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COTICULAR, ko-tik'[=u]-lar, _adj._ pertaining to whetstones. [L.]

CO-TIDAL, k[=o]-t[=i]d'al, _adj._ noting an equality in the tides, applied to lines on a chart or map passing through places that have high tide at the same time.

COTILLION, ko-til'yun, COTILLON, ko-ti'yong, _n._ a brisk dance by eight persons. [Fr.,--_cotte_, a coat--Low L. _cotta_, a tunic. See COAT.]

COTINGA, k[=o]-ting'ga, _n._ a genus of passerine birds of bright plumage, represented by six species in central and in tropical South America.

[Native name.]

COTISE, COTTISE, k[=o]'tis, _n._ (_her._) one of the diminutives of the bend (q.v.).--_v.t._ to border a bend, &c., with cotises, barrulets, &c.

[Fr. _cotice_; origin obscure.]

COTONEASTER, k[=o]-t[=o]-ni-as't[.e]r, _n._ a genus of shrubs or small trees, closely allied to the hawthorn and medlar. [Formed from L.

_cotonea_, quince.]

COTSWOLD, kots'wold, _n._ a breed of sheep.--COTSWOLD LIONS, sheep.

COTTA, kot'a, _n._ a surplice. [Low L. _cotta_.]

COTTABUS, kot'a-bus, _n._ an amusement in ancient Greece among young men, consisting in throwing wine into a vessel, success at which betokened fortune in love. [L.,--Gr. _kottabos_.]

COTTAGE, kot'[=a]j, _n._ a small dwelling-house, esp. of labourers, varying greatly in size, appearance, and comfort: a country residence.--_adj._ COTT'AGED, covered with cottages.--_n._ COTT'AGER, one who dwells in a cottage, esp. of labourers.--COTTAGE ALLOTMENTS, pieces of land allotted to cottagers to be cultivated as gardens; COTTAGE PIANO, a small upright piano. [See COT.]

COTTAR, COTTER, kot'[.e]r, _n._ (_Scot._) a peasant occupying a cot or cottage for which he has to give labour.--_ns._ COTT'IER, a cottar: an Irish tenant; COTT'IERISM, the cottier system of land tenure.

COTTER, kot'[.e]r, _n._ a pin or wedge for fastening and tightening.

[Origin obscure.]

COTTON, kot'n, _n._ a soft substance like fine wool, got from the pods of the cotton-plant: cloth made of cotton.--_adj._ made of cotton.--_v.t._ to provide with cotton.--_v.i._ to agree: to be attached to (the connection of the intransitive meanings is unknown).--_ns._ COTTONADE', a name given to an inferior kind of cotton cloth; COTT'ON-GIN, a machine for separating the seeds from the fibre of cotton; COTT'ON-GRASS, a genus of _Cyperaceae_ in which the _perigone_ or covering of united bracts, which in this order enclose the ripening ovary, is developed into long, silky, or cottony hairs; COTTONOC'RACY, the cotton planting or the cotton manufacturing interest; COTT'ON-PLANT, one of various plants of the genus _Gossypium_, natural order _Malvaceae_, yielding the textile substance cotton; COTT'ON-PRESS, a press for compressing cotton into bales; COTT'ON-SEED, the seed of the cotton-plant, yielding a valuable oil; COTT'ON-SPIN'NER, one who spins cotton, or employs those who do; COTT'ON-TAIL, the ordinary United States rabbit; COTT'ON-THIS'TLE, a strong thistle covered with a cottony down; COTT'ON-TREE, the American cotton-wood: the Indian _Bombax malabaricum_; COTT'ON-WEED, cudweed or everlasting; COTT'ON-WOOD, any one of several American species of poplar; COTT'ON-WOOL, cotton in its raw or woolly state.--_adj._ COTT'ONY, like cotton: soft: downy. [Fr. _coton_--Ar.


COTYLE, kot'i-l[=e], _n._ an ancient Greek drinking-cup: (_zool._) a cup-like cavity:--_pl._ COT'YLae, or COT'YLES.--_adj._ COTYL'IFORM. [Gr.]

