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AUNT, ant, _n._ a father's or a mother's sister--also the wife of one's uncle: (_obs._) an old woman, a gossip, a procuress or bawd.--AUNT SALLY, a pastime at English fairs, in which a wooden head is set on a pole, and in the mouth a pipe, which has to be smashed by throwing sticks or the like at it. [O. Fr. _ante_ (Fr. _tante_)--L. _amita_, a father's sister.]

AURA, awr'a, _n._ a supposed subtle emanation proceeding from anything, esp. that essence which is claimed to emanate from all living things and to afford an atmosphere for the operations of animal magnetism and such-like occult phenomena: (_fig._) air, distinctive character: (_path._) a sensation as of a current of cold air--a premonitory symptom of epilepsy and hysteria.--_adj._ AUR'AL, pertaining to the air, or to a subtle vapour or exhalation arising from a body. [L. _aura_.]

AURAL, awr'al, _adj._ pertaining to the ear.--_adv._ AUR'ALLY. [L. _auris_, ear.]

AURATE, awr'[=a]t, _n._ a compound of auric oxide with a base.--_adjs._ AUR'ATED, gold-coloured: compounded with auric acid; AUR'EATE, gilded: golden.--_n._ AUR[=E]'ITY, the peculiar properties of gold. [L. _aurum_, gold.]

AURELIA, awr-[=e]l'ya, _n._ the chrysalis of an insect, from its golden colour.--_adj._ AUREL'IAN--formerly also a name for an entomologist devoted esp. to butterflies and moths. [L. _aurum_, gold.]


AUREOLA, awr-[=e]'o-la, _n._ in Christian art, the gold colour surrounding the whole figure in sacred pictures, distinct from the _nimbus_, which only covers the head, usually reserved for representations of the three Divine Persons, of Christ, and the Virgin and Child: (_theol._) an increment to the ordinary blessedness of heaven gained by virgins, martyrs, and doctors for their triumph respectively over the flesh, the world, and the devil.--_n._ AUR'EOLE, the aureola: the gold disc round the head in early pictures symbolising glory: (_fig._) a glorifying halo: a halo of radiating light, as in eclipses.--_p.adj._ AUR'EOLED, encircled with an aureole. [L.

_aureolus_, dim. of _aureus_, golden.]

AURIC, awr'ik, _adj._ pertaining to gold: (_chem._) applied to compounds in which gold combines as a triad. [L. _aurum_, gold.]

AURICLE, awr'i-kl, _n._ the external ear: (_pl._) the two upper cavities of the heart into which the blood comes from the veins.--_adj._ AUR'ICLED, having appendages like ears.--_n._ AURIC'ULA, a species of primrose, also called bear's ear, from the shape of its leaf.--_adj._ AURIC'ULAR, pertaining to the ear: known by hearing, or by report.--_adv._ AURIC'ULARLY.--_adjs._ AURIC'ULATE, AURIC'ULATED, ear-shaped.--AURICULAR CONFESSION, secret, told in the ear. [L. _auricula_, dim. of _auris_, the ear.]

AURIFEROUS, awr-if'[.e]r-us, _adj._ bearing or yielding gold.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ AUR'IFY, to turn into gold. [L. _aurifer_--_aurum_, gold, _ferre_, to bear.]

AURIFORM, awr'i-form, _adj._ ear-shaped. [L. _auris_, ear, and FORM.]

AURISCOPE, aw'ri-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument for examining the Eustachian passage of the ear. [L. _auris_, ear, and Gr. _skopein_, to look.]

AURIST, awr'ist, _n._ one skilled in diseases of the ear. [L. _auris_, ear.]

AUROCHS, awr'oks, _n._ the European bison or wild ox. [Ger. _auerochs_. Old High Ger. _urohso_, _ur_ (L. _urus_, Gr. _ouros_), a kind of wild ox, and _ochs_, ox.]

AURORA, aw-r[=o]'ra, _n._ the dawn: in poetry, the goddess of dawn.--_adjs._ AUR[=O]'RAL, AUR[=O]'REAN.--_adv._ AUR[=O]'RALLY. [Acc. to Curtius, a reduplicated form for _ausosa_; from a root seen in Sans. _ush_, to burn; cog. with Gr. _[=e][=o]s_, dawn, _h[=e]lios_, the sun; Etruscan, _Usil_, the god of the sun.]

AURORA BOREALIS, aw-r[=o]'ra b[=o]-r[=e]-[=a]'lis, the northern aurora or light: a luminous meteoric phenomenon of electrical character seen in northern latitudes, with a tremulous motion, and giving forth streams of light.--AURORA AUSTRALIS (aws-tr[=a]'lis), a similar phenomenon in the southern hemisphere:--_pl._ AUR[=O]'RAS. [L. _borealis_, northern--_boreas_, the north wind. See AUSTRAL.]

