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ARROW, ar'r[=o], _n._ a straight, pointed weapon, made to be shot from a bow: any arrow-shaped pin or ornament: the chief shoot of a plant, esp. the flowering stem of the sugar-cane.--_n._ AR'ROW-HEAD, the head or pointed part of an arrow: an aquatic plant native to England, with arrow-shaped leaves rising above the water--reputed good for hydrophobia.--_adj._ AR'ROW-HEAD'ED, shaped like the head of an arrow.--_n._ AR'ROW-SHOT, the distance traversed by an arrow.--_adj._ AR'ROWY, of or like arrows. [A.S.

_earh_, _arwe_; cog. with L. _arcus_; akin to Ice. _or_, _orvar_.]

ARROWROOT, ar'r[=o]-r[=oo]t, _n._ a starch obtained from the roots of certain plants growing chiefly in West Indies, and much used as food for invalids and children. [Said to be so named because used by the Indians of South America as an antidote against wounds caused by poisoned _arrows_.]

'ARRY, ar'i, _n._ a jovial vulgar fellow who drops his h's:--_fem._ 'AR'RIET.--_adj._ 'AR'RYISH, in holiday spirits. [From the vulgar Cockney pronunciation of _Harry_.]

ARSE, ars, _n._ the posterior parts of an animal.--_adv._ and _adj._ ARS'Y-VERS'Y, backside foremost, contrary. [A.S. _ears_; Ger. _arsch_, Sw.

_ars_; cog. with Gr. _orros_.]

ARSENAL, ar'se-nal, _n._ a dock possessing naval stores: a public magazine or manufactory of naval and military stores. [It. _arzenale_, _arsenale_ (Sp., Fr. _arsenal_)--Ar. _d[=a]r accin[=a]'ah_, workshop; _d[=a]r_, house, _al_, the, _cin[=a]'ah_, art.]

ARSENIC, ar'sen-ik, _n._ one of the chemical elements: a mineral poison: a soft, gray-coloured metal.--_ns._ AR'SENATE, ARS[=E]'NIATE, a salt of arsenic acid.--_adjs._ ARSEN'IC, -AL, composed of or containing arsenic: in chemistry, applied to compounds; ARS[=E]'NIOUS, of or containing arsenic.--_n._ AR'SENITE, a salt of arsenious acid. [Gr. _arsenikon_, _arsen_, male; the alchemists fancied some metals male, others female.]

ARSIS, ar'sis, _n._ grammatical term applied to the elevation of the voice to a higher pitch in speaking: (_mus._) the strong position in a bar: the strong syllable in English metre:--_pl._ AR'S[=E]S. [L.--Gr.

_arsis_--_airein_, to lift.]

ARSON, ars'on, _n._ the crime of wilfully burning houses or other buildings.--_ns._ AR'SONITE, AR'SONIST (_rare_). [O. Fr. _arson_--L.

_arsion-em_, _ard[=e]re_, _arsum_, to burn.]

ART, art, 2d pers. sing. of the present tense of the verb _To be_. [A.S.


ART, art, _n._ practical skill guided by rules: human skill as opposed to nature: skill as applied to subjects of taste, the fine arts--music, painting, sculpture, architecture, and poetry: (_pl._) specially used of certain branches of learning to be acquired as necessary for pursuit of higher studies, or for the work of life, as in phrase 'faculty of arts, master of arts:' the rules and methods of doing certain actions: a profession, skilled trade, or craft: contrivance: cunning, artfulness, or address: artifice, special faculty of some kind acquired by practice, skill, dexterity, knack: special faculty of giving expression to aesthetic or artistic quality, as in _art-furniture_, &c., supposed, by the buyer, in this respect, to justify its price.--_adj._ ART'FUL, full of art: (_arch._) dexterous, clever: cunning: produced by art.--_adv._ ART'FULLY.--_n._ ART'FULNESS.--_adj._ ART'LESS, simple: (_rare_) inartistic: guileless, unaffected.--_adv._ ART'LESSLY.--_ns._ ART'LESSNESS; ARTS'MAN, one who cultivates some practical knowledge: (_arch._) a man skilled in arts or in ART'-UN'IONS, associations having for their object the promotion of an interest in the fine arts.--ART AND PART, as in the phrase 'to be art and part in,' originally in legal expressions like 'to be concerned in either by art or part'--i.e. either by _art_ in contriving or by _part_ in actual execution; now loosely used in the sense of participating, sharing.--USEFUL ARTS as opposed to _Fine arts_, those in which the hands and body are more concerned than the mind.--SCIENCE and ART differ essentially in their aims--_Science_, in Mill's words, 'takes cognisance of a _phenomenon_, and endeavours to ascertain its _law_; _Art_ proposes to itself an _end_, and looks out for means to effect it.' [L.

