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_alter_, another--_al_ (root of _alius_, other), and the old comp. suffix _-ter_ = Eng. _-ther_.]

ALTERCATE, al't[.e]r-k[=a]t, _v.i._ to dispute or wrangle.--_n._ ALTERC[=A]'TION, contention: controversy.--_adj._ ALTERC[=A]'TIVE. [L.

_alterc[=a]ri_, _-catus_, to bandy words from one to the other (_alter_).]

ALTER EGO, al't[.e]r [=e]'go, _n._ second self, counterpart, double. [L.

_alter_, other; _ego_, I.]

ALTERNATE, al't[.e]r-n[=a]t, or al-t[.e]r'n[=a]t, _v.t._ to cause to follow by turns or one after the other.--_v.i._ to happen by turns: to follow every other or second time--also AL'TERNISE.--_adjs._ AL'TERN (_Milton_), alternate, acting by turns; ALTER'NANT (_geol._), in alternate layers; ALTER'NATE, one after the other: by turns.--_adv._ ALTER'NATELY.--_ns._ ALTER'NATENESS, ALTER'NACY (_rare_); ALTERN[=A]'TION, the act of alternating: interchange: reading or singing antiphonally.--_adj._ ALTER'NATIVE, offering a choice of two things.--_n._ a choice between two things.--_adv._ ALTER'NATIVELY. [L. _alter_, other.]

ALTHaeA, al-th[=e]'a, _n._ a genus of plants including the marsh mallow and the hollyhock. [Gr.]

ALTHOUGH, awl-_th_[=o]', _conj._ admitting all that: notwithstanding that.


ALTIMETER, al-tim'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring heights.--_adj._ ALTIMET'RICAL.--_n._ ALTIM'ETRY. [L. _altus_, high, and METER.]

ALTISSIMO, al-tis'si-mo, _adj._ (_mus._) in phrase 'in altissimo,' in the second octave above the treble stave beginning with G. [It. _altissimo_, superl. of _alto_, high.]

ALTITUDE, alt'i-tude, _n._ height: a point or position at a height above the sea: high rank or ALT'ITUDES, passion, excitement.--_adj._ ALTIT[=U]'DINAL.--_n._ ALTITUDIN[=A]'RIAN, one given to flightiness in doctrine or belief. [L. _altitudo_--_altus_, high.]

ALTO, alt'o, _n._ (_mus._) properly the same as counter-tenor, the male voice of the highest pitch (now principally _falsetto_), and not the lowest female voice, which is properly _contralto_, though in printed music the second part in a quartet is always called _alto_. [It.--L. _altus_, high.]

ALTOGETHER, awl-too-ge_th_'[.e]r, _adv._ all together: wholly: completely: without exception.

ALTO-RELIEVO, ALTO-RILIEVO, alt'o-re-l[=e]'vo, _n._ high relief: figures projected by at least half their thickness from the background on which they are sculptured. [It. _alto_, high. See RELIEF.]

ALTRUISM, al'tr[=oo]-ism, _n._ the principle of living and acting for the interest of others.--_adj._ ALTRUIST'IC.--_adv._ ALTRUIST'ICALLY. [Fr.

_altruisme_, formed by Comte from It. _altrui_--L. _alter_, another.]

ALUM, al'um, _n._ a mineral salt, the double sulphate of alumina and potash, used as a mordant in dyeing and for many purposes.--_adj._ AL'UMISH, having the character or taste of alum.--_ns._ AL'UM-SHALE, or -SLATE, a slate consisting mainly of clay, iron pyrites, and coaly matter, from which alum is obtained. [L. _alumen_.]

ALUMINA, al-[=u]'min-a, ALUMINE, al'[=u]-min, _n._ one of the earths, the characteristic ingredient of common clay--the oxide of aluminium.--_adj._ AL[=U]'MINOUS, containing alum or alumina. [L. _alumen_, alum.]

ALUMINIUM, al-[=u]-min'i-um, _n._ the metallic base of alumina; a metal somewhat resembling silver, and remarkable for its lightness, now made from Bauxite.--ALUMINIUM BRONZE, an alloy lighter than gold, but like it in colour. [First called _Aluminum_ by the discoverer, Sir H. Davy (1778-1829).]

