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CaeSAR, s[=e]'zar, _n._ an absolute monarch, an autocrat, from the Roman dictator Caius Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.).--_adj._ CaeSAR'EAN, relating to Julius Caesar.--_ns._ Cae'SARISM; Cae'SARIST; Cae'SARSHIP.--CaeSAREAN OPERATION, the popular name for Hysterotomy, the delivery of a child by cutting through the walls of the abdomen, as is said to have been the case with Caesar.

CaeSIUM, s[=e]z'i-um, _n._ a silver-white, soft, and extensile alkaline metal, almost always found along with rubidium, discovered by Bunsen and Kirchhoff in 1860 by spectrum analysis.--_adj._ CaeS'IOUS, bluish green. [L.

_caesius_, bluish gray.]

CaeSURA, CESURA, s[=e]-z[=u]'ra, _n._ a syllable cut off at the end of a word after the completion of a foot: a pause in a verse.--_adj._ CaeS[=U]'RAL. [L.--_caed[)e]re_, _caesum_, to cut off.]

CAFe, kaf'[=a], _n._ a coffee-house, a restaurant.--CAFe CHANTANT, a public place of entertainment where the guests hear music while sipping their liquor. [Fr.]

CAFFEINE, kaf'e-in, or kaf-[=e]'in, _n._ the alkaloid or active principle of coffee and tea. [Fr. _cafeine_. See COFFEE.]

CAFFRE, kaf'f[.e]r, _n._ more correctly KAFIR (q.v.).

CAFTAN, kaf'tan, _n._ a Persian or Turkish vest. [Turk. _qaftan_.]

CAGE, k[=a]j, _n._ a place of confinement: a box made of wire and wood for holding birds or small animals: (_mining_) a frame with one or more platforms for cars, used in hoisting in a vertical shaft: the framework supporting a peal of bells.--_v.t._ to imprison in a cage--_p.adj._ CAGED, confined.--_ns._ CAGE'LING, a bird kept in a cage; CAGE'-WORK, open work like the bars of a cage. [Fr.--L. _cavea_, a hollow place.]

CAGOT, kag'[=o], _n._ one of an outcast race found scattered in the district of the western Pyrenees, most likely the descendants of lepers.

[Fr.; origin unknown.]

CAHIER, ka-y[=a]', _n._ a writing-book, memorandum or report: a memorial.


CAHOOT, ka-h[=oo]t', _n._ (_U.S._) company or partnership.

CAILLACH, k[=i]l'yah, _n._ an old woman. [Gael. _cailleach_.]



CAIN, k[=a]n, _n._ a murderer, from _Cain_, who killed his brother Abel (Gen. iv.).--_adj._ CAIN'-COL'OURED (_Shak._), reddish, the traditional colour of the hair of Cain and Judas.--_n._ CAIN'ITE, a descendant of Cain: a member of a 2d-century set of Gnostics who revered Cain and Judas.

CAIN, KAIN, k[=a]n, _n._ in old Scots law, rent paid in kind, esp. in poultry, &c.--TO PAY THE CAIN, to pay the penalty. [Ir. and Gael, _cain_, rent, tax.]

CAINOZOIC, k[=a]-no-z[=o]'ik, _adj._ belonging to the third of the great periods of geology, the same as the Tertiary (q.v.). [Gr. _kainos_, newly made, recent, _z[=o]on_, animal.]

CAIQUE, ka-[=e]k', _n._ a light skiff used on the Bosporus: the skiff of a galley. [Fr.,--Turk. _kaik_, a boat.]

CAIRD, k[=a]rd, _n._ a tramping tinker, a gipsy, a vagrant. [Gael. and Ir.


CAIRN, k[=a]rn, _n._ a heap of stones, esp. one raised over a grave, or as a landmark on a mountain-top.--_n._ CAIRN'GORM-STONE, or simply CAIRNGORM, a name often given by jewellers to brown or yellow quartz or rock-crystal, because found among the Cairngorm Mountains in Aberdeenshire. [Celt.


CAISSON, k[=a]s'on, _n._ a tumbril or ammunition wagon: a chest filled with explosive materials: a strong case for keeping out the water while the foundations of a bridge are being built: an apparatus for lifting a vessel out of the water for repairs or inspection: the pontoon or floating gate used to close a dry-dock. [Fr., from _caisse_, a case or chest. See CASE.]

CAITIFF, k[=a]'tif, _n._ a mean despicable fellow.--_adj._ mean, base.--_n._ CAI'TIVE (_Spens._), captive, subject. [O. Fr. _caitif_, (Fr.

_chetif_)--L. _captivus_, a captive--_cap-[)e]re_, to take.]

CAJOLE, ka-j[=o]l', _v.t._ to coax: to cheat by flattery.--_ns._ CAJOLE'MENT, coaxing for the purpose of deluding: wheedling language: flattery; CAJOL'ER; CAJOL'ERY. [Fr. _cajoler_, to chatter; ety. dub.]

CAJUPUT, kaj'i-put, _n._ a pungent, volatile, aromatic oil, distilled from the leaves of two trees native to Australia.--Also CAJ'EPUT. [Malay.]

CAKE, k[=a]k, _n._ a piece of dough that is baked: a small loaf of fine bread: any flattened mass baked, as _pan_-_cake_, &c., or as soap, wax, tobacco, &c.: a thin hard-baked kind of oaten-bread--whence Scotland is styled the 'Land of Cakes:' fancy bread, sweetened: a composition of bread with butter, sugar, spices, currants, raisins, &c., baked into any form--_plum-cake_, _tea-cake_, _wedding-cake_.--_v.t._ to form into a cake or hard mass.--_v.i._ to become baked or hardened.--_adj._ CAK'Y.--CAKES AND ALE, a phrase covering vaguely all the good things of life.--TO TAKE THE CAKE (_slang_), to carry off the honours, rank first. [Scand. _kaka_; cog. with Ger. _kuche_, Dut. _koek_.]