COTYLEDON, kot-i-l[=e]'don, _n._ (_bot._) the term applied to the seed-leaves of the embryo: the seed-leaf.--_adjs._ COTYL[=E]'DONARY; COTYL[=E]'DONOUS, pertaining to or having cotyledons or seed-lobes; COT'YLOID, cup-shaped. [L.,--Gr. _kotyl[=e]d[=o]n_--_kotyl[=e]_, a cup.]

COUCAL, k[=oo]'kal, _n._ a genus of common bush-birds in Africa and India.

COUCH, kowch, _v.t._ to lay down on a bed, &c.: to lower: to level: to arrange in language, to express: to depress or remove a cataract in the eye.--_v.i._ to lie down for the purpose of sleep, concealment, &c.: to bend or stoop in reverence.--_n._ any place for rest or sleep: a bed: the lair of a wild beast.--_adj._ COUCH'ANT, couching or lying down: (_her._) of a beast lying down with his head up.--_ns._ COUCH'-FELL'OW, COUCH'-MATE, a bed-fellow; COUCHING.--COUCH A SPEAR, to fix it in its rest at the side of the armour. [Fr. _coucher_, to lie down--L. _colloc[=a]re_, to place--_com_, together, _locus_, a place.]

COUCH, kowch, COUCH-GRASS, kowch'-gras, _n._ a grass of the same genus with wheat, but a widespread and troublesome weed. [A variant of QUITCH.]

COUCHEE, k[=oo]'sh[=a], _n._ an evening party or reception. [Fr. _couche_.


COUGAR, k[=oo]'gar, _n._ an American animal, same as the puma. [Fr.

_couguar_, from native name.]

COUGH, kof, _n._ an effort of the lungs to throw off injurious matter, accompanied by a harsh sound, proceeding from the throat.--_v.i._ to make this effort.--_v.t._ to expel from the throat or lungs by a cough.--_ns._ COUGH'-DROP, -LOZ'ENGE, a sweetmeat taken to cure coughing; COUGH'ER; COUGH'ING,--COUGH DOWN, to drown a speaker's voice by coughing, so that he must stop. [M. E. _coughen_; cf. Dut. _kuchen_, Ger. _keuchen_, _keichen_, to gasp.]

COULD, kood, _pa.t._ of CAN. [M. E. _coude_, _couth_--A.S. _cue_ for _cune_, was able; _l_ is inserted from the influence of _would_ and _should_.]

COULeE, k[=oo]-l[=a]', or k[=oo]'li, _n._ a ravine, esp. one worn out by water. [Fr.,--_couler_, to flow.]

COULEUR, kool'[=a]r, _n._ French word for COLOUR.--_n._ COUL'EUR-DE-ROSE', rose colour.--_adv._ in a favourable light: fanciful.

COULISSE, k[=oo]-lis', _n._ a piece of grooved wood, as the slides in which the side-scenes of a theatre run--hence, the side-scene of a theatre.

[Fr.,--_couler_, to glide, to flow--L. _col[=a]re_, to flow.]

COULOIR, kool-war, _n._ a gully filled with snow. [Fr.]

COULOMB, koo-lom', _n._ the unit of quantity in measuring current electricity: the quantity furnished by a current of one ampere in one second. [From the French physicist, C. A. de _Coulomb_ (1736-1806).]


COUMARINE, koo'ma-rin, _n._ a crystalline compound obtained in Tonka beans, &c.--also CU'MARIN.--_adjs._ COU'MARIC, COUMARIL'IC.

COUNCIL, kown'sil, _n._ an assembly called together for deliberation or advice: the body of men constituting such an assembly: the body of men directing the affairs of the city: an assembly of ecclesiastics met to regulate doctrine or discipline (_diocesan_, _provincial_, _national_, _general_, or _oecumenical_).--_ns._ COUN'CIL-BOARD, the board or table round which a council meets for deliberation: the council itself; COUN'CIL-CHAM'BER, the room where a council is held; COUN'CILLOR, a member of a council, esp. of a common council; COUN'CIL-MAN, a member of a municipal council.--COUNCIL OF WAR, a conference of military or naval officers called to meet and consult with the commander.--GENERAL COUNCIL, one called by an invitation to the church at large, also OECUMENICAL, if received by the Catholic Church in general--as the first seven, 325-787.--IN COUNCIL, in the council-chamber: in giving advice.--PRIVY-COUNCIL (see PRIVY). [Fr. _concile_--L. _concilium_.]

