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ADVANCE, ad-vans', _v.t._ to put forward: to promote to a higher office: to encourage the progress of: to propose: to supply beforehand: to pay before the money is legally due, to pay on security.--_v.i._ to move or go forward: to make progress: to rise in rank or in value.--_n._ progress: improvement: a rise in price or value: a giving beforehand, also the sum so given: a loan.--_n._ ADVANCE'MENT, promotion: improvement: payment of money in advance.--IN ADVANCE, beforehand. [O. Fr. _avancer_--Late L. _abante_ (Fr. _avant_)--L. _ab ante_, from before.]

ADVANTAGE, ad-vant'[=a]j, _n._ superiority over another: gain or benefit: at tennis, the point gained by either side after _deuce_, when both sides stand at an equal score (more commonly VANT'AGE).--_v.t._ to benefit or profit.--_adjs._ ADVAN'TAGEABLE, profitable: convenient (_rare_); ADVANT[=A]'GEOUS, of advantage: useful (with _to_ and _for_).--_adv._ ADVANT[=A]'GEOUSLY.--_n._ ADVANT[=A]'GEOUSNESS.--TO HAVE THE ADVANTAGE OF ANY ONE, to be known by a person without one's self knowing him; TO TAKE AT ADVANTAGE, to avail one's self of any opportunity, often implying an unfair sense. [Fr. _avantage_ (It. _vantaggio_)--Fr. _avant_, before. See ADVANCE.]

ADVENE, ad-v[=e]n', _v.i._ to accede: to be superadded to. [Through Fr.

from L. _adven[=i]re_, to come to.]

ADVENT, ad'vent, _n._ a coming or arrival: the first or the second coming of Christ: the period immediately before the festival of the Nativity, including four Sundays--from the first after St Andrew's Day (November 30) to Christmas eve.--_n._ AD'VENTIST, one who believes in the second coming of Christ to set up a kingdom on the earth: a millenarian--_adj._ ADVENT'UAL (_obs._), relating to Advent. [Through Fr. from L.

_adventus_--_ad_, to, _ven[=i]re_, to come.]

ADVENTITIOUS, ad-vent-ish'us, _adj._ accidental: additional: foreign: appearing casually.--_adv._ ADVENTI'TIOUSLY.--_adj._ ADVENT'IVE (_Bacon_), adventitious.--_n._ a thing or person coming from without. [See ADVENT.]

ADVENTURE, ad-vent'[=u]r, _n._ a risk or chance: a remarkable incident: an enterprise: trial of the issue: risk: a commercial speculation: the spirit of enterprise.--_v.i._ to attempt or dare.--_v.t._ to risk or hazard: (_refl._) to venture.--_v.i._ to risk one's self (with _on_, _into_, _upon_): to dare, go so far as to.--_n._ ADVENT'URER, one who engages in hazardous enterprises: a soldier of fortune, or speculator: one who pushes his fortune by equivocal means, as false pretences, &c.:--_fem._ ADVENT'URESS.--_adjs._ ADVENT'UROUS, ADVENT'URESOME, enterprising: ready to incur risk.--_adv._ ADVENT'UROUSLY.--_n._ ADVENT'UROUSNESS. [O. Fr.--L.

_adventurus_, about to happen, fut. perf. of _adven[=i]re_. See ADVENT.]

ADVERB, ad'v[.e]rb, _n._ a word added to a verb, adjective, or other adverb to express some modification of the meaning or an accompanying circumstance.--_adj._ ADVERB'IAL, pertaining to an adverb--used also as a _n._--_adv._ ADVERB'IALLY. [L. _ad verbium_--_ad_, to, _verbum_, a word. It is so called, not because it is added to a verb, but because it is a word (_verbum_) joined to, or supplemental of, other words.]

ADVERSARIA, ad-v[.e]rs-[=a]r'i-a, collections of miscellaneous things in a commonplace-book: consecutive notes on any book. [L., lit.

things written on the opposite sides of the paper, from _adversus_, against.]

ADVERSARY, ad'v[.e]rs-ar-i, _n._ an opponent: an enemy: Satan, as the general adversary of mankind. [O. Fr. _aversier_--L. _adversarius_. See ADVERSE.]

ADVERSATIVE, ad-v[.e]rs'a-tiv, _adj._ denoting opposition, contrariety, or variety. [See ADVERSE.]

ADVERSE, ad'v[.e]rs, _adj._ acting in a contrary direction (with _to_): opposed to: unfortunate: injurious.--_adv._ AD'VERSELY.--_ns._ AD'VERSENESS, ADVERS'ITY, adverse circumstances: affliction: misfortune.

