[Ir. _babhun_, enclosure.]
BAXTER. See BAKE.
BAY, b[=a], _adj._ reddish brown inclining to chestnut.--_n._ elliptical for 'bay-horse.'--_n._ BAYARD (b[=a]'ard), a bay-horse: a name for any horse generally, from 'Bayard,' the famous bay-coloured magic horse given to Renaud by Charlemagne: a man recklessly blind to danger: a fellow bold in his ignorance: a type of the knight, from _Bayard_ (1476-1524), 'the knight without fear and without reproach.' [Fr. _bai_--L. _badius_, chestnut-coloured.]
BAY, b[=a], _n._ an inlet of the sea with a wider opening than a gulf: an inward bend of the shore. [Fr. _baie_--Low L. _baia_, a harbour.]
BAY, b[=a], _n._ the space between two columns: (_Shak._) the space under one house gable: any recess.--_n._ BAY'-WIN'DOW, any window forming a recess.--_adj._ BAY'-WIN'DOWED. [O. Fr. _baee_--_baer_, to gape, be open; prob. conn. with the foregoing word.]
BAY, b[=a], _n._ the laurel-tree: (_pl._) an honorary garland or crown of victory, originally of laurel: literary renown.--_ns._ BAY'BERRY; BAY'-RUM, an aromatic stimulant used for the skin and hair, and prepared by distilling the leaves of the bay-berry (_Pimenta acris_) with rum, or otherwise mixing the volatile oil of the leaves with alcohol. [O. Fr.
_baie_, a berry--L. _baca_.]
BAY, b[=a], _n._ barking, baying (esp. of a dog when in pursuit): the combined cry of hounds in conflict with a hunted animal: used often of the last stand of a hunted animal when it faces the hounds at close quarters.--_v.i._ to bark (esp. of large dogs).--_v.t._ to bark at: to utter by baying: to follow with barking: to bring to bay.--TO HOLD, KEEP AT BAY, said of the hunted animal; TO STAND, BE, AT BAY, at close quarters.
[These senses show a confusion of two distinct words, according to Murray: (1) to hold at bay = O. Fr. _tenir a bay_ = It. _tenere a bada_, _bay_, _bada_, denoting the suspense indicated by the open mouth; (2) in the phrase 'to stand at bay,' the word points to O. Fr. _abai_, barking, _bayer_, to bark.]
BAY, BAYE, b[=a], _v.t._ (_Spens._) to bathe.
BAYADeRE, b[=a]-ya-d[=e]r', _n._ a Hindu dancing-girl. [Fr.--Port.
BAYONET, b[=a]'on-et, _n._ a stabbing instrument of steel fixed to the muzzle of a musket or rifle: military force: (_pl._) soldiers armed with bayonets.--_v.t._ to stab with a bayonet. [Fr. _baonnette_, perh. from _Bayonne_, in France, where it was supposed to have been first made; others derive from O. Fr. _bayon_, arrow.]
BAYOU, b[=a]'[=oo], _n._ name given to the marshy offshoots of lakes and rivers, esp. in North America. [Perh. corrupted from Fr. _boyau_, gut.]
BAY-SALT, b[=a]'-salt, _n._ salt obtained by slow evaporation originally from sea-water. [Prob. from BAY, an inlet, and SALT.]
BAZAAR, BAZAR, ba-zar', _n._ an Eastern marketplace or exchange: a fancy fair in imitation of an Eastern bazaar. [Pers. _b[=a]z[=a]r_, a market.]
BDELLIUM, del'i-um, _n._ a kind of gum. [Gr. _bdellion_, used to translate, but prob. unconnected with Heb. _b'd[=o]lakh_, Gen. ii. 12.]
BE, b[=e], _v.i._ to live: to exist: to have a certain state or quality:--_pr.p._ b[=e]'ing; _pa.p._ been.--_n._ BE'-ALL (_Shak._), the whole being. [A.S. _beon_; Ger. _bin_; Gael. _bi_, to exist; W. _byw_, to live; Gr. _phu-ein_, L. _fui_, _fio_, Sans. _bhu_, to be, orig. meaning to grow.]