COUNSEL, kown'sel, _n._ consultation: deliberation: advice: plan: purpose: one who gives counsel, a barrister or advocate.--_v.t._ to give advice: to warn:--_pr.p._ coun'selling; _pa.p._ coun'selled.--_n._ COUN'SEL-KEEP'ER (_Shak._), one who can keep counsel or a secret.--_adjs._ COUN'SEL-KEEP'ING (_Shak._), keeping counsel or secrets; COUN'SELLABLE, that may be counselled.--_ns._ COUN'SELLOR, one who counsels: a barrister; COUN'SELLORSHIP.--COUNSEL OF PERFECTION, a declaration of our Lord's, not absolutely imperative, but commended as the means of reaching greater perfection; KEEP COUNSEL, to keep a secret; KING'S COUNSEL (K.C.), a barrister-at-law appointed by letters-patent--the office is honorary, but gives the right of precedence in all the courts. [Fr. _conseil_--L.

_consilium_, advice--_consul[)e]re_, to consult.]

COUNT, kownt, _n._ on the Continent, a title of nobility equal in rank to an English earl:--_fem._ COUNT'ESS, the wife of a count or earl (fem. of _earl_).--_ns._ COUNT'SHIP, a count's dignity or domain (also used as a title); COUN'TY, a portion of a country separated for the administration of justice: a shire; COUN'TY-FAM'ILY, a family of the nobility or gentry (COUN'TY-PEOPLE), with estates and a seat in the county. [O. Fr.

_conte_--L. _comes_, _comitis_, a companion, _con_, with, _[=i]re_, _itum_, to go.]

COUNT, kownt, _v.t._ to number, sum up: to ascribe: esteem: consider.--_v.i._ to add to or increase a number by being counted to it: to depend.--_n._ act of numbering: the number counted: a particular charge in an indictment.--_adj._ COUNT'ABLE, capable of being counted.--_ns._ COUNT'ER, he who or that which counts: that which indicates a number: a piece of metal, &c., used in reckoning: a table on which money is counted or goods laid; COUNT'ING-HOUSE, COUNT'ING-ROOM, the house or room in which merchants keep their accounts and transact business.--_adj._ COUNT'LESS, that cannot be counted: innumerable.--_n._ COUNT'-WHEEL, a wheel with notched edge controlling the stroke of a clock in sounding the hours. [O.

Fr. _cunter_ (Fr. _compter_)--L. _comput[=a]re_.]

COUNTENANCE, kown'ten-ans, _n._ the face: the expression of the face: appearance.--_v.t._ to favour or approve.--_n._ COUN'TENANCER.--CHANGE COUNTENANCE, to change the expression of the face; HIS COUNTENANCE FELL, he became dejected or angry; IN COUNTENANCE, unabashed--opp. to _Out of countenance_. [O. Fr. _contenance_--L. _continentia_, restraint, demeanour--L. _contin[=e]re_, to contain.]