AUSCULTATION, aws-kult-[=a]'shun, _n._ the art of discovering the condition of the lungs and heart by applying the ear or the stethoscope to the part.--_v.i._ to examine by auscultation.--_n._ AUSCULT[=A]'TOR, one who practises auscultation, or an instrument for such: in Germany, a title formerly given to one who had passed his first public examination in law, and who was merely retained, not yet employed or paid by government.--_adj._ AUSCULT'[=A]TORY, relating to auscultation. [L.

_auscult[=a]re_, to listen.]

AUSONIAN, aw-s[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ Italian. [L. _Ausonia_, a poetical name for Italy.]

AUSPICE, aw'spis, _n._ an omen drawn from observing birds: augury--generally used in _pl._ AU'SPICES, protection: patronage: a good start (generally in phrase, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF).--_v.t._ AU'SPICATE, to foreshow: to initiate or inaugurate with hopes of good luck:--_pr.p._ au'spic[=a]ting; _pa.p._ au'spic[=a]ted.--_adj._ AUSPI'CIOUS, having good auspices or omens of success: favourable: fortunate: propitious.--_adv._ AUSPI'CIOUSLY.--_n._ AUSPI'CIOUSNESS. [Fr.--L. _auspicium_--_auspex_, _auspicis_, a bird-seer, from _avis_, a bird, _spec[)e]re_, to observe.]

AUSTER, aws't[.e]r, _n._ the south wind. [L.]

AUSTERE, aws-t[=e]r', _adj._ harsh: severe: stern: grave: sober: severe in self-discipline, strictly moral or abstinent: severely simple, without luxury.--_adv._ AUSTERE'LY.--_ns._ AUSTERE'NESS, AUSTER'ITY, quality of being austere: severity of manners or life: harshness: asceticism: severe simplicity of style, dress, or habits. [L. _austerus_--Gr.

_aust[=e]ros_--_au-ein_, to dry.]

AUSTRAL, aws'tral, _adj._ southern.--_adj._ AUSTRALASIAN (aws-tral-[=a]'zhi-an), pertaining to Australasia, or the islands and island-groups that lie to the south of Asia.--_n._ a native or colonist of one of these.--_adj._ AUSTR[=A]'LIAN, of or pertaining to Australia, a large island between the Indian and Pacific Oceans.--_n._ an aboriginal native of Australia proper, later also a white colonist or resident. [L.

_australis_--_auster_, the south wind.]

AUSTRIAN, aws'tri-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to Austria, an empire of Central Europe.--_n._ a native of Austria.

AUSTRINGER, aw'string-[.e]r, _n._ a keeper of goshawks.--Also A'STRINGER.

[O. Fr. _ostruchier_, _austruchier_. See OSTRICH.]

AUTARCHY, awt'ar-ki, _n._ absolute power. [Gr., from _autos_, self, and _archein_, to rule.]

AUTHENTIC, -AL, aw-thent'ik, -al, _adj._ real: genuine, as opposed to _counterfeit_, _apocryphal_: original: true: entitled to acceptance, of established credibility. A distinction is sometimes made between _authentic_ and _genuine_--the former, that the writing is trustworthy, as setting forth real facts; the latter, that we have it as it left its author's hands--an _authentic_ history: a _genuine_ text.--_adv._ AUTHENT'ICALLY. [Fr. and L. from Gr. _authent[=e]s_, one who does anything with his own hand--_autos_, self.]

AUTHENTICATE, aw-thent'ik-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make authentic: to prove genuine: to give legal validity to: to certify the authorship of.--_ns._ AUTHENTIC[=A]'TION, act of authenticating: confirmation; AUTHENTIC'ITY, quality of being authentic: state of being true or in accordance with fact: genuineness.

AUTHOR, awth'or, _n._ one who originates or brings anything into being: a beginner or first mover of any action or state of things: the writer of an original book: elliptically for an author's writings: one's authority for something: an informant:--_fem._ AUTH'ORESS.--_adjs._ AUTH[=O]'RIAL, AUTH'ORISH; AUTHOR[=I]S'ABLE.--_n._ AUTHORIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ AUTH'ORISE, to give authority to: to sanction: to permit: to justify: to establish by authority.--_adj._ AUTH'ORLESS, anonymous.--_ns._ AUTH'ORLING, a petty author; AUTH'ORSHIP, AUTH'ORING, AUTH'ORISM, state or quality of being an author. [Through Fr. from L. _auctor_--_aug[=e]re_, _auctum_, to cause things to increase, to produce.]

AUTHORITY, awth-or'it-i, _n._ legal power or right: power derived from office or character: weight of testimony: permission:--_pl._ AUTHOR'ITIES, precedents: opinions or sayings carrying weight: persons in power.--_adj._ AUTHOR'ITATIVE, having the sanction or weight of authority: dictatorial.--_adv._ AUTHOR'ITATIVELY.--_n._ AUTHOR'ITATIVENESS. [L.

_auctoritatem_, _auctoritas_, _auctor_.]