BEACH, b[=e]ch, _n._ the shore of the sea or of a lake, esp. when sandy or pebbly: the strand.--_v.t._ to haul a boat up on the beach.--_n._ BEACH'-COMB'ER, a long rolling wave: a drunken loafer about the wharfs in Pacific seaports: a settler on a Pacific island who maintains himself by pearl-fishery, and often by less reputable means.--_adjs._ BEACHED, having a beach, driven on a beach; BEACH'Y, pebbly. [Orig. a prov. Eng. word for shingle. The derivation from Ice. _bakki_, bank, is untenable.]
BEACON, b[=e]'kn, _n._ a fire on an eminence used as a sign of danger: a hill on which such could be lighted: anything that warns of danger, esp. an erection of stone, wood, or iron often bearing a light, and marking rocks or shoals in rivers or navigable channels.--_v.t._ to act as a beacon to: to light up: to mark by means of beacons.--_n._ FLOAT'ING-BEA'CON, a light-ship. [A.S. _beacn_, a beacon, a sign.]
BEAD, b[=e]d, _n._ a little ball pierced for stringing, a series of which forms the _rosary_ or _paternoster_, used in counting the prayers recited: any small ball of glass, amber, &c. strung in a series to form a necklace: a bead-like drop: the small knob of metal forming the front-sight of a gun--whence the Americanism, TO DRAW A BEAD UPON = to take aim at: (_archit._) a narrow moulding with semicircular section.--_v.t._ to furnish with beads.--_v.i._ to form a bead or beads.--_adj._ BEAD'ED, furnished with beads.--_ns._ BEAD'-HOUSE, a house for poor people who were required to pray for the soul of the founder: an almshouse; BEAD'ING, a moulding in imitation of beads.--_adj._ BEAD'-PROOF, of such proof or strength as to carry beads or bubbles when shaken, as alcoholic liquors.--_ns._ BEAD'-ROLL, in pre-Reformation times, a roll or list of the dead to be prayed for, hence a list of names, a long series: a rosary; BEADS'MAN, BEDES'MAN, one employed to pray for others, or one endowed to do so: (_Scot._) a public alms-man or licensed beggar:--_fem._ BEADS'WOMAN.--_adj._ BEAD'Y, bead-like, small and bright (of eyes): covered with beads or bubbles.--TO SAY, TELL, COUNT ONE'S BEADS, to offer a prayer.
[A.S. _bed_, _gebed_, a prayer, from _biddan_, to pray. See BID.]
BEADLE, b[=e]d'l, _n._ a mace-bearer (esp. of the '_bedels_' or '_bedells_,' official attendants of the Oxford and Cambridge vice-chancellors): a petty officer of a church, college, parish, &c.: a parish officer with the power of punishing petty offenders: in Scotland, used of the 'church-officer' attending on the clergyman: (_obs._) a messenger or crier of a court.--_ns._ BEAD'LEDOM, BEAD'LEHOOD, stupid officiousness; BEAD'LESHIP, BED'ELSHIP, the office of beadle or bedel.
[A.S. _bydel_--_beodan_, to proclaim, to bid.]
BEADMAN. Same as BEADSMAN (q.v. under BEAD).
BEAGLE, b[=e]'gl, _n._ a small hound tracking by scent, formerly much used in hunting hares, but now superseded by the harrier: a spy: a bailiff: a small kind of shark.--The beagle was often followed by men on foot, hence FOOT'-BEA'GLE. [Ety. unknown. The Fr. _bigle_ is borrowed from English. Dr Murray suggests Fr. _begueule_, from _beer_, to gape, and _gueule_, throat.]
BEAK, b[=e]k, _n._ the bill of a bird: anything pointed or projecting: the nose: in the ancient galley, a pointed iron fastened to the prow for piercing the enemy's vessel: (_slang_) a magistrate.--_adj._ BEAKED (b[=e]kt). [O. Fr. _bec_--Low L. _beccus_, of Celt. (Gaulish) origin.]
BEAKER, b[=e]k'[.e]r, _n._ a large drinking-bowl or cup, or its contents: a glass vessel marked for measuring liquids, with a beak or pointed mouth, used by chemists. [Scand. _bikarr_ (Scot. _bicker_), prob. from Low L.
_bicarium_, acc. to Diez from Gr. _bikos_, a drinking-bowl.]