ALUMNUS, al-um'nus, _n._ one educated at a college is called an _alumnus_ of it:--_pl._ ALUM'NI.--_n._ ALUM'NIATE, the period of pupilage.

[L.,--_al[)e]re_, to nourish.]

ALUNITE, al'un-[=i]t, _n._ a mineral consisting of common alum together with normal hydrate of aluminium.--Also ALUM-STONE, ALUMIN'ILITE.

ALURE, al-l[=u]r', _n._ (_obs._) a place to walk in, a gallery, a covered passage. [O. Fr. _aleure_, _aller_, to go.]

ALVEARY, al've-ar-i, _n._ a beehive: (_anat._) the hollow of the external ear.--_adj._ AL'VEOLATE, pitted like a honeycomb. [L. _alvearium_, beehive--_alveus_, a hollow vessel.]

ALVEOLAR, al've-o-lar, _adj._ (_anat._) of or belonging to the sockets of the teeth, as the alveolar arch, the part of the upper jaw in which the teeth are placed--also AL'VEOLARY.--_n._ AL'VEOLE, the hollow or socket of a tooth--more common ALV[=E]'OLUS.

ALVINE, al'vin, _adj._ of or from the belly. [From L. _alvus_, belly.]

ALWAYS, awl'w[=a]z, ALWAY, awl'w[=a], _adv._ through all ways: continually: for ever. [Gen. case of ALWAY.]

AM, am, the 1st pers. sing, of the verb To be. [A.S. _eom_; Gr. _ei-mi_; Lat. _s-u-m_ (_as_-(_u_)-_mi_); Goth. _-im_; Sans. _as-mi_.]

AMADOU, am'a-d[=oo], _n._ a soft spongy substance, growing as a fungus on forest trees, used as a styptic and as tinder. [Fr. _amadouer_, to allure (as in the phrase 'to _coax_ a fire'); prob. of Scand. origin; cf. Norse _mata_, to feed.]

AMAIN, a-m[=a]n', _adv._ with main force or strength: violently: at full speed: exceedingly. [Pfx. _a-_ = _on_, and MAIN.]

AMALGAM, a-mal'gam, _n._ a compound of mercury with another metal: any soft mixture: a combination of various elements: one of the ingredients in an alloy.--_v.t._ AMAL'GAMATE, to mix mercury with another metal: to compound.--_v.i._ to unite in an amalgam: to blend.--_n._ AMALGAM[=A]'TION, the blending of different things: a homogeneous union of diverse elements.--_adj._ AMALGAM[=A]'TIVE. [L. and Gr. _malagma_, an emollient--Gr. _malassein_, to soften.]

AMANDINE, am'an-din, _n._ a kind of cold cream prepared from sweet almonds.

[Fr.--_amande_, almond.]

AMANUENSIS, a-man-[=u]-en'sis, _n._ one who writes to dictation: a copyist: a secretary:--_pl._ AMANUEN'S[=E]S. [L.--_ab_, from, and _manus_, the hand.]

AMARACUS, a-mar'a-kus, _n._ (_Tennyson_) marjoram. [L.--Gr.]

AMARANTH, -US, am'ar-anth, -us, _n._ a genus of plants with richly-coloured flowers, that last long without withering, as Love-lies-bleeding, early employed as an emblem of immortality.--_adj._ AMARANTH'INE, pertaining to amaranth: unfading. [Through Fr. and L. from Gr. _amarantos_, unfading--_a_, neg., and root _mar_, to waste away; allied to L. _mori_, to die.]

AMARYLLIS, am-a-ril'is, _n._ a genus of bulbous-rooted plants, including the narcissus, jonquil, &c. [_Amaryllis_, the name of a country girl in Theocritus and Virgil.]

AMASS, a-mas', _v.t._ to gather in large quantity: to accumulate.--_adjs._ AMASS'ABLE.--_pa.p._ AMASSED'.--_n._ AMASS'MENT. [Fr. _amasser_--L. _ad_, to, and _massa_, a mass.]

AMASTHENIC, am-as-then'ik, _adj._ uniting all the chemical rays of light into one focus, applied to a lens perfect for photographic purposes. [Gr.

