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ALLY, al-l[=i]', _v.t._ to form a relation by marriage, friendship, treaty, or resemblance.--_pa.p._ and _adj._ ALLIED'.--_n._ ALLY (al-l[=i]', or al'l[=i]), a confederate: a prince or state united by treaty or league:--_pl._ ALL[=I]ES', or AL'L[=I]ES. [O. Fr. _alier_--L.

_allig[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _lig[=a]re_, to bind.]

ALMA, ALMAH, al'ma, _n._ an Egyptian dancing-girl.--Also ALME, ALMEH. [Ar.

_'almah_, learned, _'alamah_, to know.]

ALMACANTAR, al-mak-an'tar, _n._ a name for circles of altitude parallel to the horizon, and hence for an astronomical instrument for determining time and latitude. [Ar. _almuqantar[=a]t_, _qantarah_, an arch.]

ALMAGEST, al'ma-jest, _n._ a collection of problems in geometry and astronomy, drawn up by the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy (about 140 A.D.), so named by the Arabs as the greatest and largest on the subject. [Ar. _al_, the, and Gr. _megistos_, greatest.]

ALMAIN, al'm[=a]n, _n._ (_obs._) an inhabitant of Germany: a kind of dance music in slow time. [Fr. _Allemand_--_Allemanni_, an ancient German tribe.]

ALMANAC, al'ma-nak, _n._ a register of the days, weeks, and months of the year, &c.--_n._ ALMANOG'RAPHER, an almanac-maker. [Most prob. the original of the word as in Fr., It., and Sp. was a Spanish-Arabic _al-man[=a]kh_.

Eusebius has _almenichiaka_, an Egyptian word, prob. sig. 'daily observation of things,' but the history of the word has not been traced, and it is hazardous without evidence to connect this with the Arabic word.]

ALMANDINE, al'man-d[=i]n, _n._ a red transparent variety of the garnet.--Also AL'MANDIN. [Earlier ALABANDINE--Low L.

_alabandina_--_Alabanda_, a town in Caria, a province of Asia Minor, where it was found.]

ALMIGHTY, awl-m[=i]t'i, _adj._ possessing all might or power: omnipotent: very powerful generally: (_slang_) mighty, great.--Older form ALMIGHT'.--_adv._ ALMIGHT'ILY.--_ns._ ALMIGHT'INESS, ALMIGHT'YSHIP.--THE ALMIGHTY, God; THE ALMIGHTY DOLLAR, a phrase of Washington Irving's, expressive of the greatness of the power of money. [A.S. _aelmeahtig_. See ALL and MIGHTY.]

ALMNER, an old spelling of ALMONER.

ALMOND, a'mund, _n._ the fruit of the ALMONDS (a'mundz), the tonsils or glands of the throat, so called from their resemblance to the fruit of the almond-tree. [O. Fr. _almande_ (Fr.

_amande_)--L. _amygdalum_--Gr. _amygdal[=e]_.]

ALMONER, al'mun-[.e]r, _n._ a distributer of alms.--_n._ AL'MONRY, the place where alms are distributed. [O. Fr. _aumoner_, _aumonier_ (Fr.

_aumonier_)--Low L. _eleemosynarius_ (adj.). See ALMS.]

ALMOST, awl'm[=o]st, _adv._ nearly, all but, very nearly. [ALL and MOST.]

ALMRY, am'ri, _n._ Same as ALMONRY.

ALMS, amz, _n._ relief given out of pity to the poor.--_ns._ ALMS'-DEED, a charitable deed; ALMS'-DRINK (_Shak._), leavings of drink; ALMS'-FEE, an annual tax of one penny on every hearth, formerly sent from England to Rome, Peter's pence; ALMS'HOUSE, a house endowed for the support and lodging of the poor; ALMS'-MAN, a man who lives by alms. [A.S. _aelmysse_, through Late L., from Gr. _ele[=e]mosyn[=e]_--_eleos_, compassion. Dr Murray notes the Scot. and North Country _almous_, _awmous_, as an independent adoption of the cognate Norse _almusa_; and the legal ALMOIGN, ALMOIN, perpetual tenure by free gift of charity, from O. Fr., perhaps due to a confusion with _alimonium_.]

ALMUCE, an early form of AMICE.

ALMUG, al'mug, _n._ the wood of a tree described in the Bible as brought from Ophir in the time of Solomon, for the house and temple at Jerusalem, and for musical instruments--probably the red sandalwood of India. [Heb.

