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[Gr. _autos_, self, _onoma_, a name.]

AUTOPHAGOUS, aw-tof'ag-us, _adj._ self-devouring.--_n._ AUTOPH'AGY, sustenance by self-absorption of the tissues of the body. [Gr. _autos_, self, _phagein_, to eat.]

AUTOPHOBY, aw-tof'ob-i, _n._ a shrinking from making any reference to one's self. [Gr. _autos_, self, _phobia_, fear.]

AUTOPHONY, aw-tof'on-i, _n._ observation of the resonance of one's own voice, heard by placing the ear to the patient's chest. [Gr. _autos_, self, _ph[=o]n[=e]_, sound.]

AUTOPLASTY, aw'to-plas-ti, _n._ a mode of surgical treatment which consists in replacing a diseased part by means of healthy tissue from another part of the same body. [Gr. _auto-plastos_, self-formed.]

AUTOPSY, aw'top-si, _n._ personal inspection, esp. the examination of a body after death.--Also AUTOP'SIA. [Gr.; _autos_, self, _opsis_, sight.]

AUTOPTIC, -AL, aw-topt'ik, -al, _adj._ seen with one's own eyes.--_adv._ AUTOPT'ICALLY. [See AUTOPSY.]

AUTOSCHEDIASM, aw-to-sked'i-azm, _n._ anything extemporised.--_v.t._ AUTOSCHED'IASE.--_adj._ AUTOSCHEDIAS'TIC. [Gr. _autos_, self, _schedios_, off-hand.]

AUTOTHEISM, aw'to-th[=e]-izm, _n._ assumption of divine powers: the doctrine of the self-subsistence of God, esp. of the second person in the Trinity.--_n._ AU'TOTHEIST, a self-deifier. [Gr. _autos_, self, _theos_, a god.]

AUTOTYPE, aw'to-t[=i]p, _n._ a true impress or copy of the original: a process of printing from a photographic negative in a permanent black or other pigment.--_v.t._ to reproduce by such a process.--_n._ AUTOTYPOG'RAPHY, a process by which drawings made on gelatine are transferred to a plate from which impressions may be taken. [Gr. _autos_, self, _typos_, a stamp.]

AUTUMN, aw'tum, _n._ the third season of the year when fruits are gathered in, popularly comprising the months of August, September, and October--in North America, September, October, and November. Astronomically, in the northern hemisphere, it begins at the autumnal equinox, when the sun enters Libra, 22d September, and ends at the winter solstice, when the sun enters Capricorn, 21st December.--_adj._ AUTUM'NAL.--_adv._ AUTUM'NALLY. [L.

_autumnus_, _auctumnus_, anciently referred to aug-[=e]re, as the season of increase; by Corssen and others, to the Sans. _av_, to do good to.]

AUXESIS, awk-s[=e]'sis, _n._ gradual deepening in force of meaning: hyperbole. [Gr.]

AUXILIAR, awg-zil'yar, AUXILIARY, awg-zil'yar-i, _adj._ helping: subsidiary, as troops.--_ns._ AUXIL'IAR, an auxiliary; AUXIL'IARY, a helper: an assistant: (_gram._) a verb that helps to form the moods and tenses of other verbs. [L. _auxiliaris_--_auxilium_, help--_aug-[=e]re_, to increase.]

AVA, a'va, _n._ native name in the Sandwich Islands for a species of cordyline yielding an intoxicating drink, also called _kava_: any similar drink.

AVAIL, a-v[=a]l', _v.t._ to be of value or service to: to benefit: to take the benefit of (used reflexively with _of_).--_v.i._ to be of use: to answer the purpose: (_obs._) to take or draw advantage: (_Amer._) to inform, assure of.--_n._ benefit: profit: service.--_adj._ AVAIL'ABLE, that one may avail one's self of, utilise: profitable: suitable, obtainable: accessible.--_ns._ AVAIL'ABLENESS, AVAILABIL'ITY, quality of being available: power in promoting an end in view: validity.--_advs._ AVAIL'ABLY; AVAIL'INGLY, in an availing manner. [Fr.--L. _ad_, to, _val-[=e]re_, to be strong, to be worth.]


