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BIVOUAC, biv'[=oo]-ak, _n._ the resting at night of soldiers in the open air, instead of under cover in camp.--_v.i._ to pass the night in the open air:--_pr.p._ biv'ouacking; _pa.p._ biv'ouacked. [Fr.--Ger. _beiwacht_, to watch beside--_bei_ by, _wachen_, to watch.]

BI-WEEKLY, b[=i]'-w[=e]k'li, _adj._ properly, occurring once in two weeks, but usually twice in every week. [L. _bi-_, twice, and WEEK.]

BIZARRE, bi-zar', _adj._ odd: fantastic: extravagant.--_n._ BIZAR'RERIE.

[Fr.--Sp. _bizarro_, high-spirited; acc. to Littre, adapted from Basque _bizarre_, the beard.]


BLAB, blab, _v.i._ to talk much: to tell tales.--_v.t._ to tell what ought to be kept secret (with _out_, _forth_):--_pr.p._ blab'bing; _pa.p._ blabbed.--_n._ an open-mouthed person, a tattler: tattling.--_n._ BLAB'BER, one who blabs. [M. E. _blabbe_, a chatterer, also BLABBER, to babble, with which cf. Norse _blabbra_, Ger. _plappern_.]

BLACK, blak, _adj._ of the darkest colour: without colour: obscure: dismal: sullen: horrible: dusky: foul, dirty: malignant: dark-haired, wearing dark armour or clothes.--_n._ black colour: absence of colour: a negro: mourning: the dark smut which attacks wheat: a speck of black on the face, a sooty particle in the air: black clothes, esp. dress trousers.--_v.t._ to make black: to soil or stain: to draw in black.--_n._ BLACK'AMOOR, a black Moor: a negro.--_adjs._ BLACK'-AND-TAN, having black hair on the back, and tan or yellowish-brown elsewhere, esp. of a terrier; BLACK'-A-VISED, of dark complexion (probably originally _black-a-vis_).--_v.t._ BLACK'BALL, to reject in voting by putting a black ball into a ballot-box.--_ns._ BLACK'BALLING, the act of so rejecting a candidate; BLACK'-BAND, iron ore containing enough of coal to calcine it; BLACK'-BEE'TLE, a cockroach; BLACK'BERRY, the berry of the bramble; BLACK'BIRD, a species of thrush of a black colour: a current name for a negro or Polynesian kidnapped for labour; BLACK'BIRDING, the kidnapping of such; BLACK'BOARD, a board painted black, used in schools for writing, forming figures, &c.--_adjs._ BLACK'-BOD'ING, of evil omen; BLACK'-BROWED, having black eyebrows: sullen.--_ns._ BLACK'-CAP, a bird, a species of warbler, so called from its black crown: (_cook._) an apple roasted until it is black, and served up in a custard: the full-dress cap put on by English judges when about to pronounce sentence of death; BLACK'-CATT'LE, oxen, bulls, and cows; BLACK'-CHALK, a variety of clay-slate of a bluish-black colour, used for drawing, and also for making black paint; BLACK'COCK, a species of grouse, common in the north of England and in Scotland; BLACK'-CURR'ANT, a garden shrub with black fruit used in making preserves; BLACK'-DEATH, a name given to the plague of the 14th century from the black spots which appeared on the skin; BLACK'-DRAUGHT, the popular name for a purgative medicine consisting chiefly of senna and Epsom salts; BLACK'-DROP, a liquid preparation of opium, vinegar, and sugar.--_v.t._ BLACK'EN, to make black: to defame.--_adj._ BLACK'FACED, having a black face: dismal.--_ns._ BLACK'-FLAG, the flag of a pirate, or that hoisted at the execution of a criminal--from its colour; BLACK'-FRIAR, a friar of the Dominican order, so called from his black mantle (over a white woollen habit): (_pl._) the region in a city, as London, where their convent stood; BLACKGUARD (blag'ard), originally applied to the lowest menials about a court, who took charge of the pots, kettles, &c.: a low, ill-conducted fellow.--_adj._ low: scurrilous.--_v.t._ to treat as a blackguard; _v.i._ to play the blackguard.--_n._ BLACK'GUARDISM.--_adv._ BLACK'GUARDLY.--_ns._ BLACK'-HEART'EDNESS; BLACK'-HOLE, formerly the name for the punishment-cell in a barrack: the memorable black-hole in the Fort-William barracks at Calcutta, into which, in in 1756, as many as 146 Europeans were thrust over night, of whom only 23 were found surviving in the morning; BLACK'ING, a substance used for blacking leather, &c.--_adj._ BLACK'ISH.--_ns._ BLACK'-JACK, a vessel for holding drink, originally made of leather: (_naut._) the flag of a pirate; BLACK'-LEAD, a black mineral (plumbago, not lead) used in making pencils, blacking grates, &c.; BLACK'LEG, a low, gambling fellow: a turf-swindler: a term applied by strikers to men willing to work for the wages against which themselves have struck--also BLACK'-NEB; BLACK'-LET'TER, the old English (also called Gothic) letter ([Black-letter]); BLACK'-LIST, a list of defaulters; BLACK'-MAR[=I]'A, the closely covered, usually black-painted van in which prisoners are conveyed between the court and the prison; BLACK'-MON'DAY, Easter Monday, so called on account of the sufferings experienced by the army of Edward III. from the severity of the weather on that day in 1360; BLACK'-MONK, a monk of the order of St Benedict, from his garments; BLACK'NESS; BLACK'-PUDD'ING, a blood-pudding (q.v.).; BLACK'-ROD, the usher of the chapter of the Garter and of the House of Lords, so called from the black wand tipped with a golden lion which he carries; BLACK'-SHEEP, a disreputable member of a family or group; BLACK'SMITH, a smith who works in iron, as opposed to a _Whitesmith_, or one who works in tin; BLACK'THORN, a species of dark-coloured thorn: the sloe: a stick made from its stem.--_adjs._ BLACK'-TRESSED, having black tresses; BLACK-VISAGED (blak'-viz'[=a]jd), having a black visage or appearance.--_n._ BLACK'-WASH, a lotion of calomel and lime-water: anything that blackens.--BLACK AND BLUE, with the livid colour of a bruise in the flesh; BLACK BOOK, an official book bound in black, a book recording the names of persons deserving punishment; BLACK EYE, an eye of which the iris is dark--a point of beauty: a discoloration around the eye due to a blow or fall; BLACK FELLOW, a native in Australia.--IN BLACK AND WHITE, in writing or in print: in art, in no colours but black and white.--TO BE BLACK IN THE FACE, to have the face purple through strangulation, passion, or effort; TO BE IN ANY ONE'S BLACK BOOKS, to have incurred any one's displeasure; TO BLACK OUT, to obliterate with black. [A.S. _blac_, _blaec_, black.]