_algummim_, _almuggim_. The better form is ALGUM.]

ALOE, al'[=o], _n._ a genus of plants of considerable medicinal importance, of the 200 species of which as many as 170 are indigenous to the Cape Colony.--The so-called American Aloe is a totally different plant (see AGAVE).--_adj._ AL'OED, planted or shaded with aloes.--The ALOES WOOD of the Bible was the heart-wood of _Aquilaria ovata_ and _Aquilaria Agallochum_, large spreading trees. The wood contains a dark-coloured, fragrant, resinous substance, much prized for the odour it diffuses in burning. [The word was used erroneously in the Septuagint and New Testament as a translation of the Heb. _ah[=a]l[=i]m_, _ah[=a]l[=o]th_ (Gr.

_agallochon_), an aromatic resin or wood--called later in Gr. _xylalo[=e]_, from which descend _lignum aloes_, _lign-aloes_, _wood-aloes_, and _aloes-wood_.--A.S. _aluwan_--L. _alo[=e]_--Gr. _alo[=e]_.]

ALOES, al'[=o]z, a purgative bitter drug, the inspissated juice of the leaves of several almost tree-like species of aloe. Used both as a _sing.

n._, and as a _pl._ of ALOE.--_n._ and _adj._ ALOET'IC, a medicine containing a large proportion of aloes.

ALOFT, a-loft', _adv._ on high: overhead: at a great height: (_naut._) above the deck, at the masthead: sometimes used as equivalent to _aloof_ (_Mad. D'Arblay_). [Scand.; Icel. _a lopt_ (pron. _loft_), expressing motion; _a lopti_, expressing positio_n._ Pfx. _a-_ = Icel. _a_ = A.S.

_on_, in. See LOFT.]

ALONE, al-[=o]n', _adj._ single: solitary: alone of its kind: of itself, or by themselves.--_adv._ singly, by one's self only.--_n._ ALONE'NESS [ALL and ONE.]

ALONG, a-long', _adv._ by or through the length of: lengthwise: throughout: onward: (fol. by _with_) in company of.--_prep._ by the side of: ALONG'SHORE-MEN, labourers employed about the docks or wharves in the Thames and other rivers.--_prep._ ALONG'SIDE, by the side, beside.--ALONG OF, (_arch._ or _dial._) owing to. [A.S. _andlang_--pfx.

_and-_, against, and _lang_, LONG.]

ALONGST, a-longst', _prep._ (_obs._ except _dial._) along: by the length.

[M. E. _alongest_, from _along_, with adv. gen. _-es_.]

ALOOF, a-l[=oo]f', _adv._ at a distance: apart.--_n._ ALOOF'NESS, withdrawal from common action or sympathy. [Pfx. _a-_ (--A.S. _on_), on, and LOOF, prob. Dut. _loef._ See LUFF.]

ALOPECIA, al-o-p[=e]'si-a, _n._ baldness: a skin-disease producing this.

[Gr. _alopekia_, fox-mange.]

ALOUD, a-lowd', _adv._ with a loud voice: loudly. [Prep. _a_ (--A.S. _on_), and _hlud_, noise; Ger. _laut_.]

ALOW, a-l[=o]', _adv._ in a low place--opp. to _Aloft_.

ALOW, al-low', _adv._ (_Scot._) ablaze. [Prep. _a_, and LOW, a flame.]

ALP, alp, _n._ a high mountain:--_pl._ ALPS, specially applied to the lofty ranges of Switzerland.--_adjs._ ALP'EN; ALPINE (alp'in, or alp'[=i]n), pertaining to the Alps, or to any lofty mountains: very high.--_ns._ AL'PINIST, ALPES'TRIAN, one devoted to Alpine climbing. [L.; of Celtic origin; cf. Gael. _alp_, a mountain; allied to L. _albus_, white (with snow).]

ALPACA, al-pak'a, _n._ the Peruvian sheep, akin to the llama, having long silken wool: cloth made of its wool. [Sp. _alpaca_ or _al-paco_, from _al_, Arab. article, and _paco_, most prob. a Peruvian word.]

ALPENHORN, al'pen-horn, _n._ a long powerful horn, wide and curved at the mouth, used chiefly by Alpine cowherds.--Also ALP'HORN. [Gr. _Alpen_, of the Alps, _horn_, horn.]

ALPENSTOCK, alp'n-stok, _n._ a long stick or staff used by travellers in climbing the Alps. [Ger. _Alpen_, of the Alps; _stock_, stick.]

