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ANGOSTURA, ang-gos-t[=oo]'ra, _n._ a town of Venezuela, on the Orinoco (renamed Ciudad Bolivar in 1819), giving its name to an aromatic bitter bark, valuable as a febrifuge and tonic.--ANGOSTURA BITTERS is an essence containing angostura, canella, cinchona, lemon peel, and other aromatics, but much of what is sold under that name contains no angostura, but consists mainly of cheretta or other simple tonic.


ANGUINE, ang'gw[=i]n, _adj._ of or like a snake. [L. _anguis_, _anguin-is_, a snake.]

ANGUISH, ang'gwish, _n._ excessive pain of body or mind: agony.--_n._ ANG'UISHMENT. [O. Fr. _angoisse_--L. _angustia_, a strait, straitness--_ang-u-[)e]re_, to press tightly: to strangle. See ANGER.]

ANHARMONIC, an-har-mon'ik, _adj._ not harmonic: in geometry, a term applied to the section of a line by four points, A, B, C, D, when their mutual distances are such that AB divided by CB is unequal to AD divided by CD; the ratio between these two quotients being called the _anharmonic_ ratio of AC.

ANHELATION, an-he-l[=a]'shun, _n._ difficult respiration: shortness of breath. [L. _anhelatio_--_anhel[=a]re_, from _an_, for _amb_, around, and _hal-[=a]re_, to breathe.]


ANHYDROUS, an-h[=i]'drus, _adj._ a term applied to a chemical substance free from ANHY'DRIDES, a term now commonly given to the compounds formerly known as anhydrous acids--in some cases the result of the dehydration of acids, and in all cases representing in their composition the acid _minus_ water.--_n._ ANHY'DRITE, a mineral consisting of anhydrous sulphate of lime, with some slight addition of sea-salt, appearing in several varieties--granular, fibrous, radiated and translucent, compact and of various shades--white, blue, gray, red. [Gr.

_a_, _an_, neg., _hyd[=o]r_, water.]

ANIGHT, a-n[=i]t', _adv._ (_Shak._) of nights, at night. [OF and NIGHT.]

ANIL, an'il, _n._ a plant from whose leaves and stalks indigo is made. [Sp.

_anil_; Ar. _an-nil_ for _al-nil_, the indigo plant.]

ANILE, an'[=i]l, _adj._ old womanish: imbecile.--_n._ ANIL'ITY, imbecile dotage. [L. _anus_, an old woman.]

ANILINE, an'il-in, _n._ a product of coal-tar extensively used in dyeing and other industrial arts. [Port. _anil_, indigo, from which it was first obtained.]

ANIMADVERT, an-im-ad-v[.e]rt', _v.i._ to criticise or censure.--_n._ ANIMADVER'SION, criticism, censure, or reproof. [L., to turn the mind to--_animus_, the mind, _ad_, to, and _vert[)e]re_, to turn.]

ANIMAL, an'im-al, _n._ an organised being, having life, sensation, and voluntary motion--it is distinguished from a plant, which is organised and has life, but not sensation or voluntary motion: the name sometimes implies the absence of the higher faculties peculiar to man.--_adj._ of or belonging to animals: sensual.--_n._ ANIMALIS[=A]'TION, the act of converting into animal substance, or of endowing with animal attributes: brutalisation.--_v.t._ AN'IMALISE, to endow with animal life: to convert into animal matter:--_pr.p._ an'imal[=i]sing; _pa.p._ an'imal[=i]sed.--_n._ AN'IMALISM, the state of being actuated by animal appetites only: the exercise or enjoyment of animal life, as distinct from intellectual: brutishness: sensuality: (_rare_) a mere animal being.--_adv._ AN'IMALLY, physically merely.--ANIMAL SPIRITS, nervous force: exuberance of health and life: cheerful buoyancy of temper: (_Milton_) the spirit or principle of volition and sensation. [L.--_anima_, air, life, Gr. _anemos_, wind--_a[=o]_, _a[=e]mi_, Sans. _an_, to breathe, to blow.]

ANIMALCULE, an-im-al'k[=u]l, _n._ a small animal, esp. one that cannot be seen by the naked eye:--_pl._ ANIMAL'CULES, ANIMAL'CULA.--_adj._ ANIMAL'CULAR. [L. _animalculum_, dim. of ANIMAL.]

ANIMATE, an'im-[=a]t, _v.t._ to give life to: to enliven or inspirit: to actuate.--_adj._ living: possessing animal life.--_adj._ AN'IMATED, lively: full of spirit: endowed with life.--_adv._ ANIMAT'EDLY.--_p.adj._ AN'IMATING.--_adv._ ANIMAT'INGLY.--_ns._ ANIM[=A]'TION, liveliness: vigour; AN'IMATOR, he who, or that which, animates. [See ANIMAL.]