AVALANCHE, av'al-ansh, _n._ a mass of snow and ice sliding down from a mountain: a snow-slip.--_v.i._ AV[=A]LE' (_Spens._), to descend.--_v.t._ (_Spens._) to cause to descend. [Fr. _avaler_, to slip down--L. _ad_, to, _vall-em_, the valley.]

AVANT, av'ang, prefix used as _adj._ in combination, as in AV'ANT-COUR'IER, one who runs before, in _pl._ the skirmishers or advance-guard of an army; AV'ANT-GARDE, the vanguard of an army. [Fr.;--L. _ante_.]


AVARICE, av'ar-is, _n._ eager desire for wealth: covetousness.--_adj._ AVARI'CIOUS, extremely covetous: greedy.--_adv._ AVARI'CIOUSLY.--_n._ AVARI'CIOUSNESS. [Fr.--L. _avaritia_--_avarus_, greedy--_av[=e]re_, to pant after.]

AVAST, a-vast', _interj._ (_naut._) hold fast! stop! [Dut. _houd vast_, hold fast.]

AVATAR, a-va-tar', _n._ the descent of a Hindu deity in a visible form: incarnation: (_fig._) supreme glorification of any principle. [Sans.; _ava_, away, down, _tar_, to pass over.]

AVAUNT, a-vawnt', _interj._ move on! begone! (_Shak._) used as _n._ 'to give her the _avaunt_.'--_v.i._ (_Spens._) to advance: (_obs._) depart.

[Fr. _avant_, forward--L. _ab_, from, _ante_, before.]

AVAUNT, a-vawnt', _v.i._ (_Spens._) to advance boastfully. [O. Fr.

_avanter_--Low L. _vanitare_, to boast--L. _vanus_, vain.]

AVE, [=a]'v[=e], _interj._ and _n._ be well or happy: hail, an address or prayer to the Virgin Mary: in full, _Ave Mar[=i]'a_.--AVE MARIA, or AVE MARY, the Hail Mary, or angelic salutation (Luke, i. 28). [L. _av[=e]re_, to be well or propitious. See ANGELUS.]

AVENACEOUS, av'en-[=a]-shus, _adj._ of the nature of oats. [L. _avena_, oats.]

AVENGE, a-venj', _v.t._ to vindicate: take vengeance on some one on account of some injury or wrong (with _on_, _upon_; _of_ obsolete).--_adj._ AVENGE'FUL.--_ns._ AVENGE'MENT; AVENG'ER, one who avenges:--_fem._ AVENG'ERESS. [O. Fr. _avengier_--L. _vindic[=a]re_. See VENGEANCE.]

AVENS, [=a]'vens, _n._ popular name of two species of _Geum_--the herb bennet (once used to flavour ale) and the sub-alpine mountain-avens. [Fr.]


AVENTAIL, AVENTAILE, av'en-t[=a]l, _n._ the flap or movable part of a helmet in front, for admitting air to the wearer. [O. Fr. _esventail_, air-hole--L. _ex_, out, _ventus_, wind.]

AVENTRE, a-ven'tr, _v.t._ or _v.i._ (_Spens._) to throw, as a spear or dart. [O. Fr. _venter_, to cast to the wind.]

AVENTURE, a-vent'[=u]r, _v.t._ obsolete form of ADVENTURE.

AVENTURINE, a-ven't[=u]-rin, _n._ a brown, spangled kind of Venetian glass: a kind of quartz.--Also AVAN'TURINE. [It. _avventura_, chance--because of the accidental discovery of the glass.]

AVENUE, av'en-[=u], _n._ the principal approach to a country-house, usually bordered by trees: a double row of trees, with or without a road: a wide and handsome street, with or without trees, esp. in America: any passage or entrance into a place: (_fig._) means of access or attainment. [Fr.: from L. _ad_, to, _ven[=i]re_, to come.]