BEAM, b[=e]m, _n._ a large and straight piece of timber or iron forming one of the main supports against lateral pressure of a building, ship, &c.: (_fig._) from the figure of the mote and the beam--Matt. vii. 3: any of the transverse pieces of framing extending across a ship's hull, the greatest width of a ship or boat: the part of a balance from which the scales hang: the pole of a carriage: a cylinder of wood in a loom: a ray of light.--_v.t._ to send forth light: to shine.--_n._ BEAM'-EN'GINE, a steam-engine which has a beam connecting the piston-rod with the crank of the wheel-shaft, as distinguished from one that has its piston-rod directly attached to the crank.--_adv._ BEAM'ILY.--_n._ BEAM'INESS.--_adjs._ BEAM'LESS, without beams: emitting no rays of light; BEAM'Y, shining.--A BEAM SEA, one rolling against the ship's side.--BEFORE THE BEAM, the bearing of any object when seen more in advance than _on_ the beam; ABAFT THE BEAM, the reverse.--LEE or WEATHER BEAM, the side away from _or_ towards the wind.--ON HER BEAM ENDS, a phrase applied to the position of a ship when so much inclined to one side that the beams become nearly vertical.--ON THE STARBOARD BEAM, applied to any distant point out at sea, at right angles to the keel, and on the starboard or right-hand (as viewed from the stern) side of the ship; ON THE PORT BEAM similarly applies to the left hand. [A.S. _beam_, a tree, stock of a tree, a ray of light; Ger.
_baum_, a tree; Gr. _phyma_, a growth--_phy-ein_, to grow.]
BEAN, b[=e]n, _n._ the name of several kinds of leguminous plants and their seeds: applied also to the seeds of some other plants, from their bean-like form, as the Calabar bean, &c.--_ns._ BEAN'-FEAST, an annual dinner given by employers to their hands, perhaps from there having been served on such occasions _beans_ or a BEAN'-GOOSE, a species of goose said to be so called from its fondness for devouring new-sown beans; BEAN'-KING, the king of the festivities on Twelfth Night, chosen on his finding a bean hidden in the Twelfth Cake. [A.S. _bean_; Ger. _bohne_, W. _ffaen_; L. _faba_.]
BEAR, b[=a]r, _v.t._ to carry or support: to endure: to admit of: to be entitled to: to afford: to import: to manage: to behave or conduct one's self: to bring forth or produce.--_v.i._ to suffer: to be patient: to have reference to: to press (with _on_ or _upon_): to be situated:--_pr.p._ bear'ing; _pa.t._ b[=o]re; _pa.p._ b[=o]rne (but the _pa.p._ when used to mean 'brought forth' is _born_).--_adj._ BEAR'ABLE, that may be borne or endured.--_n._ BEAR'ABLENESS.--_adv._ BEAR'ABLY.--_ns._ BEAR'ER, one who or that which bears, esp. one who assists in carrying a body to the grave: a carrier or messenger; BEAR'ING, behaviour: situation of one object with regard to another: relation: that which is borne upon an escutcheon: (_mach._) the part of a shaft or axle in contact with its supports; BEAR'ING-CLOTH, the mantle or cloth in which a child was carried to the font; BEAR'ING-REIN, the fixed rein between the bit and the saddle, by which a horse's head is held up in driving and its neck made to arch.--BEAR HARD (_Shak._), to press or urge; BEAR IN HAND (_Shak._), to keep in expectation, to flatter one's hopes; TO BEAR A HAND, to give assistance; TO BEAR AWAY, to sail away; TO BEAR DOWN (with _upon_ or _towards_), to sail with the wind; TO BEAR OUT, to corroborate; TO BEAR UP, to keep up one's courage; TO BEAR UP FOR (_a place_), to sail towards; TO BEAR WITH, to make allowance for; TO BE BORNE IN (upon the) MIND, to be forcibly impressed upon it; TO BRING TO BEAR, to bring into operation (with _against_, _upon_); TO LOSE ONE'S BEARINGS, to become uncertain as to one's position.
[A.S. _beran_; Goth. _bairan_, L. _ferre_, Gr. _pher-ein_, Sans. _bhri_.]
BEAR, an obsolete form of BIER.