_ars_, _artis_. See ARM.]

ARTEMISIA, ar-t[=e]-miz'i-a, _n._ a genus of composite plants, with a peculiarly bitter taste, including Wormwood, Southernwood, &c.

ARTERY, ar't[.e]r-i, _n._ a tube or vessel which conveys blood from the heart (see AORTA)--also metaphorically: any main channel of communication.--_adj._ ART[=E]R'IAL--_v.t._ ART[=E]R'IALISE, to make arterial.--_ns._ ART[=E]RIOT'OMY, the cutting or opening of an artery, to let blood; ARTER[=I]'TIS, inflammation of an artery. [L.--Gr. _art[=e]ria_, orig. the windpipe most probably--Gr. _air-ein_, to raise. The ancient conception of the artery as an air-duct gave rise to the derivation from Gr. _a[=e]r_, air.]

ARTESIAN, ar-t[=e]'zhan, _adj._ applied to wells made by boring until water is reached. [From _Artois_ (L. _Artesium_), in the north of France, where the oldest known well of this kind in Europe was sunk in 1126.]

ARTHRITIS, ar-thr[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation of a joint: gout.--_adj._ ARTHRIT'IC, relating to or affecting the joints: gouty. [Gr.

_arthritikos_--_arthron_, a joint.]

ARTHROPODA, ar-throp'od-a, a great division of the animal kingdom, the body consisting of a definite number of segments, each having a pair of hollow jointed limbs into which the body muscles proceed. It again divides into two great groups--the water-breathers or Branchiata, and the air-breathers or Tracheata.--_adj._ ARTHROP'ODAL. [Gr. _arthron_, joint, and _pous_, _pod-os_, a foot.]

ARTICHOKE, ar'ti-ch[=o]k, _n._ a thistle-like, perennial, eatable plant with large scaly heads, like the cone of the pine, now growing wild in the south of Europe, though probably a native of Asia.--JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE, a totally different plant, a species of sunflower, bearing tubers like those of the potato, Jerusalem being a corr. of It. _girasole_ ('turn-sun'), sunflower. By a quibble on Jerusalem, the soup made from it is called _Palestine soup_. [Old It. _articiocco_ (It. _carciofo_)--Old Sp.

_alcarchofa_--Ar. _al_-_kharsh[=o]fa_, _al-kharshuf_. Popular definitions are many--e.g. the plant that _chokes_ the _garden_ or the _heart_.]

ARTICLE, art'i-kl, _n._ a separate element, member, or part of anything: a particular substance: a single clause or term: a distinct point in an agreement, or an agreement looked at as complete, as in 'articles of apprenticeship,' &c.: rules or conditions generally: a section of any document: a literary composition in a journal, newspaper, encyclopaedia, &c., treating of a subject distinctly and independently: (_gram._) the name given to the adjectives _the_ (definite article) and _a_ or _an_ (indefinite article).--_v.t._ to draw up or bind by articles: to indict, charge with specific accusations: bind by articles of apprenticeship.--_adj._ ARTIC'ULAR, belonging to the joints.--ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION, regulations for the business of a joint-stock company registered under the Companies Acts; ARTICLES OF FAITH, binding statement of points held by a particular Church; ARTICLES OF WAR, code of regulations for the government and discipline of the army and navy.--IN THE ARTICLE OF DEATH (L. _in articulo mortis_), at the point of death.--LORDS OF THE ARTICLES, a standing committee of the Scottish parliament who drafted the measures to be submitted.--THE THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES, the articles of religious belief finally agreed upon by the entire bishops and clergy of the Church of England in 1562. [L. _articulus_, a little joint--_artus_, a joint.]

ARTICULATA, ar-tik-[=u]-l[=a]'ta, _n._ one of the great primary divisions of the animal kingdom, according to Cuvier, including those animals of which the body is divided into a number of distinct joints--viz. the higher worms or Annelids, and also the Insects, Crustaceans, Arachnids, and Myriopods.

