, h[=i]-po-tak'sis, _n._ (_gram._) dependent construction--opp. to _Parataxis_.--_adj._ HYPOTAC'TIC.

HYPOTENUSE, h[=i]-pot'en-[=u]s, or hip-, HYPOTHENUSE, h[=i]-poth'en-[=u]s, _n._ the side of a right-angled triangle opposite to the right angle.

[Fr.,--Gr. _hypoteinousa_ (_gramm[=e]_), lit. (a line) 'which stretches under'--_hypo_, under, _teinein_, to stretch.]

HYPOTHEC, h[=i]-poth'ek, _n._ in Scotch law, a lien or security over goods in respect of a debt due by the owner of the goods.--ADJ. _Hypoth'ecary_, pertaining to hypothecation or mortgage.--_v.t._ HYPOTH'EC[=A]TE, to place or assign anything as security under an arrangement: to mortgage.--_ns._ HYPOTHEC[=A]'TION; HYPOTH'ECATOR. [Fr.,--L. _hypotheca_--Gr.

_hypoth[=e]k[=e]_, a pledge.]

HYPOTHESIS, h[=i]-poth'e-sis, _n._ a supposition: a proposition assumed for the sake of argument: a theory to be proved or disproved by reference to facts: a provisional explanation of anything.--_v.i._ HYPOTH'ESIZE, to form hypotheses.--_adjs._ HYPOTHET'IC, -AL, belonging to a hypothesis: conditional.--_adv._ HYPOTHET'ICALLY. [Gr., _hypo_, under, _tithenai_, to place.]

HYPOTYPOSIS, h[=i]-po-ti-p[=o]'sis, _n._ (_rhet._) vivid description of a scene.

HYPOZOIC, h[=i]-po-z[=o]'ik, _adj._ (_geol._) below the limit of life: belonging to the HYPOZ[=O]'A.--_adj._ and _n._ HYPOZ[=O]'AN.

HYPSOMETRY, hip-som'e-tri, _n._ the art of measuring the heights of places on the earth's surface by means of the HYPSOM'ETER.--_adj._ HYPSOMET'RIC.

[Gr. _hypsi_, on high, _metron_, a measure.]

HYPURAL, h[=i]-p[=u]'ral, _adj._ situated beneath the tail.

HYRAX, h[=i]'raks, _n._ a genus of mammals of obscure affinities, like rabbits in size and marmots in appearance, living among rocks in Africa and Syria--the _Cape Daman_, _Klippdass_, or _Rock-badger_; the _Shaphan_ (_Hyrax syriacus_) mistranslated 'cony' of Scripture; and the Abyssinian _Ashtok_.

HYSON, h[=i]'son, _n._ a very fine sort of green tea.--_n._ HY'SON-SKIN, the refuse of hyson tea. [Chinese.]

HYSSOP, his'up, _n._ an aromatic plant. [Fr.,--L. _hyssopum_--Gr.

_hyss[=o]pos_--Heb. _[=e]z[=o]ph_.]

HYSTERANTHOUS, his-ter-an'thus, _adj._ (_bot._) having the leaves appearing after the flowers.

HYSTERESIS, his-te-r[=e]'sis, _n._ magnetic friction in dynamos, by which every reversal of magnetism in the iron causes dissipation of energy. [Gr.

_hyster[=e]sis_, a deficiency--_hysteros_, later.]

HYSTERIC, -AL, his-ter'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to, of the nature of, or affected with hysterics or hysteria: like hysterics, fitfully and violently emotional.--_adv._ HYSTER'ICALLY.--_ns._ HYSTER'ICS, HYST[=E]R'IA, a nervous affection occurring typically in paroxysms of laughing and crying alternately, with a choking sensation in the throat, but often as a counterfeit of some organic disease.--_adjs._ HYS'TEROID, -AL, like hysteria.--_ns._ HYSTEROM[=A]N'IA, hysterical mania, often marked by erotic delusions and an excessive desire to attract attention; HYSTEROT'OMY, the operation of cutting into the uterus. [L. _hystericus_--Gr.

_hysterikos_--_hystera_, the womb.]

HYSTERON-PROTERON, his'ter-on-prot'er-on, _n._ a figure of speech in which what should follow comes first: an inversion. [Gr., lit. 'the last first.']

HYTHE, h[=i]th, _n._ Same as HITHE.

I the ninth letter in the alphabet of western Europe, called _iota_ by the Greeks, from its Semitic name _yod_, in most European languages the sound that of the Latin long _i_, which we have in the words _machine_ and _marine._ The normal sound of _i_ in English is that heard in _bit_, _dip_, _sit_, which is the short Latin _i_.

I, [=i], _pron._ the nominative case singular of the first personal pronoun: the word used by a speaker or writer in mentioning himself: the object of self-consciousness, the ego. [M. E. _ich_--A.S. _ic_; Ger. _ich_, Ice. _ek_, L. _ego_, Gr. _eg[=o]_, Sans. _aham_.]

I, [=i], _adv._ same as AY.--I', a form of _in_.

IAMBUS, [=i]-am'bus, _n._ a metrical foot of two syllables, the first short and the second long, as in L. _f[)i]d[=e]s_; or the first unaccented and the second accented, as in _deduce_--also IAMB'.--_adj._ IAM'BIC, consisting of iambics.--_n._ iambus.--_adv._ IAM'BICALLY, in the manner of an iambic.--_v.i._ IAM'BISE, to satirise in iambic verse.--_n._ IAMBOG'RAPHER, a writer of iambics. [L.,--Gr. _iambos_, from _iaptein_, to assail, this metre being first used by writers of satire.]

IANTHINA, [=i]-an-th[=i]'na, _n._ a genus of gregarious, pelagic gasteropods, having a snail-like shell, but delicate, translucent, and blue in colour. [Gr. _ianthinos_--_ion_, a violet, _anthos_, a flower.]

IATRIC, -AL, [=i]-at'rik, -al, _adj._ relating to medicine or physicians.--_adj._ IATROCHEM'ICAL, pertaining to IATROCHEM'ISTRY, a system of applying chemistry to medicine introduced by Francis de la Boe of Leyden (1614-72).--_n._ IATROL'OGY, a treatise on medicine.

IBERIAN, [=i]-b[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ Spanish.--_n._ one of the primitive inhabitants of Spain, of whom some think the Basques a remnant. [L.

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