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BRASSERIE, bras'er-[=e], _n._ in France, any beer garden or saloon. [Fr.]

BRASSICA, bras'i-ka, _n._ the turnip and cabbage genus of Cruciferae. [L.]


BRAT, brat, _n._ a contemptuous name for a child, as in 'beggar's brat:'

any over-garment of coarse cloth, a child's pinafore, an apron.--_n._ BRAT'CHET, a little brat--better BRAT'LING. [A.S. _bratt_; of Celtic origin, Old Ir. _brat_, a plaid, Gael. _brat_, an apron.]

BRATTICE, brat'is, _n._ a wooden partition, as in the shaft of a coal-pit, &c.--_v.t._ to line with wood the sides of a shaft, &c.--_n._ BRATT'ICE-CLOTH, strong tarred cloth used in mines in place of wooden bratticing. [O. Fr. _breteske_--Low L. _bretachia_; prob. Teut.]

BRATTLING, brat'ling, _n._ a clattering noise: quarrel: tumult--also BRAT'TLE.--_v.i._ BRAT'TLE, to make a clattering noise. [Onomatopoeic.]

BRAVADO, brav-[=a]'do, or brav-a'do, _n._ a display of bravery: a boastful threat: a swaggerer:--_pl._ BRAV[=A]'DOES.--_v.i._ to play the bravado.

[Sp. _bravada_. See BRAVE.]

BRAVE, br[=a]v, _adj._ daring, courageous: noble: finely dressed, showy, handsome (Scot. BRAW): a general word for excellent, capital.--_v.t._ to meet boldly: to defy.--_n._ (_obs._) a bully, a hired assassin: a brave soldier, esp. among the North American Indians: (_arch._) bravado: (_arch._) bravo.--_adv._ BRAVE'LY (Scot. BRAW'LY), excellently, well.--_n._ BRAV'ERY, courage: heroism: finery, showy dress. [Fr. _brave_; It. and Sp.

_bravo_; prob. from Celt., as in Bret. _braga_, to strut about, Gael.

_breagh_, fine. See BRAG.]

BRAVO, brav'o, _n._ a daring villain: a hired assassin:--_pl._ BRAVOES (brav'[=o]z). [It. and Sp.]

BRAVO, brav'o, _interj._ well done: excellent. [It.]

BRAVURA, brav-[=oo]r'a, _n._ (_mus._) a term applied to a florid air or song with difficult and rapid passages requiring great spirit and dash in execution. [It.]

BRAWL, brawl, _n._ a noisy quarrel.--_v.i._ to quarrel noisily: to murmur or gurgle.--_n._ BRAWL'ING, the act of quarrelling noisily.--_adj._ quarrelsome: noisy. [M. E. _brallen_, of doubtful origin; prob. cog. with Dut. _brallen_, Ger. _prahlen_, to boast.]

BRAWL, brawl, _n._ a kind of French dance. [Fr. _braule_.]

BRAWN, brawn, _n._ muscle, esp. of the arm or calf of the leg: thick flesh: muscular strength: a boar: a preparation of meat made from pig's head and ox-feet, cut up, boiled, and pickled.--_adj._ BRAWNED.--_n._ BRAWN'INESS, quality of being brawny: muscularity.--_adj._ BRAWN'Y, fleshy: muscular: strong. [O. Fr. _braon_, from Old Ger. _brato_, flesh (for roasting), Old Ger. _brato_ (Ger. _braten_), to roast.]

BRAXY, brak'si, _n._ and _adj._ a Scotch name loosely used for several totally different disorders of sheep.--BRAXY MUTTON, the flesh of a braxy sheep; also, generally, of any sheep that has died of disease or accident.

[Prob. the original form is _bracks_, the sing. of which is a variant of BREAK.]

BRAY, br[=a], _v.t._ to break, pound, or grind small, as in a mortar.--_n._ BRAY'ER, an instrument to grind or spread ink in printing. [O. Fr. _breier_ (Fr. _broyer_); It. _brigare_.]

BRAY, br[=a], _n._ the cry of the ass: any harsh grating sound.--_v.i._ to cry like an ass: to give forth harsh sounds, esp. of the trumpet.--_ns._ BRAY'ER, one who brays like an ass; BRAY'ING, the noise of an ass: any harsh noise.--_adj._ making a harsh noise. [O. Fr. _brai_, _brait_; _braire_--Low L. _bragire_, prob. of Celt. origin.]

