BACCHANAL, bak'a-nal, _n._ a worshipper of Bacchus: one who indulges in drunken revels: a dance or song in honour of Bacchus.--_adj._ relating to drunken revels--also BACCHAN[=A]'LIAN.--_ns.pl._ BACCHAN[=A]'LIA, BAC'CHANALS, originally feasts in honour of Bacchus: drunken revels.--_n._ BACCHAN[=A]'LIANISM.--_n._ and _adj._ BACCHANT (bak'kant), a priest of Bacchus, the god of wine: a reveller: a drunkard.--_n._ BACCHANTE (bak-kant', bak'kant, bak-kant'i), a priestess of Bacchus, the god of wine: a female bacchanal:--_pl._ BACCHANT'ES.--_adj._ BACCHIC (bak'kik), relating to Bacchus: jovial: drunken. [L. _Bacchanalis_, _Bacchus_, Gr. _Bacchos_, the god of wine.]
BACCY, BACCO, abbreviations of TOBACCO.
BACHARACH, bak'ar-ak, _n._ an excellent wine named from Bacharach, a town on the Rhine.
BACHELOR, bach'el-or, _n._ a young knight who followed the banner of another, as being too young to display his own: an unmarried man: one who has taken his first degree at a university.--_ns._ BACH'ELORHOOD, BACH'ELORSHIP; BACH'ELORISM, habit of a bachelor; BACH'ELOR'S-BUT'TON, the popular name of the double-flowered yellow or white varieties of buttercup.--KNIGHT BACHELOR, title of one who has been knighted, but not attached to any special order. [O. Fr. _bacheler_. Ety. disputed; acc. to Brachet from Low L. _baccalarius_, a farm-servant, orig. a cowherd, from _bacca_, Low L. for _vacca_, a cow.]
BACILLUS, ba-sil'us, _n._ properly the name of a distinct genus of Schizomycetes, but popularly used in the same sense as BACTERIUM:--_pl._ BACIL'L[=I].--_adjs._ BACIL'LAR, BACIL'LARY, of the shape or nature of a bacillus, consisting of little rods.--_n._ BACIL'LICIDE, that which destroys bacilli.--_adj._ BACIL'LIFORM. [Low L. _bacillus_, dim. of _baculus_, a rod.]
BACK, bak, _n._ a brewer's or dyer's tub or trough. [Dut. _bak_.]
BACK, bak, _n._ the hinder part of the body in man, and the upper part in beasts, extending from the neck and shoulders to the extremity of the backbone: put for the whole body in speaking of clothes: the hinder part, or the part opposite to the front side: the convex part of a book, opposite to the opening of the leaves: the thick edge of a knife or the like: the upright hind part of a chair: the surface of the sea, or of a river: the keel and keelson of a ship: (_football_) one of the players stationed behind the 'forwards,' the full back's duty being merely to guard the goal: (_mining_) that side of an inclined mineral lode which is nearest the surface of the ground--the _back_ of a level is the ground between it and the level above.--_adv._ to the place from which one came: to a former state or condition: behind: behind in time: in return: again.--_v.t._ to get upon the back of: to help, as if standing at one's back: to force back: to support one's opinion by a wager or bet--'to back a horse,' to bet money on his winning in a race, 'to back the field,' to bet upon all the horses in a field, against one in particular: to countersign a warrant, or indorse a cheque or bill; to write or print at the back of, as a parliamentary bill, or the like: to put or propel backward, or in the opposite direction, by reversing the action, as of an engine or a boat--hence the phrases, TO BACK THE OARS, TO BACK WATER.--_v.i._ to move or go back.--_n._ BACK'-BAND, a broad strap or chain passing over the cart saddle, and serving to keep up the shafts of a vehicle.--_v.t._ BACK'BITE, to speak evil of any one behind his back or in his absence.--_ns._ BACK'BITER; BACK'BITING; BACK'-BOARD, a board placed at the back of a cart, boat, &c.: a board fastened across the back to straighten the figure; BACK'BOND (_Scots law_), a deed attaching a qualification or condition to the terms of a conveyance or other instrument--used when particular circumstances render it necessary to express in a separate form the limitations or qualifications of a right; BACK'BONE, the bone of the back, the vertebral column: the main support of anything: mainstay: firmness, reliableness; BACK'-DOOR, a door in the back part of a building: (_attrib._) unworthily secret: clandestine.