[Through Fr. from L. _adversus_--_ad_, to, and _vert[)e]re_, _versum_, to turn.]

ADVERT, ad-v[.e]rt', _v.i._ to turn the mind to (with _to_): to refer to: (_obs._) to regard or observe.--_ns._ ADVERT'ENCE, ADVERT'ENCY, attention to: heedfulness: regard.--_adj._ ADVERT'ENT, attentive: heedful.--_adv._ ADVERT'ENTLY. [O. Fr. _avertir_, _avertiss-ant_--L. _advert[)e]re_--_ad_, to, and _vert[)e]re_, to turn.]

ADVERTISE, ad-v[.e]rt-[=i]z', or ad'-, _v.t._ to turn one's attention to: to inform: to give public information or announcement of: (_obs._) to instruct.--_ns._ ADVERT'ISEMENT, the act of advertising or making known: a public notice in a newspaper or periodical: notoriety: (_obs._) news; ADVERT[=I]S'ER, one who advertises: a paper in which advertisements are published.--_p.adj._ ADVERT[=I]S'ING (_Shak._), attentive. [Fr., from L.


ADVICE, ad-v[=i]s', _n._ counsel: intelligence (usually in _pl._): formal official intelligence about anything: specially skilled opinion, as of a physician or lawyer.--_n._ ADVICE'-BOAT, a swift vessel employed in conveying despatches.--_adjs._ ADVICE'FUL, AVIZE'FULL (_Spens._).--The form ADVISO, advice, counsel (_Sir T. Browne_), and in CARAVAL OF ADVISO = an advice-boat (_Fuller_), is obsolete--modern form AVISO. [O. Fr. _advis_ (Fr. _avis_)--L. _ad visum_, according to what is seen or seems best.]


ADVISE, ad-v[=i]z', _v.t._ to give advice or counsel to: to recommend: to inform (usually with _of_).--_v.i._ to consult (_with_): (_obs._) to deliberate:--_pr.p._ adv[=i]s'ing; _pa.p._ adv[=i]sed'.--_ns._ ADVISABIL'ITY, ADVIS'ABLENESS.--_adj._ ADVIS'ABLE, that may be advised or recommended: prudent: expedient: open to advice.--_adv._ ADVIS'ABLY.--_adjs._ ADVIS'ATORY (_rare_); ADVISED', cautious: deliberate, as in _well-advised_ and _ill-advised_.--_adv._ ADVIS'EDLY, intentionally.--_ns._ ADVIS'EDNESS, deliberate consideration: prudent procedure; ADVISE'MENT (_obs._ or _arch._), counsel, deliberation; ADVIS'ER, one who advises or gives advice; ADVIS'ING (_Shak._), counsel, advice. [O. Fr. _aviser_, from _advis_ or _avis_. See ADVICE.]

ADVOCACY, ad'vo-ka-si, _n._ the function of an advocate: a pleading for: defence. [See ADVOCATE.]

ADVOCATE, ad'vo-k[=a]t, _n._ an intercessor or defender: one who pleads the cause of another, esp. in a court of law in Scotland and France.--_v.t._ to plead in favour of: to recommend.--_ns._ ADVOC[=A]'TION; AD'VOCATOR.--LORD ADVOCATE, the first law-officer of the crown and public prosecutor of crimes for Scotland. [O. Fr. _avocat_--L. _advocatus_--_advoc[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _voc[=a]re_, to call: to call in (another to help, as in a lawsuit or in sickness).]

ADVOUTRER, ad-vow'tr[.e]r, _n._ (_obs._) an adulterer:--_fem._ ADVOU'TRESS.


ADVOUTRY, ad-vow'tri, _n._ (_obs._) adultery. [O. Fr. _avoutrie_--L.


ADVOWSON, ad-vow'zun, _n._ the right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.--_n._ ADVOWEE', one who has the right of advowson. [O. Fr.

_avoeson_--L. _advocation-em_, right of the patron--L. _advocatus_, a patron.]

ADYNAMIC, [=a]-di-nam'ik, _adj._ without strength: (_phys._) characterised by the absence of force. [Gr. _a_, neg., and _dynamis_, strength.]

ADYTUM, ad'i-tum, _n._ the most sacred part of a heathen temple: the chancel of a church:--_pl._ AD'YTA. [L.--Gr. _adyton_--_a_, neg., and _dyein_, to enter.]

ADZE, ADZ, adz, _n._ a carpenter's tool consisting of a thin arched blade with its edge at right angles to the handle. [A.S. _adesa_; ultimate origin unknown.]