ANIME, an'im, _n._ the resin of the West Indian locust-tree--used also for other gums and resins. [Said to be Fr. _anime_, living, from the number of insects in it; but perhaps a native name.]

ANIMISM, an'im-izm, _n._ a theory which regards the belief in separate spiritual existences as the germ of religious ideas. It is adopted by E. B.

Tylor in his _Primitive Culture_ as the minimum definition of religion, being considered to have arisen simply from the evidence of the senses, interpreted by the crude and child-like science of the savage: the theory of Stahl, which regarded the vital principle and the soul as identical.--_n._ AN'IMIST.--_adj._ AN'IMISTIC. [L. _anima_, the soul.]

ANIMOSITY, an-im-os'i-ti, _n._ bitter hatred: enmity. [L. _animositas_, fullness of spirit.]

ANIMUS, an'im-us, _n._ intention: actuating spirit: prejudice against. [L.

_animus_, spirit, soul, as distinguished from _anima_, the mere life.]

ANISE, an'is, _n._ an umbelliferous plant, the aromatic seeds of which are used in making cordials. The anise of Matt. xxiii. 23 (Gr. _an[=e]thon_) is properly the dill.--_ns._ AN'ISEED; ANISETTE', a cordial or liqueur prepared from anise seed. [Gr. _anison_.]

ANKER, angk'[.e]r, _n._ a liquid measure used in Northern Europe, formerly in England, varying considerably--that of Rotterdam having a capacity of 10 old wine gallons, or 8-1/3 imperial gallons. [Dut.]

ANKLE, ANCLE, angk'l, _n._ the joint connecting the foot and leg.--_adj._ ANK'LED, having, or pertaining to ankles.--_n._ ANK'LET, an ornament for the ankle. [A.S. _ancleow_, cog. with Ger. _enkel_, and conn. with ANGLE.]


ANLACE, ANELACE, an'l[=a]s, _n._ a short two-edged knife or dagger, tapering to a point, formerly worn at the girdle. [Low L. _anelacius_; perh. the old Welsh _anglas_.]

ANNA, an'a, _n._ an Indian coin worth nominally 1d sterling, but always the sixteenth part of a rupee. [Hind. _[=a]n[=a]_.]

ANNALS, an'alz, records of events under the years in which they happened: any historical work that follows the order of time in its narrations, separating them off into single years, as the _Annals_ of Tacitus: historical records generally: year-books.--_v.t._ ANN'ALISE, to write annals: to record.--_n._ ANN'ALIST, a writer of annals. [L.

_annales_--_annus_, a year.]

ANNAT, an'at, ANNATE, an'[=a]t, _n._ the first-fruits, or one year's income, or a specified portion of such, paid to the Pope by a bishop, abbot, or other ecclesiastic, on his appointment to a new see or benefice.

It was abolished in England in 1534, and next year the right was annexed to the crown, the fund thus arising being administered for the benefit of the Church of England, afterwards transferred to the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty, next to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners: (_Scots law_) the half-year's stipend payable for the vacant half-year after the death of a parish minister, to which his family or nearest of kin have right under an act of 1672. [Low L. _annata_--L. _annus_, a year.]


ANNEAL, an-[=e]l', _v.t._ to temper glass or metals by subjecting them to great heat and gradual cooling: to heat in order to fix colours on, as glass.--_n._ ANNEAL'ING. [Pfx. _an-_, and A.S. _aelan_, to burn.]

ANNELIDA, an-el'i-da, _n._ a class of animals comprising the red-blooded worms, having a long body composed of numerous rings.--_n._ ANN'ELID. [L.

_annellus_, dim. of _annulus_, a ring.]

ANNEX, an-neks', _v.t._ to add to the end: to join or attach: to take permanent possession of additional territory: to affix: append (with _to_).--_n._ something added: a supplementary building--often with the Fr.

spelling _annexe_.--_n._ ANNEX[=A]'TION, act of annexing.--_n._ and _adj._ ANNEX[=A]'TIONIST.--_ns._ ANNEX'ION, ANNEX'MENT (_Shak._), addition: the thing annexed. [Fr. _annexer_--L. _annex-um_, _annect[)e]re_: _ad_, to, _nect-[)e]re_, to tie.]

ANNIHILATE, an-n[=i]'hil-[=a]t, _v.t._ to reduce to nothing: to put out of existence: to render null and void, to abrogate.--_ns._ ANNIHIL[=A]'TION, state of being reduced to nothing: act of destroying: (_theol._) the destruction of soul as well as body; ANNIHIL[=A]'TIONISM, the belief that the soul dies with the body.--_adj._ ANNIHIL[=A]'TIVE.--_n._ ANNIHIL[=A]'TOR, one who annihilates. [L. _annihilatus_, _annihil[=a]re_; _ad_, to, _nihil_, nothing.]

