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BOURSE, b[=oo]rs, _n._ an exchange where merchants meet for business. [Fr.

_bourse_. See PURSE.]

BOURTREE, b[=oo]r'tr[=e], _n._ the elder-tree--also BOUN'TREE.--_n._ BOUR'TREE-GUN, a pop-gun made of a piece of its wood by taking out the pith. [_Scot._; ety. unknown.]

BOUSE, BOOZE, BOOSE, b[=oo]z, _v.i._ to drink deeply.--_n._ a drinking bout.--_adj._ BOUS'ING, drinking.--_n._ BOUS'INGKEN, a low drinking-shop.--_adj._ BOUS'Y, inclined to bouse: drunken. [Dut. _buysen_, to drink deeply--_buis_, a tube or flask; allied to BOX.]

BOUSTROPHEDON, bow-strof-[=e]'don, _adj._ and _adv._ written ploughwise, alternately from right to left and from left to right--a form of alphabetic writing intermediate between the oldest Greek inscriptions (from right to left, as in Semitic scripts) and the more convenient method of left to right (from 7th century). [Gr.; _bou-strophos_, ox-turning.]

BOUT, bowt, _n._ a turn, trial, or round: an attempt: a contest or trial--a fencing bout, or a continued fit of drinking. [Doublet of BIGHT; from root of BOW, to bend.]

BOUTADE, b[=oo]-tad', _n._ a sudden outburst. [Fr.; _bouter_, to thrust.]

BOUTS-RIMeS, b[=oo]-r[=e]-m[=a]', rhyming words given out by some one of a party as the endings of a stanza, the others having to fill up the lines as best they may. [Fr.]

BOVINE, b[=o]'v[=i]n, _adj._ pertaining to cattle. [L. _bos_, _bovis_, Gr.

_bous_, an ox or cow.]

BOVRIL, bov'ril, _n._ a registered trade-mark applied to a special meat extract. [Coined from Gr. _bous_, _bovis_, an ox, and _vril_, the electric fluid represented as the one common origin of the forces in matter, in Lytton's novel _The Coming Race_, 1871.]

BOW, bow, _v.i._ to bend the body in saluting a person, acknowledging a compliment, &c.: to submit.--_v.t._ to bend or incline downwards, to crush down (with _down_, _to_, _in_ or _out_, _up_ or _down_).--_n._ a bending of the body in saluting a person.--_adj._ BOW'-BACKED, crook-backed.--A BOWING ACQUAINTANCE, a slight acquaintance.--TO MAKE ONE'S BOW, to retire ceremoniously, to leave the stage. [A.S. _bugan_, to bend; akin to L.

_fug-[)e]re_, to flee, to yield.]

BOW, b[=o], _n._ a piece of elastic wood or other material for shooting arrows, bent by means of a string stretched between its two ends: anything of a bent or curved shape, as the rainbow: the instrument by which the strings of a violin are sounded: a ring of metal forming a handle: a knot composed of one or of two loops and two ends (_single bow_, _double bow_), a looped knot of ribbons, a necktie or the like, so tied.--_adj._ BOW'BENT (_Milton_), bent like a bow.--_n._ BOW'-BOY, a boy archer: (_Shak._) BOW'-COM'PASSES, compasses, one leg of which slides on a bow or curved plate of metal to steady its motion: a small pair of compasses for describing circles with ink or pencil.--_adj._ BOWED.--_ns._ BOW'-HAND, in archery, the left hand, the one by which the bow is held: (_mus._) the right hand, the one that draws the bow; BOW'-LEG, a leg crooked like a bow.--_adj._ BOW'-LEGGED, having crooked legs.--_ns._ BOW'LINE, a rope from the weather side of the square sails (to which it is fastened by _bridles_) to the larboard or starboard bow, to keep the sail close to the wind; BOW'MAN, an archer; BOW'SHOT, the distance to which an arrow can be shot from a bow; BOW'STRING, the string by which a bow is drawn: a string with which the Turks strangled offenders; BOW'-WIN'DOW, a bent or semicircular window.--_adj._ BOW'-WIN'DOWED (_slang_), pot-bellied.--_n._ BOW'YER (_obs._), a bowman: a maker of bows.--BOWLINE KNOT, a simple but secure knot, used in fastening the bowline bridles to the cringles.--ON THE BOW HAND, wide of the mark.--TO DRAW THE LONG BOW, to make extravagant statements; TO HAVE TWO (or more) STRINGS TO ONE'S BOW, to have other alternatives. [A.S. _boga_; cog. with Ger. _bogen_.]

BOW, bow, _n._ the general name for the stem and forepart of a ship, or that which cuts the water--often used in _pl._, the ship being considered to have starboard and port bows, meeting at the stem.--_ns._ BOW'ER, BOW'ER-ANCH'OR, an anchor at the bow or forepart of a ship--usually two, the _best-bower_ and the _small-bower_; BOW'-OAR, the oar nearest the bow.--A BOLD, or BLUFF, BOW, a broad bow; A LEAN BOW, a narrow one.--ON THE BOW, within 45 of the point right ahead.

