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CRANNOG, kran'og, _n._ the name given in Scotland and Ireland to a fortified island (partly natural and partly artificial) in a lake, once used as a dwelling-place and place of refuge. [Gael. _crann_, a tree.]

CRANNY, kran'i, _n._ a rent: a chink: a secret place.--_v.i._ to enter crannies.--_adj._ CRANN'IED, having crannies, rents, or fissures. [Fr.

_cran_, a notch.]

CRANREUCH, kran'ruh, _n._ (_Scot._) hoar-frost. [Gael.]

CRANTS, krantz, _n._ (_Shak._) the garland carried before the bier of a maiden and hung over her grave. [From Ger. _kranz_, a wreath, a garland.]

CRAPE, kr[=a]p, _n._ a thin silk fabric, tightly twisted, without removing the natural gum--usually dyed black, used for mournings.--_adj._ made of crape.--_v.t._ to clothe with crape: to frizzle (hair).--_adj._ CRAP'Y. [O.

Fr. _crespe_ (Fr. _crepe_)--L. _crispus_, crisp.]

CRAPPIT-HEAD, krap'it-hed, _n._ a haddock's head stuffed with a compound of oatmeal, suet, onions, and pepper. [_Crappit_, from a Scotch word, _crap_, to cram.]

CRAPULENCE, krap'[=u]-lens, _n._ sickness caused by an overdose of drink.--_adjs._ CRAP'ULOUS, CRAP'ULENT. [Fr. _crapule_--L. _crapula_, intoxication.]

CRARE, CRAYER, kr[=a]r, _n._ a trading vessel. [O. Fr. _craier_--Late L.

_craiera_; origin dub.]

CRASE. Obsolete form of CRAZE.

CRASH, krash, _n._ a noise as of things breaking or being crushed by falling; the shock of two bodies meeting: the failure of a commercial undertaking.--_v.i._ to fall to pieces with a loud noise: to move with such a noise.--_v.t._ to dash in pieces. [From the sound.]

CRASH, krash, _n._ a coarse strong linen.

CRASIS, kr[=a]'sis, _n._ the mixture of different elements in the constitution of the body: temperament: (_gram._) the mingling or contraction of two vowels into one long vowel, or into a diphthong. [Gr.

_krasis_--_kerannynai_, to mix.]

CRASS, kras, _adj._ gross: thick: dense: stupid.--_ns._ CRASSAMENT'UM, the thick part of coagulated blood: the clot; CRASS'ITUDE, coarseness: density: stupidity.--_adv._ CRASS'LY.--_n._ CRASS' CRASSUL[=A]'CEae, an order of herbaceous or shrubby, succulent plants--including the _Stone-crop_ and _House-leek_. [O. Fr. _cras_--L. _crassus_.]

CRATaeGUS, kra-t[=e]'gus, _n._ a genus of thorny shrubs, of the rose family, in north temperate regions. [Gr.]

CRATCH, krach, _n._ a crib to hold hay for cattle, a CRATCHES, a swelling on a horse's pastern, under the fetlock. [Fr.

_creche_, a manger; from a Teut. root, whence also crib.]

CRATE, kr[=a]t, _n._ a wicker-work case for packing crockery in, or for carrying fruit. [L. _cratis_, a hurdle. See CRADLE.]

CRATER, kr[=a]t'[.e]r, _n._ the bowl-shaped mouth of a volcano.--_adjs._ CRAT'ERIFORM, or CRATER'IFORM, shaped like a crater; CRAT'EROUS. [L.,--Gr.

_krat[=e]r_, a large bowl for mixing wine, from _kerannynai_, to mix.]

CRAUNCH, kranch. A form of CRUNCH.

CRAVAT, kra-vat', _n._ a kind of neckcloth worn chiefly by men.--_v.t._ to dress in a cravat.--_adj._ CRAVAT'TED, wearing a cravat. [Fr.

_cravate_--introduced in 1636 from the _Cravates_ or Croatians.]

CRAVE, kr[=a]v, _v.t._ to beg earnestly: to beseech: to demand or require: to long for.--_ns._ CRAV'ER, one who craves: a beggar; CRAV'ING, desire: longing. [A.S. _crafian_, to crave; Ice. _krefja_.]