AVER, a-v[.e]r', _v.t._ to declare to be true: to affirm or declare positively: (_law_) to prove or justify a plea:--_pr.p._ aver'ring; _pa.p._ averred.--_n._ AVER'MENT, positive assertion: (_law_) a formal offer to prove a plea: the proof offered. [Fr. _averer_--L. _ad_, and _verus_, true.]

AVERAGE, av'[.e]r-[=a]j, _n._ the mean value or quantity of a number of values or quantities: any expense incurred beyond the freight, payable by the owner of the goods shipped, as in the phrase PETTY AVERAGE: any loss or damage to ship or cargo from unavoidable accidental causes--PARTICULAR AVERAGE. Again, GENERAL AVERAGE is the apportionment of loss caused by measures taken for the ship's safety, as cutting away the masts, throwing overboard cargo, accepting towage, or the like.--_adj._ containing a mean value: ordinary.--_v.t._ to fix an average.--_v.i._ to exist in, or form, a mean quantity. [Dr Murray says the word first appears about 1500 in connection with the maritime trade of the Mediterranean (Fr. _avarie_, Sp.

_averia_, It. _avaria_); probably _averia_ is a derivative of It. _avere_ (O. Fr. _aveir_), goods, the original sense being a 'charge on property or goods.' The It. _avere_ and O. Fr. _aveir_ meant goods, substance, cattle--L. _hab[=e]re_, to have. The Old Eng. _aver_ in the same sense is obsolete, but in Scotland _aver_ still means an old horse.]

AVERROISM, av-er-[=o]'izm, _n._ the doctrine of the Arabian philosopher Averrhoes (died 1198), that the soul is perishable, the only immortal soul being the world-soul from which individual souls went forth, and to which they return.--_n._ AVERR[=O]'IST, one who holds this doctrine.

AVERRUNCATE, a-v[.e]r-ungk'[=a]t, _v.t._ (_rare_) to avert or ward off: to pull up by the roots.--_ns._ AVERRUNC[=A]'TION, act of averting: extirpation; AVERRUNC'[=A]TOR, an instrument for cutting off branches of trees. [L. _averrunc[=a]re_, to avert.]

AVERSE, a-v[.e]rs', _adj._ having a disinclination or hatred (with _to_; _from_ is, however, still used): disliking: turned away from anything: turned backward; (_her._) turned so as to show the back, as of a right hand.--_n._ AVERS[=A]'TION (_obs._).--_adv._ AVERSE'LY.--_n._ AVERSE'NESS.

[L. _aversus_, turned away, _pa.p._ of _avert-[)e]re_. See AVERT.]

AVERSION, a-v[.e]r'-shun, _n._ dislike: hatred: the object of dislike. [See AVERT.]

AVERT, a-v[.e]rt', _v.t._ to turn from or aside: to prevent: ward off.--_p.adj._ AVERT'ED.--_adv._ AVERT'EDLY.--_adj._ AVERT'IBLE, capable of being averted. [L. _avert-[=e]re_--_ab_, from, _vert-[)e]re_, to turn.]


AVES, [=a]'v[=e]z, birds. [L.]

AVIARY, [=a]'vi-ar-i, _n._ a place for keeping birds.--_n._ A'VIARIST, one who keeps an aviary. [L. _aviarium_--_avis_, a bird.]

AVICULTURE, [=a]'vi-kul-t[=u]r, _n._ rearing of birds: bird-fancying. [L.

_avis_, bird, and CULTURE.]

AVIDITY, a-vid'i-ti, _n._ eagerness: greediness.--_adj._ AV'ID, greedy: eager. [L. _aviditas_--_avidus_, greedy--_av[=e]re_, to pant after.]

AVIFAUNA, [=a]'vi-fawn-a, _n._ the whole of the birds found in a region or country: the fauna as regards birds. [L. _avis_, bird, and FAUNA.]

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