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DURABLE, d[=u]r'a-bl, _adj._ able to last or endure: hardy: permanent.--_ns._ DUR'ABLENESS, DURABIL'ITY, quality of being durable: power of resisting decay.--_adv._ DUR'ABLY.--_ns._ DUR'ANCE, continuance: imprisonment: duress; DUR'ANT, a strong cloth in imitation of buff-leather; DUR[=A]'TION, continuance in time: time indefinitely: power of continuance.

[Fr.,--L. _durabilis_--_dur[=a]re_, to last.]

DURA MATER, d[=u]'ra m[=a]'t[.e]r, _n._ the exterior membrane of the brain and spinal column distinguished from the other two, the arachnoid and the pia mater.

DURAMEN, d[=u]-r[=a]'m[.e]n, _n._ the inner and fully ripened wood of dicotyledonous trees. [L.,--_durus_, hard.]

DURBAR, dur'bar, _n._ an audience-chamber: a reception or levee, esp. a reception of native princes held by the Viceroy of India: the body of officials at a native court. [Pers. _dar-bar_, a prince's court, lit. a '_door_ of _admittance_.']


DURE, d[=u]r, _v.i._ (_obs._) to endure, last, or continue.--_adj._ DURE'FUL (_Spens._), enduring, lasting. [Fr. _durer_--L.

_dur[=a]re_--_durus_, hard.]

DURESS, d[=u]r'es, or d[=u]r-es', _n._ constraint: imprisonment: constraint illegally exercised to force a person to perform some act. [O. Fr.

_duresse_--L. _duritia_--_durus_, hard.]

DURGA, d[=oo]r'ga, the wife of Siva (q.v.).

DURGAN, dur'gan, _n._ a dwarf, any undersized creature.--_adj._ DUR'GY.

[Related to _dwarf_.]

DURHAM, dur'am, _n._ one of a particular breed of shorthorned cattle--from the English county.

DURIAN, d[=u]'ri-an, _n._ a lofty Indian and Malayan fruit-tree (genus _Durio_), with leaves resembling those of the cherry, and large bunches of pale-yellow flowers.--Also D[=U]'RION. [Malay _duryon_.]

DURING, d[=u]'ring, _prep._ for the time a thing lasts: in the course of.

[Orig. pr.p. of obs. _dure_, to last.]

DURMAST, dur'mast, _n._ a sub-species or variety of oak.

DURN, durn, _n._ (_prov._) a door-post.--Also DERN.

DUROY, d[=u]-roi', _n._ an obsolete form of _corduroy_.

DURRA, dur'ra, _n._ a genus of grasses closely allied to sugar-cane and beard-grass--also called _Durra millet_ and _Indian millet_ or _Sorgho grass_. Much cultivated in Asia, Africa, and the south of Europe.--Also DOUR'A, DHUR'RA, and DUR'A. [Ar.]

DURST, durst, _pa.t._ of DARE, to venture. [A.S. _dorste_, pa.t. of _dear_, to dare.]

DUSH, dush, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to throw down.

DUSK, dusk, _adj._ darkish: of a dark colour.--_n._ twilight: partial darkness: darkness of the colour.--_v.t._ to occasion a dusky appearance.--_v.i._ DUSK'EN, to grow dark.--_adv._ DUSK'ILY.--_n._ DUSK'INESS.--_adj._ DUSK'ISH, rather dusky: slightly dark or black.--_adv._ DUSK'ISHLY.--_n._ DUSK'ISHNESS.--_adv._ DUSK'LY.--_n._ DUSK'NESS.--_adj._ DUSK'Y, partially dark or obscure: dark-coloured: sad: gloomy. [A.S. _dox_, _dosc_, dark--further history of word obscure.]

DUST, dust, _n._ fine particles of matter: a cloud of powdery matter present in the atmosphere: powder: earth: the grave, where the body becomes dust: a mean condition: gold-dust--hence money.--_v.t._ to free from dust: to sprinkle with dust.--_ns._ DUST'-BALL, a disease of horses, in which grain-dust forms a ball in the intestine; DUST'-BIN, a bucket, box, &c. for holding dust and rubbish; DUST'-BRAND, smut (q.v.); DUST'-BRUSH, a light brush for removing dust from walls, &c.; DUST'-CART, a cart for conveying dust and rubbish from the streets; DUST'-CONTRACT'OR, one who has made a contract to remove dust, &c., as from yards; DUST'ER, one who dusts: a cloth or brush used for removing dust; DUST'-HOLE, a dust-bin; DUST'INESS; DUST'MAN, a scavenger; DUST'-PAN, a pan or shovel for removing dust swept from the floor.--_adj._ DUST'Y, covered or sprinkled with dust: like dust.--_ns._ DUST'Y-FOOT (see PIE-POWDER); DUST'Y-MILL'ER, the auricula, from the white dust upon its leaves.--DUST A PERSON'S JACKET, to give him a drubbing.--BITE THE DUST (see BITE); DOWN WITH THE DUST, pay down the money, originally with reference to gold-_dust_; KICK UP A DUST, to make a stir or uproar; RAISE A DUST, to create a disturbance; THROW DUST IN A PERSON'S EYES, to delude or deceive a person. [A.S. _dust_; cf. Ger.