CRAVEN, kr[=a]v'n, _n._ a coward: a spiritless fellow.--_adj._ cowardly: spiritless.--_v.t._ to render spiritless.--_adv._ CRAV'ENLY.--_n._ CRAV'ENNESS.--TO CRY CRAVEN, to surrender. [M. E. _cravant_--O. Fr.

participle _cravante_, corresponding to L. _crepant-em_, _crep[=a]re_, to rattle, to break; some explain M. E. _cravant_ as O. Fr. _creant_, as in _recreant_.]

CRAW, kraw, _n._ the crop, throat, or first stomach of fowls: the stomach of animals generally. [M. E. _crawe_; not found in A.S.; cf. Dut. _kraag_, neck.]


CRAWL, krawl, _v.i._ to move slowly along the ground, as a worm: to creep: to move feebly, stealthily, or sneakingly: to be covered with crawling things.--_n._ the act of crawling.--_ns._ CRAWL'ER, one who or that which crawls: a reptile; CRAWL'ING.--_adv._ CRAWL'Y (_coll._), with a creepy feeling. [Scand.; Ice. _krafla_, Dan. _kravle_; Ger. _krabbeln_, to creep.]

CRAWL, krawl, _n._ a pen for keeping fish: a kraal.

CRAX, kraks, _n._ the typical genus of birds of family _Cracidae_.

CRAYFISH, kr[=a]'fish, CRAWFISH, kraw'fish, _n._ a large fresh-water crustacean in the long-tailed division of the order _Decapoda_: the small spiny lobster. [M. E. _crevice_--O. Fr. _crevice_ (Fr. _ecrevisse_, a crayfish)--Old High Ger. _krebiz_, a CRAB.]

CRAYON, kr[=a]'on, _n._ a pencil made of chalk or pipeclay, variously coloured, used for drawing: a drawing done with crayons.--_v.t._ to draw with a crayon.--IN CRAYONS, of a picture, made by crayons. [Fr.

_crayon_--_craie_, chalk, from L. _creta_, chalk.]

CRAZE, kr[=a]z, _v.t._ to weaken: to derange (applied to the intellect): (_obs._) to break.--_v.i._ to become mad.--_n._ a crack or flaw: insanity.--_adj._ CRAZED, deranged.--_adv._ CRAZ'ILY.--_ns._ CRAZ'INESS; CRAZ'ING-MILL, a mill for crushing tin-ore.--_adj._ CRAZ'Y, frail: insane: demented. [Scand.; Sw. _krasa_, Dan. _krase_, to crackle; whence also Fr.

_ecraser_, to crush.]

CREAGH, CREACH, kreh, _n._ a foray, raid: booty. [Gael.]

CREAK, kr[=e]k, _v.i._ to make a sharp, grating sound, as of a hinge, &c.--_n._ a grating noise, as of an unoiled hinge.--_adv._ CREAK'ILY.--_adj._ CREAK'Y. [From the sound, like _crake_ and _croak_.]

CREAM, kr[=e]m, _n._ the oily substance which forms on milk, yielding butter when churned: the best part of anything: any cream-like preparation, as _cold cream_ for the skin, &c., or any dish largely made of cream, or like cream, as _chocolate-cream_, _ice-cream_, _whipped-cream_, &c.--_v.t._ to take off the cream.--_v.i._ to gather or form cream.--_ns._ CREAM'-CAKE, a kind of cake filled with custard made of cream, &c.; CREAM'-CHEESE, cheese made of cream.--_adj._ CREAM'-COL'OURED, of the colour of cream, light yellow.--_n._ CREAM'ERY, an establishment where butter and cheese are made from the milk supplied by a number of producers: a shop for milk, butter, &c.--_adj._ CREAM'-FACED, pale-faced.--_ns._ CREAM'-FRUIT, the fruit of a creeping West African plant of the dogbane family, yielding a cream-like juice; CREAM'INESS.--_adj._ CREAM'-LAID, of a cream-colour and laid, or bearing linear water-lines as if laid.--_ns._ CREAM'-NUT, the Brazil nut; CREAM'-SLICE, a wooden blade for skimming cream from milk.--_adjs._ CREAM'-WOVE, woven of a cream-colour; CREAM'Y, full of or like cream: gathering like cream.--CREAM OF TARTAR, a white crystalline compound made by purifying argol, bitartrate of potash. [O. Fr. _cresme_, _creme_--L. _chrisma_.]

CREANCE, kr[=e]'ans, _n._ the cord which secures the hawk while being trained. [Fr.]

CREANT, kr[=e]'ant, _adj._ creating: formative.