BRAZE, br[=a]z, _v.t._ to solder with an alloy of brass and zinc.--_adj._ BR[=A]'ZEN, of or belonging to brass: impudent.--_v.t._ to face or confront with impudence--as in 'to brazen it out.'--_n._ BR[=A]'ZEN-FACE, one having a brazen or impudent face: one remarkable for impudence.--_adj._ BR[=A]'ZEN-FACED, impudent.--_adv._ BR[=A]'ZENLY.--_ns._ BR[=A]'ZENNESS, BR[=A]'ZENRY, effrontery; BR[=A]'ZIER, BR[=A]'SIER, a pan for holding burning coals--also BRAS'ERO; BR[=A]Z'ING, soldering. [O. Fr. _braser_, to burn; most prob. related to BRASS.]

BRAZIER, br[=a]'zi-[.e]r, _n._ one who works in BRASS (q.v.).

BRAZIL, bra-zil', _n._ usually BRAZIL'-WOOD, the hard reddish wood of an East Indian tree, known as sappan, used in dyeing.--_n._ BRAZIL'IAN, a native of Brazil, in South America.--_adj._ belonging to Brazil.--_n._ BRAZIL'-NUT, the edible seed of a large tree, native of Brazil. [O. Fr.

_bresil_ (Sp. _brasil_, It. _brasile_)--Low L. _brasilium_, a red dye-wood, brought from the East, itself prob. a corr. of some Oriental word. When a similar wood was discovered in South America the country became known as _terra de brasil_, land of red dye-wood, whence _Brasil_, Brazil.]

BREACH, br[=e]ch, _n._ a break or opening, as in the walls of a fortress: a breaking of law, &c., violation of contract, covenant, promise, &c.: a quarrel: a broken condition or part of anything, a break: a gap in a fortification--hence 'to stand in the breach,' often used figuratively: a break in a coast-line, bay, harbour, creek (Judges, v. 17).--_v.t._ to make a breach or opening in a wall, &c.--BREACH OF PROMISE, often used simply for breach of promise of marriage; BREACH OF THE PEACE, a violation of the public peace by riot or the like. [A.S. _bryce_, _brice_; related to BREAK.]

BREAD, bred, _n._ food made of flour or meal baked: food: livelihood.--_ns._ BREAD'-BAS'KET, a basket for holding bread: (_slang_) the stomach; BREAD'-CHIP'PER (_Shak._), one who chips bread, an under-butler; BREAD'-CORN, corn of which bread is BREAD'-CRUMBS, bread crumbled down for dressing dishes of fried fish, &c.--_n._ BREAD'FRUIT-TREE, a tree of the South Sea Islands, producing a fruit which, when roasted, forms a good substitute for bread; BREAD'-NUT, the fruit of a tree, a native of Jamaica, closely allied to the breadfruit-tree, which is used as bread when boiled or roasted; BREAD'-ROOM, an apartment in a ship's hold where the bread is kept; BREAD'-ROOT, a herbaceous perennial plant of North America, with a carrot-like root which is used as food; BREAD'-STUD'Y, any branch of study taken up as a means of gaining a living; BREAD'-STUFF, the various kinds of grain or flour of which bread is made; BREAD'-TREE, a tree of South Africa which has a great deal of starch in its stem, and is used as bread by the natives; BREAD'-WIN'NER, one who earns a living for a family.--BREAD BUTTERED ON BOTH SIDES, very fortunate circumstances.--TO TAKE THE BREAD OUT OF ONE'S MOUTH, to deprive of the means of living. [A.S. _bread_, prob.

from a Teut. root meaning a fragment, like the Scot. and Norse country use of 'a _piece_,' for a bit of bread. The usual A.S. word was _hlaf_.]

BREADED, bred'ed, _pa.p._ (_Spens._) = BRAIDED.

BREADTH, bredth, _n._ extent from side to side: width: a style in painting in which details are strictly subordinated to the harmony of the whole composition.--_adv._ BREADTH'WAYS, broadside on. [A.S. _br['ae]du_; Ger.

_briete_. See BROAD.]