BLACK-ART, blak'-art, _n._ necromancy: magic. [Acc. to Trench, a translation of the Low L. _nigromantia_, substituted erroneously for the Gr. _necromanteia_ (see NECROMANCY), as if the first syllable had been L.

_niger_, black.]

BLACKMAIL, blak'm[=a]l, _n._ rent or tribute formerly paid to robbers for protection: hush-money extorted under threat of exposure or denunciation, esp. of a baseless charge.--_v.t._ to extort money from a person by this expedient. [BLACK and A.S. _mal_, tribute, toll.]

BLAD, blad, _n._ a fragment of anything, a good lump. [Scot.]

BLADDER, blad'[.e]r, _n._ a thin bag distended with liquid or air: the receptacle for the urine.--_adjs._ BLADD'ERED, BLADD'ERY, swollen like a bladder.--_n._ BLADD'ERWORT, a genus of slender aquatic plants, the leaves floating. [A.S. _bl['ae]dre_--_blawan_; Old Ger. _blahan_, _blajan_, to blow; Ger. _blase_, bladder--_blasen_, to blow; cf. L. _flat-us_, breath.]

BLADE, bl[=a]d, _n._ the leaf or flat part of grass or corn: the cutting part of a knife, sword, &c.: the flat part of an oar: a dashing fellow.--_n._ BLADE'BONE, the flat bone at the back of the shoulder: the scapula.--_adj._ BLAD'ED. [A.S. _blaed_; Ice. _blad_, Ger. _blatt_.]

BLAE, bl[=a], _adj._ blackish or blue in colour: livid: bleak.--_n._ BLAE'BERRY, Scotch name for the bilberry or whortleberry. [M. E. _blo_, _bloo_--Scand. _bla_.]

BLAGUE, blag, _n._ blustering humbug. [Fr.]

BLAIN, bl[=a]n, _n._ a boil or blister. [A.S. _blegen_, a blister, prob.

from _blawan_, to blow.]