COUNTER, kown't[.e]r, _adv._ against: in opposition.--_adj._ contrary: opposite.--_n._ that which is counter of opposite: (_mus._) the voice-part set in immediate contrast with the air: (_fencing_) a parry in which one foil follows the other in a small circle: the part of a horse's breast between the shoulders and under the neck: (_naut._) the part of a ship between the water-line and the knuckle of the stern.--_v.t._ COUNTERACT', to act counter or in opposition to: to hinder or defeat.--_n._ COUNTERAC'TION.--_adj._ COUNTERACT'IVE, tending to counteract.--_n._ one who or that which counteracts.--_adv._ COUNTERACT'IVELY.--_ns._ COUN'TER-AG'ENT, anything which counteracts; COUN'TER-APPROACH', a work thrown up outside a besieged place to command or check the approaches of the besieger; COUN'TER-ATTRAC'TION, attraction in an opposite direction.--_adj._ COUN'TER-ATTRACT'IVE, attracting in an opposite direction.--_v.t._ COUNTERBAL'ANCE, to balance by weight on the opposite side: to act against with equal weight, power, or influence.--_ns._ COUN'TERBALANCE, an equal weight, power, or agency working in opposition; COUN'TERBASE (see CONTRABASS); COUN'TER-BATT'ERY (_mil._), a battery erected to oppose another; COUN'TER-BLAST, something done in opposition to another thing; COUN'TER-BOND, a bond to protect from contingent loss one who has given bond for another.--_v.t._ COUN'TER-BRACE (_naut._), to brace or fasten (the head-yards and after-yards) in opposite ways.--_n._ the lee-brace of the fore-topsail-yard.--_n._ COUN'TERBUFF, a stroke that stops motion or causes a recoil.--_v.t._ to drive back by such.--_ns._ COUN'TER-CAST (_Spens._), a contrary cast, counterplot, trick; COUN'TER-CAST'ER (_Shak._), one who casts accounts: a book-keeper--used in contempt; COUN'TER-CHANGE, (_Shak._), exchange, reciprocation.--_p.adj._ COUN'TERCHANGED', exchanged: (_her._) intermixed or set one against the other, as the colours of the field and charge.--_n._ COUN'TER-CHARGE, a charge brought forward in opposition to another charge.--_v.t._ COUN'TERCHARM, to destroy or dissolve the effects of another charm.--_n._ that which destroys the effects of another charm.--_v.t._ COUN'TER-CHECK, to check by some obstacle: to rebuke.--_ns._ COUNTER-CHECK', a check in opposition to another: a rebuke; COUNTER-CLAIM, kown't[.e]r-kl[=a]m, _n._ a cross-demand brought forward as a partial or complete set-off against another claim.; COUN'TER-CURR'ENT, a current flowing in an opposite direction; COUN'TER-DRAIN, a drain alongside a canal, &c., to carry off water oozing out.--_v.t._ COUN'TERDRAW, to trace on oiled paper or other transparent material.--_ns._ COUN'TER-EV'IDENCE, evidence brought forward in opposition to other evidence; COUN'TERFOIL, the corresponding part of a bank cheque, &c., retained by the giver; COUN'TER-FORCE, an opposing force; COUN'TER-FORT (_fort._), a buttress, or arch behind the revetments or retaining walls of the ditches of permanent fortifications; COUN'TER-GAUGE, an adjustable scribing gauge for marking the measurements of a mortise on a piece to be tenoned; COUN'TER-GUARD (_fort._), an outwork consisting of two lines of rampart running parallel to the faces of the bastion, to guard the bastion from being breached; COUN'TER-IN'FLUENCE, an opposing influence; COUN'TER-IRR'ITANT, an agent or substance applied to the skin so as to redden, to vesicate, or to produce pustules, &c.; COUN'TER-IRRIT[=A]'TION, an artificial irritation produced in one part of the body to act in opposition to and remove already existing irritation; COUN'TERLIGHT (_paint._), a light opposite to any object, disturbing the effect of its light.--_v.i._ COUN'TERMARCH, to march back or in a direction contrary to a former one.--_n._ a marching backward or in a direction different from a former one: (_mil._) an evolution by which a body of men change front, and still retain the same men in the front rank: change of measures.--_n._ COUN'TERMARK, an additional mark put on a bale of goods belonging to several merchants, so that it may not be opened except in the presence of all the owners: a mark put on standard metal by the London Goldsmiths'