BREAK, br[=a]k, _v.t._ to part by force: to shatter: to crush: to tame, or wear out: to violate, or outrage, as a law, a bargain, &c.: to check by intercepting, as a fall: to interrupt, as silence, or the monotony of anything, or in 'to break one off a habit:' to make bankrupt: to degrade from rank, as an officer.--_v.i._ to part in two: to burst forth: to open or appear, as the morning: to become bankrupt: to crack or give way, as the voice: to dissolve, as frost: to collapse in foam, as a wave: to fall out, as with a friend:--_pa.t._ br[=o]ke; _pa.p._ br[=o]k'en.--_n._ the state of being broken: an opening: a pause or interruption: (_billiards_) a consecutive series of successful strokes, also the number of points attained by such: the dawn.--_ns._ BREAK'AGE, the action of breaking, or its consequences: an interruption; BREAK'-DOWN, a dance, vigorous rather than graceful, in which much noise is made by the feet of the one performer; BREAK'ER, a wave broken on rocks or the shore.--_adj._ BREAK'-NECK, likely to cause a broken neck.--_ns._ BREAK'-PROM'ISE, BREAK'-VOW, one who makes a practice of breaking his promise or vow; BREAK'WATER, a barrier to break the force of the waves.--BREAK A JEST, to utter a jest unexpectedly; BREAK A LANCE WITH, to enter into a contest with a rival; BREAK AWAY, to go away abruptly, as from prison, &c.: to be scattered, as clouds after a storm; BREAK BULK, to open the hold and take out a portion of the cargo; BREAK COVER, to burst forth from concealment, as a fox; BREAK DOWN, to crush down or level: to collapse, to fail completely; BREAK FORTH, to burst out, issue; BREAK GROUND, to commence digging or excavation: to begin; BREAK IN, to train to labour, as a horse; BREAK IN, IN UPON, or INTO, to enter violently or unexpectedly, to interpose abruptly in a conversation, &c.; BREAK LOOSE, to extricate one's self forcibly: to break through all restraint; BREAK NEWS, to make anything known, esp. of bad news, with caution and delicacy; BREAK OFF, to separate by breaking, put an end to; BREAK OUT, to appear suddenly: to break through all restraint; BREAK SHEER (said of a ship riding at anchor), to be forced by wind or tide out of a position clear of the anchor; BREAK THE HEART, to destroy with grief; BREAK THE ICE (_fig._), to get through first difficulties: BREAK UP, to break open; BREAK UPON THE WHEEL, to punish by stretching a criminal on a wheel and breaking his bones; BREAK WIND, to void wind from the stomach; BREAK WITH, to fail out, as friends may do.

[A.S. _brecan_; Ger. _brechen_.]

BREAK, BRAKE, br[=a]k, _n._ a large wagonette: a carriage frame, all wheels and no body, used in breaking in horses. [BREAK, _v.t._]

BREAKER, br[=a]k'[.e]r, _n._ a small water-cask, used on shipboard. [Prob.

a corr. of Sp. _bareca_, a barrel.]

BREAKFAST, brek'fast, _n._ a break or breaking of a fast: the first meal of the day.--_v.i._ to take breakfast.--_v.t._ to furnish with breakfast.--_ns._ BREAK'FASTING, the act of taking breakfast: a party at breakfast; BREAK'FAST-SET, the china or other ware used at breakfast.

BREAM, br[=e]m, _n._ a small fresh-water fish nearly allied to the bleak: a family of sea-breams or Sparidae. [O. Fr. _bresme_ (Fr. _breme_)--Old Ger.

_brahsema_ (mod. Ger. _brassen_).]

BREAM, br[=e]m, _v.t._ to clean, as a ship's bottom, by burning off seaweed, shells, &c. [Prob. conn. with BROOM, Dut. _brem_.]

BREARE, BRERE, br[=e]r, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as BRIER.

BREAST, brest, _n._ the forepart of the human body between the neck and the belly: one of the two mammary glands in women, forming soft protuberances on the chest: the corresponding part of any animal: (_fig._) conscience, disposition, affections.--_v.t._ to bear the breast against: to oppose manfully: to mount.--_n._ BREAST'-BONE, the bone running down the middle of the breast, to which the first seven ribs are attached.--_adv._ BREAST'-DEEP, deep, as up to the breast.--_adj._ BREAST'ED, having a breast.--_adv._ BREAST'-HIGH, high as the breast--_ns._ BREAST'-KNOT, a knot of ribbons worn on the breast; BREAST'PIN, an ornamental pin for the breast; BREAST'PLATE, a plate or piece of armour for the breast: (_B._) an embroidered square of linen worn on the breast of the Jewish high-priest, bearing twelve precious stones, each inscribed with the name of one of the tribes of Israel; BREAST'-PLOUGH, a kind of spade for cutting turf, with a cross-bar against which the breast is pressed; BREAST'RAIL, the upper rail of a breastwork; BREAST'SUMMER, BRES'SUMMER, a summer or beam supporting the whole front of a building in the same way as a lintel supports the portion over an opening; BREAST'-WALL, a retaining wall; BREAST'-WHEEL, a water-wheel which is turned by water delivered upon it at about half its height; BREAST'WORK, a hastily constructed earthwork.--TO MAKE A CLEAN BREAST OF, to make a full confession. [A.S. _breost_; Ger. _brust_, Dut.