_hama_, together, _sthenos_, force.]

AMATE, a-m[=a]t', _v.t._ to accompany: (_Spens._) to match. [Pfx. _a-_, and MATE.]

AMATE, a-m[=a]t', _v.t._ (_arch._) to subdue, to daunt, to stupefy. [O. Fr.

_amatir_, to subdue.]

AMATEUR, am'at-[=u]r, or am-at-[=a]r', _n._ one who cultivates a particular study or art for the love of it, and not professionally: in general terms, one who plays a game for pleasure, as distinguished from a professional who plays for money--nearly every game has its special definition to meet its own requirements.--_adjs._ AMATEUR; AMATEUR'ISH, imperfect and defective, as the work of an amateur rather than a professional hand.--_adv._ AMATEUR'ISHLY.--_ns._ AMATEUR'ISHNESS; AMATEUR'ISM, AMATEUR'SHIP. [Fr.--L.

_amator_, a lover, _am[=a]re_, to love.]

AMATIVE, am'at-iv, _adj._ relating to love: amorous.--_n._ AM'ATIVENESS, propensity to love or to sexuality. [From L. _am[=a]re_, -_[=a]tum_, to love.]

AMATORY, am'at-or-i, _adj._ relating to or causing love: affectionate.--_adjs._ AM'ATORY, AMAT[=O]'RIAL, AMAT[=O]'RIAN (_obs._).--_adv._ AMAT[=O]'RIALLY.

AMAUROSIS, am-aw-r[=o]'sis, _n._ total blindness when no change can be seen in the eye sufficient to account for it; _Amblyopia_ being partial loss of sight under similar circumstances. The old name was _Gutta serena_--the 'drop serene' of _Paradise Lost_, iii. 25.--_adj._ AMAUR[=O]'TIC. [Gr.

_amaur[=o]sis_, _amauros_, dark.]

AMAZE, a-m[=a]z', _v.t._ to confound with surprise or wonder.--_n._ astonishment: perplexity (much less common than AMAZE'MENT).--_adv._ AMAZ'EDLY, with amazement or wonder.--_n._ AMAZE'MENT, AMAZ'EDNESS (_rare_), surprise mingled with wonder: astonishment.--_p.adj._ AMAZE'ING, causing amazement, astonishment: astonishing.--_adv._ AMAZ'INGLY. [Pfx.

_a-_, and MAZE.]

AMAZON, am'az-on, _n._ one of a fabled nation of female warriors: a masculine woman: a virago.--_adj._ AMAZ[=O]'NIAN, of or like an Amazon: of masculine manners: warlike. [Popular Gr. ety. from _a_, neg., _mazos_, a breast--they being fabled to cut off the right breast that they might draw the bow to its head (of course all this is idle); some have suggested an original in the Circassian _maza_, the moon.]

AMBAGE, am'b[=a]j, _n._ roundabout phrases: circuitous paths, windings: dark and mysterious courses:--_pl._ AM'BAGES.--_adj._ AMB[=A]'GIOUS, circumlocutory: circuitous.--_adv._ AMB[=A]'GIOUSLY.--_n._ AMB[=A]'GIOUSNESS--_adj._ AMB[=A]'GITORY (_rare_).

AMBASSADOR, am-bas'a-dur, _n._ a diplomatic minister of the highest order sent by one sovereign power to another:--_fem._ AMBASS'ADRESS.--_adj._ AMBASSAD[=O]'RIAL.--_n._ AMBASS'ADORSHIP.--_n._ AMBASS'AGE--now usually EMBASSAGE, the position, or the business, of an ambassador: a number of men despatched on an embassy or mission.--AMBASSADOR EXTRAORDINARY, an ambassador sent on a special occasion, as distinguished from the ordinary or resident ambassador. [It. _ambasciadore_--L. _ambactus_, derived by Grimm from Goth. _andbahts_, a servant, whence Ger. _amt_, office; by Zeuss and others traced to a Celtic source, and identified with W. _amaeth_, a husbandman.]

AMBE, am'b[=e], _n._ an old mechanical contrivance, ascribed to Hippocrates, for reducing dislocations of the shoulder. [Gr. _amb[=e]_, Ionic for _amb[=o]n_, a ridge.]

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