ARTICULATE, ar-tik'[=u]l-[=a]t, _adj._ distinct: clear.--_v.t._ to joint: to form into distinct sounds, syllables, or words.--_v.i._ to speak distinctly.--_adv._ ARTIC'ULATELY.--_ns._ ARTIC'ULATENESS; ARTICUL[=A]'TION, a joining as of the bones: part between two joints: distinctness, or distinct utterance: a consonant; ARTIC'ULATOR, one who articulates or speaks: one who articulates bones and mounts skeletons. [L.

_articul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to furnish with joints, to utter distinctly.


ARTIFICE, art'i-fis, _n._ artificer's work: a contrivance: a trick or fraud.--_n._ ARTIF'ICER, a workman: an inventor.--_adj._ ARTIFICIAL (art-i-fish'yal), made by art: not natural: cultivated: not indigenous: feigned: not natural in manners, affected.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ ARTIFIC'IALISE, to render artificial.--_ns._ ARTIFICIAL'ITY, ARTIFIC'IALNESS.--_adv._ ARTIFIC'IALLY. [L. _artificium_--_artifex_, _-ficis_, an artificer--_ars_, _artis_, and _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

ARTILLERY, ar-til'[.e]r-i, _n._ offensive weapons of war, esp. cannon, mortars, &c.: the men who manage them: a branch of the military service: gunnery.--_ns._ ARTILL'ERIST, one skilled in artillery or gunnery; ARTILL'ERY-MAN, a soldier of the artillery. [O. Fr. _artillerie_, _artiller_, to arm; through a supposed Low L. _artill[=a]re_--L. _ars_, _artis_, art.]

ARTIODACTYLA, ar-ti-o-dak'til-a, _n._ a sub-order of the great mammalian order of Ungulata, having the third digit unsymmetrical in itself, but forming a symmetrical pair with the fourth digit--as distinguished from the _Perissodactyla_ (horse, tapir, rhinoceros), which have the third digit of each limb symmetrical in itself, an odd number of digits on the hind-foot, and at least twenty-two dorso-lumbar vertebrae. The Artiodactyla, again, divide into two groups, the Non-Ruminantia and the Ruminantia.

ARTISAN, art'i-zan, _n._ one skilled in any art or trade: a mechanic.

[Fr.--It. _artigiano_, ult. from L. _artitus_, skilled in the arts--_ars_, _artis_, art.]

ARTIST, art'ist, _n._ one who practises an art, esp. one of the fine arts, as painting, sculpture, engraving, or architecture.--_adjs._ ARTIST'IC, -AL, according to art.--_adv._ ARTIST'ICALLY.--_n._ ART'ISTRY, artistic pursuits: artistic workmanship, quality, or ability. [Fr. _artiste_, It.

_artista_--L. _ars_, _artis_, art.]

ARTISTE, ar-t[=e]st', _n._ one dexterous or tasteful in any art, as an opera dancer, a cook, a hairdresser, &c. [Fr.]


ARUM, [=a]'rum, _n._ a genus of plants represented in England by the Cuckoo-pint or Wake Robin (_A. maculatum_), whose root yields a wholesome farina known as Portland Sago or Arrowroot. [L.--Gr. _aron_.]

ARUNDINACEOUS, a-run-di-n[=a]'shus, _adj._ relating to or like a reed.--Also ARUNDIN'EOUS. [L. _arundinaceus_--_arundo_, a reed.]


ARVICOLA, ar-vik'[=o]-la, _n._ the general name of the family of animals to which belong the water-vole and field-vole. [Coined from L. _arvum_, a field, _col[)e]-re_, to inhabit.]

ARY, a'ri, e'ri, _adj._ (_prov._) any. [A modification of _e'er a_ for _ever a_. Cf. NARY.]

ARYAN, ar'i-an, or [=a]'ri-an, _adj._ relating to the family of nations otherwise called Indo-European (comprehending the inhabitants of Europe--except the Basques, Turks, Magyars, and Finns--and those of Armenia, Persia, and North Hindustan), or to their languages--Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Celtic, Teutonic, Slavonic, Lettic.--_v.t._ ARYANISE'.