ALPHA, al'fa, _n._ the first letter of the Greek alphabet: the first or beginning. [Gr. _alpha_--Heb. _aleph_, an ox, the name of the first letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabet. See A.]

ALPHABET, al'fa-bet, _n._ the letters of a language arranged in the usual order.--_n._ ALPHABET[=A]'RIAN, one learning his alphabet, a beginner: a student of alphabets.--_adjs._ ALPHABET'IC, -AL, relating to or in the order of an alphabet.--_adv._ ALPHABET'ICALLY.--_v.t._ AL'PHABETISE, to arrange alphabetically:--_pr.p._ al'phabet[=i]sing; _pa.p._ al'phabet[=i]sed. [Gr. _alpha_, _beta_, the first two Greek letters.]

ALPHONSINE, al'fons-[=i]n, _adj._ of Alphonso (X.) the Wise, king of Castile, pertaining to his planetary tables, completed in 1252.

ALREADY, awl-red'i, _adv._ previously, or before the time specified.--Sometimes used adjectively = present. [ALL and READY.]

ALS, an old form of ALSO.

ALSATIAN, al-s[=a]'shi-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to Alsatia (Ger.

_Elsass_), a province between France and Germany.--_n._ a rogue or debauchee, such as haunted Alsatia--a cant name for Whitefriars, a district in London between the Thames and Fleet Street, which enjoyed privileges of sanctuary down to 1697, and was consequently infested with lawless characters. See Scott's _Fortunes of Nigel_.

ALSO, awl'so, _adv._ in like manner: further. [Compounded of _all_ and _so_; A.S. _al_ and _swa_.]

ALT, alt, _n._ high tone, in voice or instrument.--IN ALT, in the octave above the treble stave beginning with G; (_fig._) in an exalted and high-flown mood.

ALTALTISSIMO, alt-al-tis'si-mo, _n._ the very highest summit. [It.

reduplicated comp. of _alto_, high, and _altissimo_, highest.]

ALTAR, awlt'ar, _n._ an elevated place or structure, block or stone, or the like, on which sacrifices were anciently offered: in Christian churches, the table on which the officiating priest consecrates the eucharist: the communion table: (_fig._) a place of worship.--_ns._ ALT'ARAGE, offerings made upon the altar during the offertory, provided for the maintenance of the priest; ALT'AR-CLOTH, the covering of the altar, placed over and around it, of silk, velvet, satin, or cloth, often used as including the frontal (_antependium_), and the super-frontal; ALT'ARPIECE, a decorative screen, retable, or reredos, placed behind an altar--a work of art, whether a sacred painting or ALT'AR-RAILS, rails separating the sacrarium from the rest of the chancel.--_ns._ ALT'AR-STONE, the slab forming the top or chief part of an altar; ALT'AR-TOMB, a monumental memorial, in form like an altar, often with a canopy. These were often placed over the vaults or burying-place, and frequently on the north and south walls of choirs, aisles, and chantry chapels.--_adj._ ALT'ARWISE, placed like an altar--north and south, at the upper end of the chancel.--FAMILY ALTAR, the practice or the place of private devotional worship in the family; HIGH ALTAR, the principal altar in a cathedral or other church having more than one altar; PORTABLE ALTAR, a small tablet of marble, jasper, or precious stone, used by special license for Mass when said away from the parish altar, in oratories or other similar places. It was termed _super-altare_, because commonly placed upon some other altar, or some fitting construction of wood or stone. [L. _alt[=a]re_--_altus_, high.]

ALTAZIMUTH, alt-az'i-muth, _n._ an instrument devised by Sir G. B. Airy for determining the apparent places of the heavenly bodies on the celestial sphere. [A contr. for '_altitude_ and _azimuth_ instrument.']

ALTER, awl't[.e]r, _v.t._ to make different: to change: (_U.S._) to castrate.--_v.i._ to become different: to vary.--_ns._ ALTERABIL'ITY, AL'TERABLENESS.--_adj._ AL'TERABLE, that may be altered.--_adv._ AL'TERABLY.--_adj._ AL'TERANT, altering: having the power of producing changes.--_n._ ALTER[=A]'TION, change.--_adj._ AL'TERATIVE, having power to alter.--_n._ a medicine that makes a change in the vital functions.--_n._ ALTER'ITY (_Coleridge_), the state of being other or different. [L.

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