CALABAR-BEAN, kal'a-bar-b[=e]n, _n._ the seed of _Physostigma venenosum_, the ordeal bean of Old Calabar, used in the form of an emulsion in cases of witchcraft, the accused being plainly innocent if he can throw off the poison by vomiting.

CALABASH, kal'a-bash, _n._ a tree of tropical America, bearing a large melon-like fruit, the shell of which, called a calabash, is used for domestic purposes, as holding liquids, &c. [Fr. _calebasse_--Sp.

_calabaza_--Pers. _kharbuz_, melon.]

CALABOOSE, kal'a-b[=oo]s, _n._ a prison in New Orleans, esp. a common lock-up. [Sp. _calabozo_, a dungeon.]

CALADIUM, kal-[=a]'di-um, _n._ a genus of plants of the Arum family, with edible starchy root-stocks. [Latinised from Malay _kel[=a]dy_.]

CALAMANCO, kal-a-mangk'o, _n._ a satin-twilled woollen stuff, checkered or brocaded in the warp. [Dut. _kalamink_, Ger. _kalmank_, Fr. _calmande_; origin unknown.]

CALAMANDER, kal'a-man-d[.e]r, _n._ a hard and valuable cabinet-wood of a brownish colour, with black stripes, brought from India and Ceylon. [Prob.


CALAMARY, kal'a-mar-i, _n._ a popular name applied to numerous forms of cuttle-fish or Cephalopoda, more esp. to _Loligo vulgaris_.--Also SQUID.

[Sp. _calamar_--Fr. _calmar_--L. _calamarius_, _calamus_, a pen.]

CALAMINE, kal'a-m[=i]n, _n._ an ore consisting essentially of carbonate of zinc. [Fr.--Low L. _calamina_, most prob. from L. _cadmia_.]

CALAMINT, kal'a-mint, _n._ a genus of Labiate plants closely allied to balm and thyme. [Fr.--Low L. _calamentum_, through L. from Gr. _kalaminth[=e]_.]

CALAMITE, kal'a-m[=i]t, _n._ a fossil plant abundant in the coal-measures, believed to be a kind of gigantic horse-tails (_Equisetaceae_). [Formed from L. _calamus_, a reed.]

CALAMITY, kal-am'i-ti, _n._ a great misfortune: affliction.--_adj._ CALAM'ITOUS, making wretched, disastrous.--_adv._ CALAM'ITOUSLY, in a calamitous manner.--_n._ CALAM'ITOUSNESS, the quality of producing distress: distress: misery. [Fr. _calamite_--L. _calamitat-em_.]

CALAMUS, kal'a-mus, _n._ the traditional name of the sweet flag, which is no doubt the _Calamus aromaticus_ of Roman authors, and probably the sweet calamus and sweet cane of Scripture, but not the fragrant lemon-grass of India: a genus of palms whose stems make canes or rattans: the reed pen used by the ancients in writing. [L.--Gr.]

CALASH, ka-lash', _n._ a light low-wheeled carriage with a folding top: a silk and whalebone hood worn by ladies to shade the face. [Fr. _caleche_; of Slav. origin, as Bohem. _kolesa_, Russ. _koleso_, a wheel.]

CALAVANCE, kal'a-vans, _n._ a name for certain varieties of pulse.--Also CAR'AVANCE. [Sp. _garbanzo_, chickpea, said to be the Basque _garbantzu_.]

CALCANEUM, kal-k[=a]'n[=e]-um, _n._ a bone of the tarsus or ankle, forming in man the prominence of the heel, the _os calcis_: in birds, the hypotarsus.--_adjs._ CALC[=A]'NEAL, CALC[=A]'NEAN. [L., the heel--_calx_, the heel.]

CALCAR, kal'kar, _n._ (_bot._) a spur or spur-like projection, esp. from the base of a petal: (_anat._) an eminence in the lateral ventricles of the brain, the hippocampus minor or calcar avis.--_adjs._ CAL'CARATE; CALCAR'IFORM; CAL'CARINE. [L., a spur--_calx_, _calcis_, the heel.]

CALCAR, kal'kar, _n._ an oven or furnace for calcining the materials of frit before melting--also _Fritting-furnace_: an arch or oven for annealing.

CALCAREOUS, kal-k[=a]'re-us, _adj._ like or containing chalk or lime, whether waters, rocks, or soils.--_n._ CALC[=A]'REOUSNESS.--_adj._ CALCARIF'EROUS, better CALCIF'EROUS, containing lime. [L. _calcarius_, from _calx_, lime.]

CALCEAMENTUM, kal-s[=e]-a-men'tum, _n._ a red silk embroidered sandal forming part of the insignia of the Holy Roman Empire. [L.]

CALCED, kalst, _adj._ shod, wearing shoes--opp. to _Discalced_--of Carmelites.--_v.t._ CAL'C[=E]ATE, to shoe.--_adjs._ CAL'C[=E]ATE, -D, shod; CAL'C[=E]IFORM (_bot._), having the form of a slipper; CAL'C[=E]OLATE, calceiform. [Low L. _calceus_, a shoe--_calx_, _calcis_, the heel.]

CALCEOLARIA, kal-se-o-l[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a South American genus of _Scrophulariaceae_, largely cultivated as half-hardy or greenhouse plants for the beauty and variety in colour of the two-lipped slipper-like flowers. [L. _calceolus_, dim. of _calceus_, a shoe.]

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