BOWDLERISE, bowd'l[.e]r-[=i]z, _v.t._ to expurgate a book or writing, to remove indelicate words or phrases, esp. to do so unnecessarily.--_ns._ BOWDLERIS[=A]'TION; BOWD'LERISER; BOWD'LERISM. [From Dr T. _Bowdler_ (1754-1825), who published an expurgated Shakespeare in ten volumes in 1818.]

BOWELS, bow'elz, the interior parts of the body, the entrails, the intestines: the interior part of anything: (_fig._) the heart, pity, tenderness (the emotions being supposed to be seated in the bowels--_B._ and _Shak._).--_v.t._ BOW'EL, to take out the bowels. [O. Fr. _boel_--L.

_botellus_, a sausage, also an intestine.]

BOWER, bow'[.e]r, _n._ a shady enclosure or recess in a garden, an arbour: an inner apartment, esp. the private room of a lady, a boudoir.--_n._ BOW'ER-BIRD, an Australian bird of the Starling family, remarkable for its habit of making bower-like erections ornamented with gay feathers, shells, &c.--_adj._ BOW'ERY, containing bowers: shady. [A.S. _bur_, a chamber; Scot, _byre_--root A.S. _buan_, to dwell.]

BOWER, bow'[.e]r, _n._ the name in euchre for the two highest cards, the knave of trumps, and the other knave of the same colour, the _right_ and _left_ bower respectively. [Ger. _bauer_, peasant.]


BOWIE-KNIFE, b[=o]'i-n[=i]f, _n._ a dagger-knife with a blade about twelve inches long, carried in the southern states of America--so named from its inventor, Colonel _Bowie_.

BOWL, b[=o]l, _n._ a wooden ball used for rolling along the ground.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to play at bowls: to roll along like a bowl: to throw a ball, as in cricket.--_ns._ BOWL'ER, one who plays at bowls: one who bowls the ball in cricket; BOWL'ING, the act of playing at bowls, or of throwing a ball, as in cricket; BOWL'ING-AL'LEY, a long narrow covered place for bowling; BOWL'ING-GREEN, a green or grassy plat kept smooth for bowling. [Fr.

_boule_--L. _bulla_.]

BOWL, b[=o]l, _n._ a basin for domestic use, esp. of earthenware or porcelain, nearly hemispherical in shape: a large punch-bowl, for brewing punch in: a round drinking-cup, rather wide than deep--hence 'the bowl,'

'the flowing bowl,' as synonyms for conviviality; the round hollow part of anything. [A.S. _bolla_. See BOLE.]

BOWLDER, b[=o]ld'[.e]r, _n._ Same as BOULDER.


BOWSPRIT, b[=o]'sprit, _n._ a strong spar projecting over the stem-head or bows of a sailing-ship, and also of a steamship when her stem is of the curved or cutwater description. [Dut. _boegspriet_.]

BOX, boks, _n._ a tree remarkable for the hardness and smoothness of its wood--also BOX-TREE (_Shak._): a case or receptacle for holding anything: the contents of a box: a small house or lodge, as a _shooting-box_, &c.: in a theatre, a small enclosure with several seats--_the boxes_ = their occupants, the ladies: an old square pew or similar enclosure, as a _sentry-box_, _signal-box_, &c.: the driver's seat on a carriage: the case in which the ship's compass is kept.--_v.t._ to put into or furnish with boxes: (_slang_) to overturn a watchman in his box.--_ns._ BOX'-BED, a kind of bed once common in Scotch cottages, having its ends, sides, and roof of wood, and capable of being closed in front by two sliding panels; BOX'-DAY, one of the Court of Session vacation days when papers ordered to be deposited in court must be lodged.--_adj._ BOX'EN, made of or like boxwood.--_ns._ BOX'ING-DAY, in England, the day after Christmas, when boxes or presents are given; BOX'-[=I]'RON, a hollow smoothing-iron which is heated by a heater put into it; BOX'-KEEP'ER, an attendant who opens the doors of boxes at theatres or other places of public amusement; BOX'-LOBB'Y, the lobby leading to the boxes in a theatre; BOX'WOOD, wood of the box-tree.--IN THE WRONG BOX, in a false position, in a scrape.--TO BE IN A BOX, to be in a fix; TO BOX HARRY, to take a beefsteak, mutton-chop, or bacon and eggs with tea or ale, instead of the regulation dinner of the commercial traveller; TO BOX THE COMPASS, to name the 32 points in their order and backwards, hence to make a complete roundabout in any opinion.

[A.S. _box_--L. _buxus_--Gr. _pyxos_, the tree, _pyxis_, a box.]