BREATH, breth, _n._ the air drawn into and then expelled from the lungs: power of breathing: life: the time occupied by once breathing: a very slight breeze.--_adjs._ BREATH'FUL (_Spens._), full of breath or air, also full of scent or odour; BREATH'LESS, out of breath: dead: excessively eager, as if holding one's breath from excitement.--_n._ BREATH'LESSNESS.--TO CATCH THE BREATH, to stop breathing for an instant; TO SPEND ONE'S BREATH, as in profitless talk; TO TAKE BREATH, to recover freedom of breathing; WITH BATED BREATH, with breath restrained from reverence or fear. [A.S. _br[/ae]th_; Ger. _brodem_, steam, breath.]

BREATHE, br[=e]_th_, _v.i._ to draw in and expel breath or air from the lungs: to take breath, to rest or pause: to live.--_v.t._ to draw in and expel from the lungs, as air: to infuse: to give out as breath: to utter by the breath or softly, to whisper: to express: to keep in breath, to exercise: to tire by some brisk exercise.--_ns._ BREATH'ER, one who breathes or lives: a spell of exercise; BREATH'ING, the act of breathing: aspiration, secret prayer: respite.--_adj._ life-like.--_ns._ BREATH'ING-TIME, time to breathe or rest; BREATH'ING-WHILE, time sufficient for drawing breath: any very short period.--TO BREATHE AGAIN, to be relieved from an anxiety; TO BREATHE FREELY, to be at ease; TO BREATHE UPON, to tarnish or soil. [See BREATH.]

BRECCIA, brech'ya, _n._ a conglomerate rock composed of angular and unworn fragments, cemented together by lime or other mineral substance.--_adj._ BRECCIATED (brech'y[=a]t-ed), noting rocks composed of breccia, [It.; cf.

Fr. _breche_, breach, flint pebble.]

BRED, bred, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BREED.

BREDE, br[=e]d, _n._ an obsolete form of BRAID.

BREE, br[=e], _n._ the eyebrow. [Still in Scot.; A.S. _br['ae]w_, _breaw_; cf. Ger. (_augen_)_braue_.]

BREE, br[=e], _n._ the liquor in which anything has been boiled--_barley-bree_. [A.S. _briw_; cf. Ger. _brei_.]

BREECH, br[=e]ch, _n._ the lower part of the body behind: the hinder part of anything, esp. of a gun.--_v.t._ to put into breeches: to flog.--_adj._ BREECHES (brich'ez), a garment worn by men on the lower limbs of the body, strictly, as distinguished from trousers, coming just below the knee, but often used generally for trousers--(KNEE-BREECHES, see under KNEE).--_n._ BREECH'ING, a part of a horse's harness attached to the saddle, which comes round the breech and is hooked to the shafts: a strong rope attached to the breech of a gun to secure it to a ship's side.--_adj._ (_Shak._) subject to whipping.--_n._ BREECH'-LOAD'ER, a firearm loaded by introducing the charge at the breech instead of the muzzle.--BREECHES BIBLE, a name often given to the Geneva Bible produced by the English Protestant exiles in 1560, so named from the rendering 'breeches' in Gen.

iii. 7; BREECHES PART (_theat._), a part in which a girl wears men's clothes.--TO WEAR THE BREECHES, (said of a wife), to usurp the authority of the husband: to be master. [A.S. _brec_; found in all Teut. languages; cf.

Ger. _bruch_, Dut. _brock_.]

BREED, br[=e]d, _v.t._ to generate or bring forth: to train or bring up: to cause or occasion.--_v.i._ to be with young: to produce offspring: to be produced or brought forth:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ bred.--_n._ that which is bred, progeny or offspring: kind or race.--_ns._ BREED'-BATE (_Shak._), one who is constantly breeding or producing debate or strife; BREED'ER, one who breeds or brings up; BREED'ING, act of producing: education or manners.--BREEDING IN-AND-IN, pairing of similar forms: marrying always among near relations. [A.S. _bredan_, to cherish, keep warm; Ger. _bruten_, to hatch.]

BREEKS, br[=e]ks, (_Scot._) breeches, trousers.

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