BLAME, bl[=a]m, _v.t._ to find fault with: to censure.--_n._ imputation of a fault: crime: censure.--_adj._ BLAM'ABLE, deserving of blame: faulty.--_n._ BLAM'ABLENESS.--_adv._ BLAM'ABLY.--_adj._ BLAME'FUL, meriting blame: criminal.--_adv._ BLAME'FULLY.--_n._ BLAME'FULLNESS.--_adj._ BLAMELESS, without blame: guiltless: innocent.--_adv._ BLAME'LESSLY.--_ns._ BLAME'LESSNESS; BLAME'WORTHINESS, quality of being worthy of blame: blamableness.--_adj._ BLAME'WORTHY, worthy of blame: culpable. [Fr.

_blamer_, _blasmer_--Gr. _blasph[=e]me_-_ein_, to speak ill. See BLASPHEME.]

BLANCH, blansh, _v.t._ to whiten.--_v.i._ to grow white. [Fr.

_blanchir_--_blanc_, white. See BLANK.]

BLANC-MANGE, bla-mawngzh', _n._ a white jelly prepared with milk. [Fr.

_blanc_, white, _manger_, food.]

BLAND, bland, _adj._ smooth: gentle: mild.--_adv._ BLANDLY.--_n._ BLAND'NESS. [L. _blandus_, perh.--_mla_(_n_)_dus_--Eng. _mild_.]

BLAND, bland, _n._ an Orcadian name for butter-milk and water. [Scand.


BLANDISH, bland'ish, _v.t._ to flatter and coax, to cajole.--_n._ BLAND'ISHMENT, act of expressing fondness: flattery: winning expressions or actions. [Fr. _blandir_, _blandiss-_, from L. _bland[=i]ri_.]

BLANK, blangk, _adj._ without writing or marks, as in white paper: empty, empty of results: vacant, confused: (_poetry_) not having rhyme.--_n._ a paper without writing: a lottery-ticket having no mark, and therefore valueless: an empty space, a void, or vacancy: (_archery_) the white mark in the centre of a target at which an arrow is aimed, hence the object or aim of anything: a form of document having blank spaces afterwards to be filled in.--_v.t._ to make pale: (_Milton_) to confuse.--_n._ BLANK'-CART'RIDGE, a cartridge without a bullet.--_p.adj._ BLANKED, a minced form of _damned_, from the usual form of printing d----d.--_adv._ BLANK'LY.--_ns._ BLANK'NESS; BLANK'-VERSE, verse without rhyme, esp. the heroic verse of five feet. [Fr. _blanc_, from root of Ger. _blinken_, to glitter--Old High Ger. _blichen_, Gr. _phlegein_, to shine.]

BLANKET, blangk'et, _n._ a white woollen covering for beds: a covering for horses, &c.--_v.t._ to cover with a blanket: to toss in a blanket.--_n._ BLANK'ETING, cloth for blankets: the punishment of being tossed in a blanket. [Fr. _blanchet_, dim. of _blanc_, from its null white colour,]

BLARE, bl[=a]r, _v.i._ to roar, to sound loudly, as a trumpet.--_n._ roar, noise. [M. E. _blaren_, orig. _blasen_, from A.S. _blaesan_, to blow. See BLAST.]

BLARNEY, blar'ni, _n._ pleasing flattery or cajoling talk.--_v.t._ to beguile with such. [_Blarney_ Castle, near Cork, where there is a stone difficult to reach, he who kisses which ever after possesses the gift of blarney.]

BLASe, bla-z[=a], _adj._ fatigued with pleasures, used up. [Fr. _blaser_.]

BLASH, blash, _n._ watery stuff.--_adj._ BLASH'Y. [Scot.]

BLASPHEME, blas-f[=e]m', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to speak impiously of, as of God: to curse and swear.--_n._ BLASPHEM'ER.--_adj._ BLAS'PHEMOUS, containing blasphemy: impious.--_adv._ BLAS'PHEMOUSLY.--_n._ BLAS'PHEMY, profane speaking: contempt or indignity offered to God. [Gr.

_blasph[=e]me-ein_--_blaptein_, to hurt, _ph[=e]mi_ to speak. See BLAME.]

BLAST, blast, _n._ a blowing or gust of wind: a forcible stream of air: sound of a wind instrument; an explosion of gunpowder: anything pernicious.--_v.t._ to strike with some pernicious influence, to blight: to affect with sudden violence or calamity: to rend asunder with gunpowder.--_adj._ BLAST'ED, blighted: cursed, damned.--_ns._ BLAST'-FUR'NACE, a smelting furnace into which hot air is blown; BLAST'-HOLE, a hole in the bottom of a pump through which water enters; BLAST'ING, the separating of masses of stone by means of an explosive substance; BLAST'ING-GEL'ATINE, a powerful explosive made of gun-cotton and nitro-glycerine; BLAST'MENT, withering or shrivelling up caused by blasting; BLAST'-PIPE, a pipe in a steam-engine, to convey the waste-steam up the chimney. [A.S. _bl['ae]st_; cf. Ice. _beasa_; Ger. _blasen_.]