--_adj._ BACKED, as in humpbacked.--_ns._ BACK'-END, the later part of a season: the late autumn; BACK'ER, one who backs or supports another in a contest: one who bets on a horse or the like; BACK'-FALL, a fall on the back in wrestling--also figuratively: a lever in the coupler of an organ; BACK'FRIEND (_obs._), a pretended friend: a backer, a friend who stands at one's back; BACK'GROUND, ground at the back: a place of obscurity: the space behind the principal figures of a picture; BACK'-HAIR, the long hair at the back of a woman's head; BACK'-HAND, the hand turned backwards in making a stroke: handwriting with the letters sloped backwards.--_adj._ BACK'-HAND'ED, with the hand turned backward (as of a blow): indirect.--_ns._ BACK'-HAND'ER, a blow with the back of the hand: an extra glass of wine out of turn, the bottle being passed back; BACK'ING, support at the back: mounting of a horse: the action of putting back: a body of helpers: anything used to form a back or line the back; BACK'ING-DOWN, shirking; BACK'-LASH, the jarring reaction of a wheel in a machine when the motion is not uniform; BACK'-LOG, a log at the back of a fire.--_adj._ BACK'MOST, farthest to the back.--_ns._ BACK'-PIECE, BACK'-PLATE, a piece or plate of armour for the back; BACK'-SET, a setting back, reverse: an eddy or counter-current; BACK'SIDE, the back or hinder side or part of anything: the hinder part of an animal; BACK'-SIGHT, in surveying, a sight taken backwards: the sight of a rifle nearer the stock; BACK'-SLANG, slang in which every word is pronounced backwards.--_v.t._ BACKSLIDE', to slide or fall back in faith or morals:--_pa.p._ backslid', or backslid'den.--_ns._ BACKSLID'ER; BACKSLID'ING.--_n.pl._ BACK'STAIRS, back or private stairs of a house.--_adj._ secret or underhand.--_n.pl._ BACK'STAYS, ropes or stays extending from the topmast-heads to the sides of a ship, and slanting a little backward, to second the shrouds in supporting the mast when strained by a weight of sail in a fresh wind: any stay or support at the back.--_ns._ BACK'STITCH, a method of sewing in which, for every new stitch, the needle enters behind, and comes out in front of, the end of the previous one; BACK'SWORD, a sword with a back or with only one edge: a stick with a basket-handle; BACKSWORD'MAN (_Shak._); BACK'-WASH, a backward current.--_v.t._ to affect with back-wash: to clean the oil from wool after combing.--_n._ BACK'WATER, water held back in a mill-stream or river by the obstruction of a dam below--a pool or belt of water connected with a river, but not in the line of its course or current: water thrown back by the turning of a water-wheel: a backward current of water: the swell of the sea formed by the paddles of a steamship.--_n.pl._ BACK'WOODS, the forest or uncultivated part of a country beyond the cleared country, as in North American BACKWOODS'MAN.--BACK! go back, turn back (_imperatively_).--AT THE BACK OF (in U.S. often BACK OF), in support or pursuit; ON, UPON THE BACK OF, weighing down as a burden.--TO AND BACK (_Shak._), forward and backward.--TO BACK DOWN, to abandon one's opinion or position; TO BACK OUT, to recede from an engagement or promise; TO BACK UP, to give support to; TO BE ON ONE'S BACK, to have come to the end of one's resources; TO BREAK THE BACK OF, to overburden, to complete the hardest part of a task; TO CAST BEHIND THE BACK (_B._), to forgive; TO SET or PUT UP THE BACK, to arouse to resentment; TO THE BACKBONE, thoroughly. [A.S.
_baec_, Sw. _bak_, Dan. _bag_.]
BACKARE, BACCARE, bak'[=a]re, _interj._ (_Shak._) back! stand back! [Perh.
for _back there!_]
BACKET, bak'et (_Scot._), _n._ a shallow wooden trough for carrying ashes, coals, &c. [Fr. _baquet_, dim. of _bac_, back.]