BEAR, b[=a]r, _n._ a heavy quadruped of the order Carnivora, with long shaggy hair and hooked claws: any rude, rough, or ill-bred fellow: one who sells stocks for delivery at a future date, anticipating a fall in price so that he may buy first at an advantage--opp. to _Bull_: the old phrase 'a bearskin jobber' suggests an origin in the common proverb, 'to sell the bearskin before one has caught the bear' (hence TO BEAR, to speculate for a fall): (_astron._) the name of two constellations, the Great and the Little Bear.--_ns._ BEAR'-BER'RY, a trailing plant of the heath family, a species of the Arbutus; BEAR'BINE, a species of convolvulus, closely allied to the bindweed; BEAR'-GAR'DEN, an enclosure where bears are kept; a rude, turbulent assembly.--_adj._ BEAR'ISH, like a bear.--_ns._ BEAR'ISHNESS; BEAR'-LEAD'ER, a person who leads about a bear for exhibition: the tutor or governor of a youth at the university or on travel; BEAR'S'-BREECH, a common name for plants of the genus Acanthus; BEAR'S'-EAR, a common English name for the auricula; BEAR'S'-FOOT, a species of hellebore; BEAR'SKIN, the skin of a bear: a shaggy woollen cloth for overcoats: the high fur cap worn by the Guards in England; BEAR'-WARD, a warden or keeper of bears. [A.S.
_bera_; Ger. _bar_; cf. L. _fera_, a wild beast, akin to Gr. _th[=e]r_, aeolian _ph[=e]r_.]
BEAR, b[=e]r, _n._ barley, applied in Scotland to the now little grown variety _Hordeum hexastichon_. [A.S. _bere_.]
BEARD, b[=e]rd, _n._ the hair that grows on the chin and adjacent parts of a grown man's face: the tuft on the lower jaw of a goat, seal, &c.: the barbel of the cod, loach, &c.; prickles on the ears of corn: the barb of an arrow: the gills of oysters, &c.--_v.t._ to take by the beard: to oppose to the face.--_adj._ BEARD'ED, having a beard: prickly: barbed.--_n._ BEARD'-GRASS, a kind of bearded grass.--_adj._ BEARD'LESS. [A.S.; W.
_barf_, Ger. _bart_, Russ. _boroda_, L. _barba_.]
BEAST, b[=e]st, _n._ an irrational animal, as opposed to man: a four-footed animal: a brutal person: the Beast, Antichrist in the Revelation--dim.
BEAST'IES.--_n.pl._ BEAST'-F[=A]'BLES, stories in which animals play human parts--a widely-spread primitive form of literature, often surviving in more or less developed forms in the more advanced civilisations.--_ns._ BEAST'HOOD; BEAST'LIHEAD (_Spens._), the state or nature of a beast, beastliness; BEAST'LINESS.--_adj._ BEAST'LY, like a beast in actions or behaviour: coarse: obscene: (_colloq._) vile, disagreeable. [O. Fr. _beste_ (Fr. _bete_)--L. _bestia_.]
BEASTINGS. Same as BIESTINGS.
BEAT, b[=e]t, _v.t._ to strike repeatedly: to break or bruise: to strike, as bushes, in order to rouse game: to thrash: to overcome: to be too difficult for: to spread flat and thin by beating with a tool, as gold by a gold-beater--also TO BEAT OUT.--_v.i._ to give strokes repeatedly: to throb: to dash, as a flood or storm:--_pr.p._ beat'ing; _pa.t._ beat; _pa.p._ beat'en.--_n._ a recurrent stroke: a stroke recurring at intervals, or its sound, as of a watch or the pulse: a round or course, as a policeman's _beat_: a place of resort.--_adj._ weary: fatigued.--_adj._ BEAT'EN, made smooth or hard by beating or treading: trite: worn by use.--_ns._ BEAT'ER, one that beats or strikes: one who rouses or beats up game: a crushing instrument; BEAT'ING, the act of striking: chastisement by blows: regular pulsation or throbbing: rousing of game: exercising the brain.--BEATEN WORK, metal shaped by being hammered on an anvil or block of the necessary shape.--DEAD BEAT, completely exhausted.--TO BEAT ABOUT THE BUSH, to approach a subject in an indirect way; TO BEAT A RETREAT, to retreat, originally to beat the drum as a signal for retreat; TO BEAT OFF, to drive back; TO BEAT OUT, to work out fully, to make gold or silver leaf out of solid metal; TO BEAT THE AIR, to fight to no purpose, or against an imaginary enemy; TO BEAT THE BOUNDS, to trace out the boundaries of a parish in a periodic survey or perambulation, certain natural objects in the line of journey being formally struck with a rod, and sometimes also the boys whipped to make them remember; TO BEAT THE BRAINS, to puzzle one's brains about something; TO BEAT THE TATTOO (_mil._), to sound the drum for evening roll-call; TO BEAT UP, to alarm by a sudden attack: to disturb: to pay an untimeous visit to any one--also in 'to beat up for recruits,' to go about a town to enlist men. [A.S. _beatan_, pa.t. _beot_.]