[L. _arianus_, belonging to _Ariana_ or _Aria_ (Gr. _Areia_), the east part of Ancient Persia--Sans. _Arya_ (cf. Old Pers. _Ariya_, and _Ir[=a]n_, Persia), often traced to a root _ar_, plough.]

AS, az, _adv._, _conj._, and _pron._ in that degree, so far, _as ... as_: the consequent in a co-relation expressing quantity, degree, &c., _as ...

as_, _such ... as_, _same ... as_: since, because: when, while: expressing merely continuation or expansion, for instance: similarly: for example: while: in like manner: that, who, which (after _such_, _same_).--AS CONCERNING, AS TO, AS FOR, so far as concerns; AS IT WERE, so to speak, in some sort; AS MUCH, the same; AS WELL (AS), just as much (as), equally (with). [A worn-down form of _all-so_, A.S. _all-swa_, wholly so.]

AS, as, _n._ in Norse mythology, one of the gods, the inhabitants of _Asgard_:--_pl._ AESIR ([=a]'ser). [Ice. _[=a]ss_, a god (pl. _aesir_)--A.S.

_[=o]s_, seen in such proper names as _Os_wold, _Os_ric.]

AS, as, _n._ Latin unit of weight, 12 ounces (L. _unciae_): a copper coin, the unit of the early monetary system of Rome.

ASAFOETIDA, as-a-fet'i-da, _n._ a medicinal gum-resin, having an offensive smell, procured by drying the milky juice which flows from the root of the plant _Ferula_ (_Narthex_) _asafoetida_. [Pers. _az[=a]_, mastic, and L.

_foetida_, stinking.]

SAR, [=e]'sar, the Swedish name for those long, winding banks and ridges of gravel and sand which occur abundantly in the low grounds of Sweden, supposed to mark the site of sub-glacial streams and rivers.--These _sar_ are the same as the Irish _eskar_ and the Scotch _kames_.

ASARABACCA, as-a-ra-bak'a, _n._ a European plant, a species of _Asarum_, having acrid properties, formerly used in the preparation of snuffs for catarrh, &c. [L. _asarum_, _bacca_, a berry.]

ASBESTOS, az-best'os, _n._ an incombustible mineral, a variety of hornblende, of a fine fibrous texture, resembling flax: (_fig._) anything unquenchable.--_adjs._ ASBES'TIC, ASBES'TOUS, ASBES'TINE, of or like asbestos: incombustible. [Gr.; (lit.) unquenchable--_a_, neg., _sbestos_, extinguished.]

ASCARIS, as'ka-ris, _n._ a genus of parasitic worms, of the family ASCAR'IDae, infesting the small intestines. [Gr. _askaris_, pl.


ASCEND, as-send', _v.i._ to climb or mount up: to rise, literally or figuratively: to go backwards in the order of time.--_v.t._ to climb or go up on: to mount.--_adjs._ ASCEND'ABLE, ASCEND'IBLE.--ASCENDING RHYTHM, in prosody, a rhythm in which the arsis follows the thesis, as an iambic or anapaestic rhythm: opposed to _descending_ rhythms, as the trochaic and dactylic. [L. _ascend[)e]re_, _ascensum_--_ad_, and _scand[)e]re_, to climb.]

ASCENSION, as-sen'shun, _n._ a rising or going up.--_adjs._ ASCEND'ANT, -ENT, superior: above the horizon.--_n._ superiority: (_astrol._) the part of the ecliptic rising above the horizon at the time of one's birth; it was supposed to have commanding influence over the person's life, hence the phrase, 'in the ascendant:' superiority or great influence: (_rare_) an ancestor.--_n._ ASCEND'ENCY, controlling influence--also ASCEND'ANCY, ASCEND'ANCE, ASCEND'ENCE (_rare_).--_adj._ ASCEN'SIONAL, relating to ascension.--_n._ ASCEN'SION-DAY, the festival held on Holy Thursday, ten days before Whitsunday, to commemorate Christ's _ascension_ to heaven.--_adj._ ASCEN'SIVE, rising: causing to rise.--_n._ ASCENT', act of ascending: upward movement, as of a balloon: way of ascending: degree of elevation or advancement: slope or gradient: a flight of steps.--LINE OF ASCENT, ancestry.--RIGHT ASCENSION (_astron._), the name applied to one of the arcs which determine the position relatively to the equator of a heavenly body on the celestial sphere, the other being the declinator. [L.

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