AUTOBIOGRAPHY, aw-to-b[=i]-og'raf-i, _n._ the biography or life of a person written by himself.--_n._ AUTOBIOG'RAPHER, one who writes his own life.--_adjs._ AUTOBIOGRAPH'IC, -AL. [Gr. _autos_, one's self, _bios_, life, _graphein_, to write.]

AUTO-CAR, aw'to-kar, _n._ a vehicle for the road moved from within by steam, electric power, &c. instead of by traction. [Gr. _autos_, self, and CAR.]

AUTOCARPOUS, aw-to-kar'pus, _adj._ applied to such fruit as consists only of the pericarp, with no adnate parts. [Gr. _autos_, self, _karpos_, fruit.]

AUTOCHTHON, aw-tok'thon, _n._ one of the primitive inhabitants of a country: an aboriginal:--_pl._ AUTOCH'THONS and AUTOCH'THONES.--_adj._ AUTOCH'THONOUS.--_ns._ AUTOCH'THONY, AUTOCH'THONISM, the condition of being autochthonous. [Gr.; made up of _autos_, self, _chth[=o]n_, _chthonos_, the soil; the Athenians claiming to have actually sprung from the soil on which they lived.]

AUTOCRAT, aw'to-krat, _n._ one who rules by his own power: an absolute sovereign.--_n._ AUTOC'RACY, an absolute government by one man: despotism.--_adj._ AUTOCRAT'IC,--_adv._ AUTOCRAT'ICALLY. [Gr.

_autokrat[=e]s_--_autos_, self, _kratos_, power.]

AUTO-DA-Fe, aw'to-da-f[=a]', _n._ the public declaration of the judgment passed on heretics in Spain and Portugal by the Inquisition, also the infliction of the punishment which immediately followed thereupon, esp. the public burning of the victims:--_pl._ AUTOS-DA-Fe. [Port. _auto da fe_ = Sp. _auto de fe_; _auto_--L. _actum_, act; _da_--L. _de_, of; and _fe_--L.

_fides_, faith.]

AUTOGENOUS, aw-toj'e-nus, _adj._ self-generated: independent.--_n._ AUTOG'ENY, a mode of spontaneous generation. [Gr. _autogen[=e]s_, _autos_, self, _genos_, offspring.]

AUTOGRAPH, aw'to-graf, _n._ one's own handwriting: a signature: an original manuscript.--_v.t._ to write with one's hand.--_adj._ AUTOGRAPH'IC.--_adv._ AUTOGRAPH'ICALLY.--_n._ AU'TOGRAPHY, act of writing with one's own hand: reproduction of the outline of a writing or drawing by fac-simile. [Gr.

_autos_, self, _graph[=e]_, writing.]

AUTOGRAVURE, aw-to-grav'[=u]r, _n._ a process of photo-engraving akin to autotype. [Gr. _auto_, self; Fr. _gravure_, engraving.]

AUTOLATRY, aw-tol'a-tri, _n._ worship of one's self.--_n._ AUTOL'OGY is merely a justifiable enough scientific study of ourselves. [Gr. _autos_, self, _latreia_, worship.]

AUTOLYCUS, aw-tol'i-kus, _n._ a thief: a snapper up of unconsidered trifles: a plagiarist. [From the character in Shakespeare's _Winter's Tale_.]

AUTOMATON, aw-tom'a-ton, _n._ a self-moving machine, or one which moves by concealed machinery: a living being regarded as without consciousness: the self-acting power of the muscular and nervous systems, by which movement is effected without intelligent determination: a human being who acts by routine, without intelligence:--_pl._ AUTOM'ATONS, AUTOM'ATA.--_adjs._ AUTOMAT'IC, -AL.--_adv._ AUTOMAT'ICALLY.--_ns._ AUTOM'ATISM, automatic or involuntary action: power of self-moving: power of initiating vital processes from within the cell, organ, or organism, independently of any direct or immediate stimulus from without: the doctrine that animals are automata, their motions, &c., being the result of mechanical laws; AUTOM'ATIST, one who holds the doctrine of automatism. [Gr. _automatos_, self-moving--_autos_, self, and a stem _mat-_, to strive after, to move.]

AUTOMOBILE, aw-to-m[=o]'bil, _adj._ self-moving.--_n._ a motor-car. [Gr.

_autos_, self, L. _mobilis_, mobile.]

AUTOMORPHIC, aw-to-mor'fik, _adj._ marked by automorphism, the ascription to others of one's own characteristics. [Gr. _autos_, self, _morph[=e]_, form.]

AUTONOMY, aw-ton'om-i, _n._ the power or right of self-government: (Kant's _philos._) the doctrine that the human will carries its guiding principle within itself.--_adjs._ AUTON'OMOUS, AUTONOM'IC. [Gr.--_autos_, and _nomos_, law.]

AUTONYM, aw'ton-im, _n._ a writing published under the author's real name.

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