BEATH, b[=e]th, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to bathe. [A.S. _bethian_, to foment.]
BEATIFY, b[=e]-at'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to make blessed or happy: to declare to be in the enjoyment of eternal happiness in heaven.--_adjs._ BEATIF'IC, -AL, making supremely happy.--_adv._ BEATIF'ICALLY.--_n._ BEATIFIC[=A]'TION, act of beatifying: (_R.C. Church_) a declaration by the Pope that a person is blessed in heaven, authorising a certain definite form of public reverence payable to him--the first step to canonisation.--BEATIFIC VISION, a glimpse of the glory of heaven, esp. that which first bursts upon the disembodied soul. [L. _beatus_, blessed, and _fac[)e]re_, to make.]
BEATITUDE, b[=e]-at'i-t[=u]d, _n._ heavenly happiness, or happiness of the highest kind: (_pl._) sayings of Christ in Matt. v., declaring the possessors of certain virtues to be blessed. [L. _beatitudo_--_beatus_, blessed.]
BEAU, b[=o], _n._ a man attentive to dress or fashion: a fop or dandy: a lover:--_pl._ BEAUX (b[=o]z):--_fem._ BELLE.--_n._ BEAU'-ID[=E]'AL, ideal excellence, or an imaginary standard of perfection: the person in which such is realised.--_adj._ BEAU'ISH.--_ns._ BEAU'-MONDE, the gay or fashionable world; _Beaupere'_ (_Spens._), a term of courtesy for 'father,'
esp. of ecclesiastical persons: a companion. [Fr. _beau_, _bel_--L.
_bellus_, fine, gay, as if for a _benulus_, dim. of _benus_ = _bonus_, good.]
BEAUJOLAIS, b[=o]-zh[=o]-l[=a], _n._ a kind of red wine produced in South-eastern France. [From _Beaujolais_, a subdivision of the old province of Lyonnais.]
BEAUNE, b[=o]n, _n._ a red wine of Burgundy. [From the town of _Beaune_.]
BEAUTY, b[=u]'ti, _n._ a pleasing combination of qualities in a person or object: a particular grace or excellence: a beautiful person, esp. a woman, also applied collectively to the beautiful women of a special place: (_pl._) beautiful passages or extracts from the poets.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to make beautiful.--_adj._ BEAU'TEOUS, full of beauty: fair: handsome.--_adv._ BEAU'TEOUSLY.--_ns._ BEAU'TEOUSNESS; BEAU'TIFIER, one who or that which beautifies or makes beautiful.--_adj._ BEAU'TIFUL, fair: with qualities that give delight to the senses, esp. the eye and ear, or which awaken admiration in the mind.--_adv._ BEAU'TIFULLY.--_v.t._ BEAU'TIFY, to make beautiful: to grace: to adorn.--_v.i._ (_rare_) to become beautiful, or more beautiful.--_ns._ BEAU'TY-SLEEP, the sleep before midnight, considered the most refreshing; BEAU'TY-SPOT, a patch placed on the face to heighten or draw attention to a woman's beauty; a foil, or anything that emphasises beauty by contrast. [O. Fr. _biaute_ (Fr. _beaute_)--Low L.
BEAUXITE. See BAUXITE.
BEAVER, b[=e]v'[.e]r, _n._ an amphibious rodent quadruped valuable for its fur: the fur of the beaver: a hat made of the beaver's fur: a hat: a glove of beaver fur.--_adj._ BEAV'ERISH (_Carlyle_), like a beaver, merely instinctive.--_n._ BEAV'ERY, a place where beavers are kept. [A.S. _befer_, _beofor_; Dut. _bever_, Ger. _biber_, Gael, _beabhar_, L. _fiber_.]