AE, [=a], or y[=a], modern Scotch form of A.S. _an_, one, used as an adjective.

aeDILE, EDILE, [=e]'d[=i]l, _n._ a magistrate in ancient Rome who had the charge of public buildings, games, markets, police, &c.--_n._ ae'DILESHIP.

[L. _aed[=i]lis_, _aedes_, _-is_, a building.]

aeGIS, [=e]'jis, _n._ (_orig._) a shield given by Jupiter to Minerva: anything that protects. [L.--Gr. _aigis_.]

aeGLOGUE, an archaic form of ECLOGUE.

aeGROTAT, [=e]'gr[=o]-tat, _n._ in the English universities, a medical certificate of inability from illness to attend lectures or examinations.--_n._ aeGER ([=e]'j[.e]r), sick, the word used at Oxford and Cambridge in excusing absence on account of illness, hence a note certifying a student to be _aeger_ or sick. [L., 'he is sick,' 3d pers.

sing. pres. indic. of _aegrot[=a]re_, to be sick; _aeger_, sick.]

aeNEID, [=e]'n[=e]-id, _n._ an epic poem written by Virgil, the hero of which is aeneas. [L. _aeneis_, _-idos_.]

aeOLIAN, [=e]-[=o]'li-an, _adj._ pertaining to or acted on by the wind: aerial: of aeolis or aeolia, a district of Asia Minor colonised by the Greeks.--Also ae'[=O]LIC. [_aeolus_, the god of the winds.]

aeOLIPILE, [=e]-ol'i-p[=i]l, _n._ an instrument consisting of a hollow ball of metal partly filled with water, and having a small orifice through which steam escapes on the application of heat, thus turning the ball. It is the first instrument on record for showing the power of steam. [From L.

_aeolus_, and _pila_, ball.]

aeON, EON, [=e]'on, _n._ a period of time, an age or one of a series of ages, eternity: the personification of an age, a power emanating from the supreme Deity, with its share in the creation and government of the universe.--_adj._ ae[=O]'NIAN, eternal. [Gr. _ai[=o]n_.]

AERATE, [=a]'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to put air into: to supply, or cause to mix, with carbonic acid or other gas, as AERATED WATERS.--_ns._ A'ERATOR, an apparatus for such purpose; AER[=A]'TION, exposure to the action of air: the mixing or saturating with a gas: the oxygenation of the blood by respiration. [L. _aer_, air.]

AERIAL, [=a]-[=e]r'i-al, _adj._ belonging to the air: inhabiting or existing in the air: elevated, lofty, ethereal.--_ns._ AERIAL'ITY, AER'IALNESS.--_adv._ AER'IALLY.

AERIE, [=a]'ri, or [=e]'ri, _n._ the nest of any bird of prey, esp. an eagle: a house perched on some high or steep place: (_Shak._) the brood in the nest, or a stock of children.--Also AERY, EYRIE, EYRY. [O. Fr. _aire_; Low L. _aeria_, _aerea_--L. _area_, a spot of level ground. The form EYRY seems to have been originally due to a confusion with M. E. _ey_, an egg.]

AERIFEROUS, [=a]-[.e]r-if'[.e]r-us, _adj._ carrying or containing air. [L.

_aer_, air, and _ferre_, to carry.]

AERIFORM, [=a]'[.e]r-i-form, _adj._ having the form or nature of air or gas: unsubstantial, unreal. [L. _aer_, air, and _forma_, form.]

AERIFY, [=a]'[.e]r-i-f[=i], _v.t._ to change from a solid or liquid state into air or gas: to fill or combine with air.--_n._ AERIFIC[=A]'TION, act of being aerified or changed from a solid or liquid state into air or gas: act of combining air with anything: state of being filled with air. [L.

_aer_, air, and _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

AEROBIA, [=a]-[.e]r-[=o]'bi-a, (_biol._) bacteria that require free oxygen for the maintenance of their vitality.--_adj._ AER[=O]'BIC.

AERODYNAMICS, [=a]-[.e]r-o-di-nam'iks, _n._ the science of the motion of the air and other gases, and of their mechanical effects when in motion.

[Gr. _a[=e]r_, _aeros_, air, and _dynamis_, power.]

AEROLITE, [=a]'[.e]r-o-l[=i]t, _n._ a meteoric stone or meteorite--also A'EROLITH.--_n._ AEROLITHOL'OGY, that branch of science which treats of aerolites.--_adj._ AEROLIT'IC. [Gr. _a[=e]r_, air, _lithos_, a stone.]

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