_dunst_, vapour, Dut. _duist_, meal-dust.]

DUTCH, duch, _adj._ belonging to Holland or its people--in old writers rather applied to the Germans: heavy, clumsy, as in _Dutch-built_, _-buttocked_, &c.--_n._ DUTCH'MAN, a native of Holland.--DUTCH AUCTION, COURAGE, TILES (see AUCTION, COURAGE, TILE); DUTCH CARPET, a mixed material of cotton and wool for floor coverings; DUTCH CHEESE, a small round cheese made on the Continent from skim-milk; DUTCH CLINKERS, a hard brick for paving stables, &c.; DUTCH CLOVER, white clover; DUTCH CONCERT, a concert in which singers sing their various songs simultaneously, or each one sings a verse of any song he likes between bursts of some familiar chorus; DUTCH DROPS, a balsam, or popular nostrum, of oil of turpentine, tincture of guaiacum, &c.; DUTCH LIQUID, an oily substance obtained by mixing chlorine and olefiant gases--not miscible with water, readily dissolving in ether and alcohol, producing anaesthesia; DUTCH METAL, sometimes called _Dutch gold_ or _Dutch leaf_, is an alloy of copper and zinc; DUTCH OVEN (see OVEN); DUTCH PINK (see PINK); DUTCH RUSH, the scouring-rush; DUTCH WIFE, an open frame of rattan or cane used in the Dutch Indies, to rest the limbs upon in bed.--TALK LIKE A DUTCH UNCLE, to rebuke with kindness. [Ger.

_deutsch_, (lit.) belonging to the people--Old High Ger. _diutisk_, of which _-isk_ = the Eng. suffix _-ish_, and _diut_ = A.S. _theod_, Goth.

_thiuda_, a nation. See TEUTONIC.]

DUTY, d[=u]'ti, _n._ that which is due: what one is bound by any obligation to do: obedience: military service: respect or regard: one's proper business: tax on goods.--_adj._ D[=U]'TEOUS, devoted to duty: obedient.--_adv._ D[=U]'TEOUSLY.--_n._ D[=U]'TEOUSNESS.--_adjs._ D[=U]'TIABLE, subject to custom duty; D[=U]'TIED, subjected to duties and customs; D[=U]'TIFUL, attentive to duty: respectful: expressive of a sense of duty.--_adv._ D[=U]'TIFULLY.--_n._ D[=U]'TIFULNESS.--_adj._ D[=U]'TY-FREE, free from tax or duty. [Formed from Anglo-Fr. _deu_ or _due_ (mod. Fr. _du_) and suffix _-ty_. See DUE (1).]

DUUMVIRATE, d[=u]-um'vi-r[=a]t, _n._ the union of two men in the same office: a form of government in ancient Rome.--_n._ D[=U]UM'VIR, one of two associated in the same office.--_adj._ D[=U]UM'VIRAL. [L. _duo_, two, and _vir_, a man.]

DUVET, du-v[=a]', _n._ a quilt stuffed with eider-down or swan's-down.


DUX, duks, _n._ a leader: the head boy in a school or class. [L., a leader.]

DWALE, dw[=a]l, _n._ (_bot._) deadly nightshade: a stupefying drink: (_her._) a black colour. [Ice. _dvol_, _dvali_, delay, sleep.]

DWALE, dw[=a]l, _n._ (_obs._) error: a heretic.--_adj._ perverse. [A.S.

_dwala_, error.]

DWALM, DWAUM, dwam, _n._ (_Scot._) a swoon, a sudden sickness.--_v.i._ to fail in health. [A.S. _dwolma_, confusion.]