BOX, boks, _n._ a blow on the head or ear with the hand.--_v.t._ to strike with the hand or fist.--_v.i._ to fight with the fists.--_ns._ BOX'ER; BOX'ING, the act of fighting with the fists: a combat with the fists; BOX'ING-GLOVE, a padded glove worn in boxing.

BOXHAUL, boks'hawl, _v.t._ to veer a ship sharp round on her heel, by putting the helm a-lee, bracing the head-yards flat aback, and hauling to windward the head-sheets.

BOY, boy, _n._ a male child: a lad: a young man generally, used for 'man'

in Ireland and elsewhere: (_Shak._) a camp-follower: (_obs._) knave: a native servant in South India, China, a male negro slave or native labourer in the South Seas.--_v.t._ to play the boy.--_n._ BOY'HOOD.--_adj._ BOY'ISH.--_adv._ BOY'ISHLY.--_n._ BOY'ISHNESS.--BOY'S LOVE, a popular name for southernwood; BOY'S PLAY, trifling. [M. E. _boi_, _boy_; Fris. _boi_; Dut. _boef_, Ger. _bube_.]

BOYAR, boy'ar, _n._ an order of the old Russian aristocracy, holding the chief military and civil offices prior to the reforms of Peter the Great.

BOYCOTT, boy'kot, _v.t._ to shut out from all social and commercial intercourse--a kind of secular excommunication. [From Captain _Boycott_ of County Mayo, who was so treated by his neighbours in Dec. 1880.]

BRABBLE, brab'bl, _v.i._ to babble or clamour: to brawl or wrangle.--_n._ (_Shak._) a clamorous contest, a brawl: a quibble. [Dut. _brabbelen_, to stammer, to jabber.]

BRACCIO, brach'yo, _n._ an Italian measure of length, varying from half a yard to a yard:--_pl._ BRACCIA (brach-ya). [It., an arm.]


BRACE, br[=a]s, _n._ anything that draws together and holds tightly: a bandage: a pair or couple: an instrument of wood or iron used by carpenters and metal-workers for turning boring tools: in printing, a mark connecting two or more words or lines (}): (_pl._) straps for supporting the trousers: ropes for squaring or traversing horizontally the yards of a ship.--_v.t._ to tighten or strengthen, to give firmness to.--_adj._ BRAC'ING, giving strength or tone. [O. Fr. _brace_ (Fr. _bras_), the arm, power--L.

_brachium_, Gr. _brachi[=o]n_, the arm, as holding together.]

BRACE, br[=a]s, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to embrace, encompass.

BRACELET, br[=a]s'let, _n._ an ornament for the wrist. [Fr.; dim. of O. Fr.

_brac_. See BRACE.]

BRACH, brach, _n._ a dog for the chase, a bitch-hound. [O. Fr. _brachet_, pl. _braches_, dim. of _brac_--Low L. _bracco_, of Teut. origin.]

BRACHIAL, brak'i-al, _adj._ belonging to the arm.--BRACHIAL ARTERY, the great arterial trunk supplying the upper extremity between the armpit and the elbow--the direct continuation of the axillary artery. [See BRACE.]

BRACHIOPODA, brak-i-op'o-da, BRACHIOPODS, brak'i-o-pods, a class of shelled animals having certain affinities with worms and with Polyzoa, but less with molluscs, provided with two long arm-like processes arising from the sides of the mouth, probably respiratory, and certainly serving to waft little food particles to the mouth. [Gr. _brachi[=o]n_, an arm, and _pous_, _pod-os_, a foot.]

BRACHYCEPHALIC, brak-i-sef-al'ik (also sef'-), BRACHYCEPHALOUS, brak-i-sef'al-us, _adj._ short-headed, applied in ethnology to skulls of which the breadth is at least four-fifths of the length--opp. to _Dolichocephalic_.

BRACHYPTEROUS, brak-ip't[.e]r-us, _adj._ lit. short-winged: having wings which, when folded, do not reach to the base of the tail. [Gr. _brachys_, short, _pteron_, a wing.]

BRACK, brak, _n._ a flaw in cloth. [See BREAK.]

BRACKEN, brak'en, _n._ fern. [See BRAKE.]

BRACKET, brak'et, _n._ a support for something fastened to a wall, the ornamental metal pipe bearing gas-lamps, &c.: (_pl._) in printing, the marks [ ] used to enclose one or more words: one of the side pieces of a gun-carriage, supporting the trunnions.--_v.t._ to support by brackets: to enclose by brackets: to group two names, as in an honour list, implying equality. [Fr. _braguette_; Sp. _bragueta_--L. _braca_, _bracae_, breeches.]

BRACKISH, brak'ish, _adj._ saltish: applied to water mixed with salt or with sea-water.--_n._ BRACK'ISHNESS. [Dut. _brak_, brackish; prob. the same as _brak_, refuse.]

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