ANNIVERSARY, an-ni-v[.e]rs'ar-i, _adj._ returning or happening every year: annual.--_n._ the day of the year on which an event happened or is celebrated: the celebration proper to such, esp. a mass or religious service. [L. _anniversarius_; _annus_, a year, and _vert[)e]re_, _versum_, to turn.]

ANNOTATE, an'not-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make notes upon.--_ns._ AN'NOTATION, a note of explanation: comment; AN'NOTATOR, a writer of notes, a commentator.

[L. _annot[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _not[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to mark.]

ANNOUNCE, an-nowns', _v.t._ to declare: to give public notice of: to make known.--_n._ ANNOUNCE'MENT. [O. Fr. _anoncer_--L. _annunti[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _nunti_, _-[=a]re_, to deliver news.]

ANNOY, an-noi', _v.t._ to trouble: to vex: to tease: to harm, esp. in military sense:--_pr.p._ annoy'ing; _pa.p._ annoyed'.--_ns._ ANNOY (now poetic only), ANNOY'ANCE, that which annoys.--_adv._ ANNOY'INGLY. [O. Fr.

_anoier_ (It. _annoiare_); noun, _anoi_ (mod. _ennui_), acc. to Diez from L. phrase, _in odio_, as in 'est mihi _in odio_' = 'it is to me hateful.']

ANNUAL, an'n[=u]-al, _adj._ yearly: coming every year: requiring to be renewed every year: performed in a year.--_n._ a plant that lives out one year: a book published yearly, esp. applied to the sumptuous books, usually illustrated with good engravings, much in demand in the first half of the 19th century for Christmas, New Year, and birthday presents.--_adv._ AN'NUALLY. [Through Fr. from L. _annualis_--_annus_, a year.]

ANNUITY, an-n[=u]'i-ti, _n._ a payment generally (but not necessarily) of uniform amount falling due in each year during a given term, such as a period of years or the life of an individual, the capital sum not being returnable.--_n._ ANN[=U]'ITANT, one who receives an annuity.--CERTAIN ANNUITY, one for a fixed term of years, subject to no contingency whatever; CONTINGENT ANNUITY, one that depends also on the continuance of some status, as the life of a person whose duration is calculated by the theory of probabilities. An annuity is usually held payable to the end of each year survived; but when, in addition, a proportion of the year's annuity is payable up to the day of death, the annuity is said to be COMPLETE--the ordinary annuity being sometimes, for distinction, referred to as a CURTATE ANNUITY. When the first payment is due in advance, the annuity is known as an ANNUITY DUE; when the first payment is not to be made until the expiry of a certain number of years, it is called a DEFERRED or REVERSIONARY ANNUITY.

ANNUL, an-nul', _v.t._ to make null, to reduce to nothing: to abolish:--_pr.p._ annul'ling; _pa.p._ annulled'.--_n._ ANNUL'MENT, the act of annulling. [Fr. _annuler_--Low L. _annull[=a]-re_, to make into nothing--L. _ad-_, to, _nullus_, none.]

ANNULAR, an'n[=u]l-ar, _adj._ ring-shaped.--_adjs._ AN'NULATE, AN'NULATED, formed or divided into rings.--_ns._ ANNUL[=A]'TION, a ring or belt: a circular formation; AN'NULET, a little ring: (_archit._) a small flat fillet, encircling a column, &c., used either by itself or in connection with other mouldings: (_her._) a little circle borne as a charge on coats of arms.--_adj._ AN'NULOSE, having rings: composed of rings. [L.

_annularis_; _annulus_ or _anulus_, a ring--dim. of _anus_, a rounding or ring.]

ANNUNCIATION, an-nun-si-[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of announcing.--_v.t._ ANNUN'CIATE, to proclaim.--_n._ ANNUNCI[=A]'TION-DAY, the anniversary of the Angel's salutation to the Virgin Mary, the 25th of March, Lady-day.


ANODE, an'[=o]d, _n._ a term in electrolysis introduced by Faraday to designate the positive pole, or that surface by which the galvanic current enters the body undergoing decomposition (_electrolyte_)--as opp. to _Cathode_, the negative pole. [Gr. _ana_, up, _hodos_, way.]

ANODYNE, an'o-d[=i]n, _n._ a medicine that allays pain, whether acting on the nerves and nerve terminations (aconite, belladonna, cocaine), on the brain (chloral, Indian hemp), or on all these parts (opium, bromide of potassium). [Gr.; _a_, _an_, neg., and _odyn[=e]_, pain.]

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