DWARF, dwawrf, _n._ an animal or plant that does not reach the ordinary height: a diminutive man.--_v.t._ to hinder from growing: to make to appear small.--_adjs._ DWARF'ISH, DWARF, like a dwarf: very small: despicable.--_adv._ DWARF'ISHLY.--_n._ DWARF'ISHNESS.--DWARFED TREES, small trees growing in flower-pots, a characteristic ornament in Chinese and Japanese houses and gardens. [A.S. _dweorg_; Dut. _dwerg_, Ice. _dvergr_, Ger. _zwerg_.]

DWELL, dwel, _v.i._ to abide in a place: to remain: to rest the attention: to continue long.--_v.t._ (_Milt._) to inhabit, to place:--_pr.p._ dwell'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ dwelled or dwelt.--_ns._ DWELL'ER; DWELL'ING, the place where one dwells: habitation: continuance; DWELL'ING-HOUSE, a house used as a dwelling, in distinction from a place of business or other building; DWELL'ING-PLACE, a place of residence. [A.S.

_dwellan_, to cause to wander, to delay, from _dwal_ or _dol_, the original of Eng. _dull_.]

DWINDLE, dwin'dl, _v.i._ to grow less: to waste away: to grow feeble: to become degenerate.--_v.t._ to lessen.--_n._ decline.--_n._ DWIN'DLEMENT.

[Dim. of DWINE.]

DWINE, dw[=i]n, _v.i._ to pine: (_Scot._) to waste away. [A.S. _dwinan_, to fade; cf. Ice. _dvina_, Dan. _tvine_, to pine away.]

DYAD, d[=i]'ad, _n._ a pair of units treated as one: (_chem._) an atom, radical, or element having a combining power of two units: (_biol._) a secondary unit of organisation consisting of an aggregate of monads.--_adj._ DYAD'IC.

DYAK, d[=i]'ak, _n._ the Malay name for the race who constitute the bulk of the aboriginal population of Borneo, divided into innumerable tribes, differing pretty widely in language, customs, and degrees of savageness.--Also DAY'AK.

DYE, d[=i], _n._ (_Spens._). Same as DIE (2).

DYE, d[=i], _v.t._ to stain: to give a new colour to:--_pr.p._ dye'ing; _pa.p._ dyed.--_n._ colour: tinge: stain: a colouring liquid.--_ns._ DYE'-HOUSE, a building in which dyeing is done; DYE'ING, the art of imparting colours to textile and other materials, such as cotton, silk, wool, and leather; DY'ER, one whose trade is to dye cloth, &c.; DY'ER'S-BROOM, a European shrubby plant, thoroughly naturalised in some parts of North America--a well-known source of yellow colouring matter; DY'ER'S-WEED, the woad, weld, or yellow weed, yielding a yellow dye; DYE'-STUFF, material used in dyeing; DYE'-WOOD, any wood from which material is obtained for dyeing; DYE'-WORK, an establishment for dyeing.

[A.S. _deagan_, to dye, from _deag_ or _deah_, colour.]

DYING, d[=i]'ing, _pr.p._ of DIE.--_adj._ destined for death: mortal: declining: occurring immediately before death, as dying words: supporting a dying person, as a dying-bed: pertaining to death.--_n._ death.--_adv._ DY'INGLY.--_n._ DY'INGNESS.--DYING DECLARATION (_law_), the declaration made by a person convinced of his impending death, and who does not expect to survive the trial of the accused. [See DIE (1).]

DYKE. Same as DIKE.

DYNACTINOMETER, din-ak-tin-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the actinic force of light. [Gr. _dynamis_, force, _aktis_, _aktinos_, a ray, _metron_, a measure.]

DYNAM, d[=i]'nam, _n._ a unit of work, a foot-pound: the resultant of all the forces acting on a body.

DYNAMETER, d[=i]-nam'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the magnifying power of a telescope.--_adj._ DYNAMET'RICAL, pertaining to a dynameter. [Gr. _dynamis_, power, and _metron_, a measure.]

DYNAMIC, -AL, di-nam'ik, -al, _adj._ relating to force: relating to the effects of forces in nature: causal.--_n._ DYNAM'IC, a moving force.--_adv._ DYNAM'ICALLY.--_ns._ DYNAM'ICS, the science which treats of matter and motion, where the nature of the moving body and the cause of its motion are both considered; DY'NAMISM, a theory which explains the phenomena of the universe by some immanent energy: operation of force; DY'NAMIST.--_adj._ DYNAMIS'TIC. [Gr. _dynamikos_--_dynamis_, power--_dynasthai_, to be able.]

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