BLASTODERM, blas'to-derm, _n._ an embryological term applied to the layer or layers of cells arising from the germinal disc, or the portion of a partially segmenting egg which undergoes division. [Gr. _blasto-_, _blastos_, a sprout, _derma_, _dermat-_, skin.]

BLATANT, bl[=a]t'ant, _adj._ noisy, clamorous, loud.--_adv._ BLAT'ANTLY.

[Prob. a coinage of Spenser.]

BLATE, bl[=a]t, _adj._ bashful, timidly awkward. [Scot.; A.S. _blat_, pale.]

BLATTER, blat't[.e]r, _v.i._ to talk overmuch, to prate.--_v.i._ to hurry or rush noisily.--_n._ a clatter of words, sound of rapid motion. [L.


BLAWORT, bla'wort, _n._ the harebell: the corn blue-bottle.--Also BL[=E]'WART. [Scot. BLAE, and _wort_, herb.]

BLAY, bl[=a], _n._ the fish _bleak_.--Also BLEY. [See BLEAK, a fish.]

BLAZE, bl[=a]z, _n._ a rush of light or of flame: a bursting out or active display: a white spot on the face of a horse or ox: a mark made on a tree by cutting off a strip of bark to mark a track or a boundary.--_v.i._ to burn with a flame: to throw out light.--_n._ BLAZ'ER, a cricket or golf jacket of bright colour.--BLAZES, from the fires of hell, in imprecations like TO BLAZES; also LIKE BLAZES = with fury.--TO BLAZE A TREE, to make a white mark by cutting off a piece of the bark. [A.S. _blaese_, a torch, from root of BLOW.]

BLAZE, bl[=a]z, Blazon, bl[=a]'zn, _v.t._ to proclaim, to spread abroad.--_n._ BLAZ'ER (_Spens._), one who spreads abroad or proclaims.

[Same as BLARE; BLAZON is the M. E. _blasen_, with the _n_ retained.]

BLAZON, bl[=a]'zn, _v.t._ to make public: to display: to draw or to explain in proper terms the figures, &c., in armorial bearings.--_n._ the science or rules of coats-of-arms.--_ns._ BLAZ'ONER, one who blazons: a herald: a slanderer; BLAZ'ONRY, the art of drawing or of deciphering coats-of-arms: heraldry. [Fr. _blason_, a coat-of-arms, from root of BLAZE.]

BLEACH, bl[=e]ch, _v.t._ to make pale or white: to whiten, as textile fabrics.--_v.i._ to grow white.--_ns._ BLEACH'ER, one who bleaches, or that which bleaches; BLEACH'ERY, a place for bleaching; BLEACH'-FIELD, a place for bleaching cloth: a bleacher's office or works; BLEACH'ING, the process of whitening or decolourising cloth; BLEACH'ING-GREEN, a green for bleaching clothes on; BLEACH'ING-POW'DER, chloride of lime. [A.S.

_bl['ae]can_, from root of BLEAK.]

BLEAK, bl[=e]k, _adj._ colourless: dull and cheerless: cold, unsheltered.--_adv._ BLEAK'LY.--_n._ BLEAK'NESS. [A.S. _blaec_, _blac_, pale, shining; a different word from _blac_ (without accent), black. The root is _blican_, to shine.]

BLEAK, bl[=e]k, _n._ a small white river-fish.

BLEAR, bl[=e]r, _adj._ (as in BLEAR-EYED, bl[=e]r'-[=i]d) sore or inflamed: dim or blurred with inflammation. [Low Ger. _bleer-oged_, 'blear-eyed.']

BLEAT, bl[=e]t, _v.i._ to cry as a sheep.--_n._ the cry of a sheep, any similar cry, even of the human voice.--_n._ BLEAT'ING, the cry of a sheep.

[A.S. _bl['ae]tan_; L. _bal[=a]re_, Gr. _bl[=e]ch[=e]_, a bleating; root _bla-_; formed from the sound.]

BLEB, bleb, _n._ a transparent blister of the cuticle: a bubble, as in water. [See BULB.]

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