Company in addition to the artificer's: an artificial cavity made in the teeth of horses to disguise their age.--_v.t._ COUN'TERMINE, to make a mine in opposition to: to oppose by means of a countermine: (_fig._) to frustrate by secret working:--_pr.p._ countermin'ing; _pa.p._ countermined'.--_ns._ COUN'TER-MINE (_mil._), a mine or chamber excavated by the besieged to counteract or destroy the mines made by the besiegers: (_fig._) any means of counteraction; COUN'TER-M[=O]'TION, an opposite motion; COUN'TER-MOVE, -MOVE'MENT, a contrary move, movement.--_v.t._ COUN'TERMURE, to fortify a wall with another wall.--_ns._ COUN'TER-[=O]'PENING, an aperture or vent on the opposite side, or in a different place; COUN'TER-PACE, a step in opposition to another, a contrary measure.--_adj._ COUN'TER-PALED (_her._), divided equally, as an escutcheon, first palewise, then by a line fesswise, with two tinctures countercharged.--_ns._ COUN'TER-PAROLE', a word in addition to the password; COUN'TERPART, the part that answers to another part: that which fits into or completes another, having the qualities which another lacks, and so an opposite.--_adj._ COUN'TER-PASS'ANT (_her._), denoting two animals in a coat of arms represented as passing each other the contrary way.--_n._ COUN'TERPLEA, a replication to a plea or request.--_v.t._ COUNTERPLEAD', to plead the contrary of; COUN'TERPLOT', to plot against in order to frustrate another plot:--_pr.p._ counterplot'ting; _pa.p._ counterplot'ted.--_n._ a plot or stratagem opposed to another plot.--_v.t._ COUN'TERPOISE, to poise or weigh against or on the opposite side: to act in opposition to with equal effect.--_n._ an equally heavy weight in the other scale--(_Spens._) COUN'TERPOYS.--_ns._ COUN'TER-POIS'ON, a poison used as the antidote of another; COUN'TER-PRES'SURE, opposing pressure; COUN'TER-PROOF, an inverted impression obtained from a newly printed proof of an engraving, by laying it, while the ink is still wet, upon plain paper, and passing it through the press; COUN'TER-REVOL[=U]'TION, a subsequent revolution counteracting the effect of a previous; COUN'TER-ROLL, a copy of the rolls relating to appeals, inquests, &c., serving as a check on another's roll; COUN'TER-ROUND, a body of officers which goes to inspect the rounds.--_adj._ COUN'TERS[=A]'LIENT (_her._), salient in opposite directions.--_n._ COUN'TERSCARP (_fort._), the side of the ditch nearest to the besiegers and opposite to the scarp.--_v.t._ COUNTERSEAL' (_Shak._), to seal along with others.--_ns._ COUN'TER-SECUR'ITY, security given to one who has become surety for another; COUN'TER-SENSE, an interpretation contrary to the real sense.--_v.t._ COUNTERSIGN', to sign on the opposite side of a writing: to sign in addition to the signature of a superior, to attest the authenticity of a writing.--_ns._ COUN'TERSIGN, a military private sign or word, which must be given in order to pass a sentry: a counter-signature; COUN'TER-SIG'NAL, a signal used as an answer [Illustration] to another; COUN'TER-SIG'NATURE, a name countersigned to a writing.--_v.t._ COUN'TERSINK, to bevel the edge of a hole, as for the head of a screw-nail (_a_ _a_ in fig.)--it is usually done by a COUNTERSINK-BIT (_b_ in fig.) in a brace.--_ns._ COUN'TER-STAND, opposition, resistance; COUN'TER-STATE'MENT, a statement in opposition to another statement; COUN'TER-STROKE (_Spens._), a stroke given in return for another stroke; COUN'TER-TAL'LY, a tally serving as a check to another; COUN'TER-TEN'OR, name applied to alto when sung by a male voice (so called because a contrast to tenor); COUN'TER-TIME, the resistance of a horse that interrupts his cadence and the measure of his manege: resistance, opposition; COUN'TERTURN, a turn in a play different from what was expected.--_v.t._ COUNTERVAIL', to be of avail against: to act against with equal effect: to be of equal value to: to compensate [COUNTER and AVAIL].--_n._ COUN'TER-VIEW, an opposing view: a posture in which two persons face each other: opposition: contrast.--_v.t._ COUN'TER-VOTE, to vote in opposition to; COUN'TER-WEIGH, to weigh against, counterbalance.--_ns._ COUN'TER-WEIGHT, a weight in an opposite scale.--_v.i._ COUN'TER-WHEEL, to wheel in an opposite direction.--_n._ COUN'TER-WORK, a work raised in opposition to another.--_v.t._ to work in opposition to.--_p.adj._ COUN'TER-WROUGHT. [Fr.,--L. _contra_, against.]