BACKGAMMON, bak-gam'un, _n._ a game played by two persons on a board with dice and fifteen men or pieces each. [M.E. _gamen_, play; and named from the fact that the pieces are sometimes taken up and obliged to go _back_--that is, re-enter at the table. Always called _Tables_ till the 17th century.]
BACKSHEESH, BACKSHISH, bak'sh[=e]sh, _n._ a gift or present of money in the East, a gratuity or tip. [Pers.]
BACKWARD, bak'ward, _adv._ towards the back: on the back: towards the past: from a better to a worse state: in a direction opposite to the normal--also BACK'WARDS.--_adj._ BACK'WARD, keeping back: unwilling: slow: late: dull or stupid.--_n._ the past portion of time.--_n._ BACK'WARDATION, percentage paid by a seller of stock for keeping back its delivery till the following account.--_adv._ BACK'WARDLY.--_n._ BACK'WARDNESS.--BACKWARD AND FORWARD, to and fro.--TO RING BELLS BACKWARD, to ring them, beginning with the bass bell, in order to give tidings of dismay. [BACK, and affix WARD, WARDS, in the direction of.]
BACON, b[=a]'kn, _n._ swine's flesh salted or pickled and dried: (_Shak._) a rustic, 'chaw-bacon.'--TO SAVE or SELL ONE'S BACON, i.e. one's own flesh or body. [O. Fr. _bacon_, of Teut. origin; cf. Old High Ger. _bahho_, _bacho_; Ger. _bache_.]
BACONIAN, bak-[=o]n'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to Lord Bacon (1561-1626), or to his philosophy, which was inductive or based on experience.
BACTERIUM, bak-t[=e]'ri-um, _n._, BACTERIA, bak-t[=e]'ri-a, _n.pl._ Schizomycetes, extremely small, single-celled, fungoid plants, single or grouped, reproducing rapidly by cross division or by the formation of spores, almost always associated with the decomposition of albuminoid substances, and regarded as the germs or active cause of many diseases.--_ns._ BACTERIOL'OGIST; BACTERIOL'OGY, the scientific study of bacteria. [Gr. _bakt[=e]rion_, dim. of _baktron_, stick, staff.]
BACULINE, bak'[=u]-l[=i]n, _adj._ pertaining to the stick or cane--in flogging. [L. _baculum_.]
BACULITE, bak'[=u]-l[=i]t, _n._ a genus of fossil shells, allied to the ammonites, having a shell of perfectly straight form, tapering to a point.
[L. _baculum_, a stick.]
BAD, bad, _adj._ ill or evil: wicked: hurtful: incorrect, faulty: unfavourable: painful:--_comp._ WORSE; _superl._ WORST.--_adj._ BAD'DISH, somewhat bad: not very good.--_adv._ BAD'LY.--_ns._ BAD'NESS.--BAD BLOOD, angry feeling; BAD COIN, false coin; BAD DEBTS, debts that cannot be recovered; BAD SHOT, a wrong guess.--TO GO BAD, to decay; TO GO TO THE BAD, to go to ruin; TO THE BAD, to a bad condition: in deficit.--WITH BAD GRACE, unwillingly. [Ety. very obscure. The M. E. _badde_ is referred by Zupitza to A.S. _baeddel_, a hermaphrodite, _baedling_, an effeminate fellow.]
BADE, bad, _pa.t._ of BID.
BADGE, baj, _n._ a mark or sign by which a person or object is known or distinguished. [M.E. _bage_--Low L. _bagia_, _bagea_, connected by Skeat with Low L. _baga_, a golden ring, from L. _bacca_, _baca_, a berry, also the link of a chain.]
BADGER, baj'[.e]r, _n._ a burrowing, nocturnal, hibernating animal about the size of a fox, eagerly hunted by dogs.--_v.t._ to pursue with eagerness, as dogs hunt the badger: to pester or worry.--_ns._ BADG'ER-BAIT'ING, the sport of setting dogs to draw out a badger from its hole; BADG'ER-DOG, a long-bodied and short-legged dog used in drawing the badger--the Ger. _dachshund_.--_adj._ BADG'ER-LEGGED, having legs of unequal length, as the badger was vulgarly supposed to have.--_adv._ BADG'ERLY, like a badger: grayish-haired, elderly.--TO OVERDRAW ONE'S BADGER, to overdraw one's banking account. [Prob. from BADGE and suffix -ARD, in reference to the white mark borne like a badge on its forehead.