CREASE, kr[=e]s, _n._ a mark made by folding or doubling anything: (_cricket_) a line indicating the boundaries of a particular space, as the position of a batter and bowler.--_v.t._ to make creases in anything.--_v.i._ to become creased.--_adj._ CREAS'Y, full of creases.

[Prob. Celt., as Bret. _kr[=i]z_, &c.]



CREATE, kr[=e]-[=a]t', _v.t._ to bring into being or form out of nothing: to beget: to form: to invest with a new form, office, or character: to produce.--_adj._ CRE[=A]T'ABLE.--_n._ CRE[=A]'TION, the act of creating, esp. the universe: that which is created, the world, the universe.--_adj._ CRE[=A]'TIONAL.--_ns._ CRE[=A]'TIONISM, the theory of special creation, opp. to _Evolutionism_: the theory that God immediately creates a soul for every human being born--opp. to _Traducianism_; CRE[=A]'TIONIST.--_adj._ CRE[=A]'TIVE, having power to create: that creates.--_adv._ CRE[=A]'TIVELY.--_ns._ CRE[=A]'TIVENESS; CRE[=A]'TOR, he who creates: a maker:--_fem._ CRE[=A]'TRIX, CRE[=A]'TRESS; CRE[=A]'TORSHIP.--_adjs._ CREA'TURAL, CREA'TURELY, pertaining to a creature or thing created.--_ns._ CREATURE (kr[=e]'t[=u]r), whatever has been created, animate or inanimate, esp. every animated being, an animal, a man: a term of contempt or of endearment: a dependent, instrument, or puppet; CREA'TURESHIP.--THE CREATOR, the Supreme Being, God.--CREATURE COMFORTS, material comforts, food, &c.: liquor, esp. whisky. [L. _cre[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_; Gr.

_krain-ein_, to fulfil.]

CREATINE, kr[=e]'a-tin, _n._ a constant and characteristic constituent of the striped muscle of vertebrates--also KRE'ATINE.--_adj._ CREAT'IC, relating to flesh.--_n._ CRE'ATININE, dehydrated form, a constant constituent of urine, found also in fish muscles. [Gr. _kreas_, _kreatos_, flesh.]

CReCHE, kresh, _n._ a sort of public nursery for children, while their mothers are at work. [Fr.]

CREDENCE, kr[=e]'dens, _n._ belief: trust: the small table beside the altar on which the bread and wine are placed before being consecrated.--_n._ CREDEN'DUM, a thing to be believed, an act of faith:--_pl._ CREDENDA.--_adjs._ CR[=E]'DENT, easy of belief; CREDEN'TIAL, giving a title to belief or credit.--_n._ that which entitles to credit or confidence: (_pl._) esp. the letters by which one claims confidence or authority among strangers.--_ns._ CREDIBIL'ITY, CRED'IBLENESS.--_adj._ CREDIBLE (kred'-), that may be believed.--_adv._ CRED'IBLY.--_n._ CRED'IT, belief: esteem: reputation: honour: good character: sale on trust: time allowed for payment: the side of an account on which payments received are entered: a sum placed at a person's disposal in a bank on which he may draw to its amount.--_v.t._ to believe: to trust: to sell or lend to on trust: to enter on the credit side of an account: to set to the credit of.--_adj._ CRED'ITABLE, trustworthy: bringing credit or honour.--_n._ CRED'ITABLENESS.--_adv._ CRED'ITABLY.--_ns._ CRED'ITOR, one to whom a debt is due:--_fem._ CRED'ITRIX; CR[=E]'DO, the Creed, or a musical setting of it for church services; CRED[=U]'LITY, credulousness: disposition to believe on insufficient evidence.--_adj._ CRED'ULOUS, easy of belief: apt to believe without sufficient evidence: unsuspecting.--_adv._ CRED'ULOUSLY.--_ns._ CRED'ULOUSNESS; CREED, a summary of articles of religious belief, esp. those called the Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian: any system of belief. [Fr.,--Low L. _credentia_--L. _credent-_, believing, pr.p. of _cred[)e]re_.]

CREEK, kr[=e]k, _n._ a small inlet or bay of the sea, or the tidal estuary of a river: any turn or winding: in America and Australia, a small river.--_adj._ CREEK'Y, full of creeks: winding. [Prob. Scand., Ice.

_kriki_, a nook; cf. Dut. _kreek_, a bay.]

CREEL, kr[=e]l, _n._ a basket, esp. an angler's basket. [Prob. Celt; cf.

Old Ir. _criol_, a chest.]

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