COUNTER, kown't[.e]r, _n._ (_Spens._) encounter.--_v.t._ to encounter: to contradict.

COUNTERFEIT, kown't[.e]r-fit, -f[=e]t, _v.t._ to imitate: to copy without authority: to forge.--_n._ something false or copied, or that pretends to be true and original.--_adj._ pretended: made in imitation of: forged: false.--_n._ COUN'TERFEITER, one who counterfeits.--_adv._ COUN'TERFEITLY, in a counterfeit manner: falsely.--_n._ COUN'TER-FES'ANCE (_Spens._), act of counterfeiting: forgery. [O. Fr. _contrefet_, from _contrefaire_, to imitate--L. _contra_, against, _fac[)e]re_, to do.]

COUNTERMAND, kown-t[.e]r-mand', _v.t._ to give a command in opposition to one already given: to revoke.--_n._ a revocation of a former order.--_adj._ COUNTERMAND'ABLE. [O. Fr. _contremander_--L. _contra_, against, and _mand[=a]re_, to order.]

COUNTERPANE, kown't[.e]r-p[=a]n, _n._ a coverlet for a bed, stitched or woven in squares.--Older form COUN'TERPOINT. [A corr. of O. Fr.

_contrepointe_, which is a corr. of _coultepointe_--L. _culcita puncta_, a stitched pillow or cover. See QUILT.]

COUNTERPOINT, kown't[.e]r-point, _n._ (_mus._) the art of combining melodies: the setting of a harmony of one or more parts to a melody: the art of composition.--_adj._ CONTRAPUNT'AL.--_n._ CONTRAPUNT'IST.

[Fr.,--_contre_, against, _point_, a point.]

COUNTRY, kun'tri, _n._ a rural region as distinct from a town: a tract of land: the land in which one was born, or in which one resides.--_adj._ belonging to the country: rustic: rude.--_p.adj._ COUN'TRIFIED.--_v.t._ COUN'TRIFY, to make rustic.--_ns._ COUN'TRY-BOX, a country-house; COUN'TRY-DANCE, a dance practised by country people: a dance in which an indefinite number of couples can take part, the gentlemen being arranged at the commencement on one side, and the ladies on the COUN'TRY-FOLK, the inhabitants of the country.--_ns._ COUN'TRY-HOUSE, -SEAT, the residence of a country gentleman; COUN'TRYMAN, one who lives in the country: a farmer: one born in the same country with another; COUN'TRY-SIDE, a district or part of the country; COUN'TRY-WOMAN, a woman who dwells in the country: a woman born in the same country.--COUNTRY COUSIN, a relative from the country, unaccustomed to town sights or manners; COUNTRY GENTLEMAN, a landed proprietor who resides on his estate in the country; COUNTRY TOWN, a small town in a rural district, depending on the agricultural industry of the surrounding country.--GO TO THE COUNTRY, in parliamentary usage, to appeal to the feeling of the community by a general election. [O. Fr., _contree_--Low L. _contrata_, _contrada_, an extension of L. _contra_, over against.]


COUP, k[=oo], _n._ a blow, stroke, a successful hit: (_billiards_) the act of putting a ball in a pocket without having hit another ball.--COUP D'eTAT, a sudden or violent stroke of state policy, as that by which Louis Napoleon subverted the constitution (Dec. 2, 1851); COUP DE GRaCE, the finishing blow by which a tortured man is put out of pain, any decisive stroke generally; COUP DE MAIN, a sudden and overpowering attack; COUP DE MAiTRE, a master-stroke; COUP DE THeaTRE, a sudden and sensational turn in a piece: COUP D'OEIL, a general view of a scene or subject taken in at a glance. [Fr.,--L.,--_colaphos_, a blow.]

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