Derivations connecting the word with O. Fr. _blaier_, thus meaning 'little corn hoarder,' in allusion to a popular notion about the animal's habits, seem to be erroneous.]
BADINAGE, bad'in-azh, _n._ light playful talk: banter. [Fr.
_badinage_--_badin_, playful or bantering.]
BADMINTON, bad'min-ton, _n._ a cooling summer drink compounded of claret, sugar, and soda-water: a predecessor of lawn-tennis, played with shuttlecocks. [From _Badminton_ in Gloucester, a seat of the Duke of Beaufort.]
BAFF, baf, _v.t._ (_golf_) to strike the ground with a club in playing, and so to send the ball up in the air.
BAFFLE, baf'fl, _v.t._ to check or make ineffectual: (_obs._) to cheat, hoodwink, bewilder, bring to nought: (_obs._) to disgrace publicly.--_ns._ BAF'FLE (_obs._), confusion, check; BAF'FLER, a bewilderer, confounder.--TO BAFFLE OUT OF (_obs._), to juggle out of anything. [Prob. Scotch and connected with _bauchle_; but cf. Fr. _beffler_, from O. Fr. _befe_, mockery. Paul Meyer suggests a derivation from Prov. _baf_, interj. of disdain.]
BAFT, baft, _n._ a coarse fabric, originally Oriental, now manufactured in and shipped from England. [Pers. _baft_, woven.]
BAFT, baft, _n._ _adv._ and _prep._ behind, in the rear (mostly _naut._).
[A.S. _beaeftan_, from _be_, by, and _aeftan_, behind.]
BAG, bag, _n._ a sack, pouch: specially the silken pouch to contain the back-hair of the wig: a measure of quantity for produce: a game-bag, i.e.
the quantity of fish or game secured: an udder: (_vulg._ in _pl._) trousers.--_v.i._ to bulge, swell out: (_naut._) to drop away from the right course.--_v.t._ to cram full: to put into a bag, specially of game, hence to kill game, to seize, steal:--_pr.p._ bag'ging; _pa.p._ bagged.--_ns._ BAG'GING, cloth or material for bags; BAG'GIT, a salmon that has just spawned.--_adj._ BAG'GY, loose like a bag: inflated, verbose.--_ns._ BAG'MAN, a familiar name for a commercial traveller; BAG'-WIG, an 18th-cent. wig, the back-hair of which was enclosed in an ornamental bag.--BAG AND BAGGAGE, originally a military expression, hence the phrase, 'to march out with bag and baggage,' i.e. with all belongings saved: to make an honourable retreat: now used in the sense of 'to clear out completely.'--BAG OF BONES, an emaciated living being.--IN THE BOTTOM OF THE BAG, remaining as a last resource; THE WHOLE BAG OF TRICKS, every expedient; TO GIVE ONE THE BAG TO HOLD, to engage any one and meanwhile disappear; TO LET THE CAT OUT OF THE BAG, to disclose the secret. [M. E.
_bagge_, perh. Scand.; not Celtic, as Diez suggests.]
BAGASSE, ba-gas', _n._ refuse in sugar-making. [Fr.; Sp. _bagazo_, husks of grapes or olives after pressing.]
BAGATELLE, bag-a-tel', _n._ a trifle: a piece of music in a light style: a game played on a board (7 feet long and 21 inches broad) with nine balls and a cue, the object being to put the balls down into as many numbered holes at the farther semicircular end of the board. [Fr.--It. _bagatella_, a conjurer's trick, a trifle.]
BAGGAGE, bag'[=a]j, _n._ the tents, provisions, and other necessaries of an army: (_U.S._) traveller's luggage; a worthless woman: a saucy woman. [O.
Fr. _bagage_--_baguer_, to bind up, from which we may infer all the meanings, without reference to Fr. _bagasse_, It. _bagascia_, a strumpet.]
BAGNIO, ban'y[=o], _n._ a bath, esp. one with hot baths: an Oriental place of detention: a stew or house of ill-fame. [It. _bagno_--L. _balneum_, a bath.]
BAGPIPE, bag'p[=i]p, _n._ a musical wind-instrument, consisting of a leathern bag fitted with pipes. The Highland bagpipe has five pipes: _a_, the mouthpiece, to keep the bag filled with air; _b_, the chanter, having a reed and finger-holes to produce the melody; and _c_, three drones with reeds, tuned to act as a bass to the chanter: (_pl._) an inflated, senseless talker.--_n._ BAG'PIPER.
BAH, ba, _interj._ an exclamation of disgust or contempt. [Fr.]
BAHADUR, ba-had'[=oo]r, _n._ a title of respect often added by natives to the names of English officers in India. [Hind. _bahadur_, brave.]
BAIGNOIRE, b[=a]n'war, _n._ a box at the theatre on a level with the stalls. [Orig. = 'bathing-box,' Fr. _baigner_, to bathe.]
BAIL, b[=a]l, _n._ one who procures the release of an accused person by becoming guardian or security for his appearing in court: the security given: (_Spens._) jurisdiction.--_v.t._ to set a person free by giving security for him: to release on the security of another.--_adj._ BAIL'ABLE.--_ns._ BAIL'-BOND, a bond given by a prisoner and his surety upon being bailed; BAIL'-DOCK, BALE'-DOCK, a room at the Old Bailey, London, in which prisoners were kept during the trials; BAILEE', one to whom goods are delivered in trust upon a contract; BAIL'ER, one who delivers goods to another in trust; BAIL'MENT, a delivery of goods in trust: the action of bailing a prisoner; BAILS'MAN, one who gives bail for another.--TO ACCEPT, ADMIT TO, ALLOW BAIL, are all said of the magistrate; the prisoner OFFERS, SURRENDERS TO HIS BAIL; the one who provides it GOES, GIVES, or STANDS BAIL.--TO GIVE LEG BAIL, to be beholden to one's legs for escape. [O. Fr. _bail_, jurisdiction--_baillier_, to control, deliver.
Primarily implying 'custody' or 'charge,' the word became associated with Norm. Fr. _bailler_, to deliver--L. _bajulus_.]
BAIL, b[=a]l, _v.t._ (_rare_) to confine.--TO BAIL UP (_Australia_), to secure a cow's head during milking: to disarm travellers so as to be able to rob them without resistance. [Prob. conn. with the preceding word.]
BAIL, b[=a]l, _n._ palisades, barriers: a pole separating horses in an open stable. [M. E.--O. Fr. _baile_, perh. from _baillier_, to enclose. Others suggest a derivation from L. _baculum_, a stick.]
BAIL, b[=a]l, _n._ one of the cross pieces on the top of the wicket in cricket.--_n._ BAIL'ER, a ball bowled so as to hit the bails. [Prob. conn.
with the preceding word.]
BAIL, b[=a]l, _v.t._ to clear (a boat) of water with bails or shallow buckets.--_n._ a man or instrument for bailing water out of a ship, pit, &c.--Also spelled BALE. [Fr. _baille_, a bucket, perh. from Low L.
_bacula_, dim. of _baca_.]
BAILEY, b[=a]l'i, _n._ the outer court of a feudal castle: either of the two courts formed by the spaces between the circuits of walls, hence OUTER and INNER BAILEY.--THE OLD BAILEY in London, the Central Criminal Court, from the ancient _bailey_ between Lud Gate and New Gate. [Fr. _baille_, from Low L. _ballium_.]
BAILIE, b[=a]l'i, _n._ a municipal officer in Scotland corresponding to an English alderman: (_obs._) a sheriff's officer; but cf. Scotch WAT'ER-BAIL'IES, constables employed to carry out the Tweed Fisheries Acts: (_obs._) the chief magistrate of a Scottish barony or part of a county, with functions like a sheriff's. [O. Fr. _bailli_, land-steward, officer of justice. See BAILIFF.]