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CELLO, chel'o, for VIOLONCELLO; sometimes written 'CELLO.--CELLIST, 'CELLIST, for VIOLONCELLIST.

CELLULARES, sel-[=u]-l[=a]'rez, a name sometimes applied to the _Cryptogamia_--properly only to the mosses and lower cryptogams.

CELT, selt, _n._ a cutting instrument of stone or bronze found in ancient barrows. [Founded on _Celte_, perh. a misreading for _certe_ ('surely'), in the Vulgate, Job, xix. 24, there being apparently no such Latin word as _celtes_, a chisel.]

CELT, selt, _n._ one of the Celts, an Aryan race, now represented by the Bretons, the Welsh, the Irish, and the Scottish Highlanders--also Kelt.--_adj._ CELT'IC.--_ns._ CELT'ICISM, a Celtic idiom or custom; CELTOM[=A]'NIA. [L. _Celtae_; Gr. _Keltoi_ or _Keltai_.]

CEMENT, se-ment', _n._ anything that makes two bodies stick together: mortar: a bond of union.--_v.t._ to unite with cement: to join firmly.--_n._ CEMENT[=A]'TION, the act of cementing: the process by which iron is turned into steel, glass into porcelain, &c.--done by surrounding them with a cement or powder and exposing them to heat.--_adjs._ CEMENT'ATORY, CEMENTI'TIOUS, having the quality of cementing or uniting firmly. [O. Fr. _ciment_--L. _caementum_, chip of stone used to fill up in building a wall, _caedimentum_--_caed[)e]re_, to cut.]

CEMETERY, sem'e-t[.e]r-i, _n._ a burying-ground. [Low L. _caemeterium_--Gr.


CENACLE, sen'a-kl, _n._ a supper-room, esp. that in which the Last Supper was eaten by Jesus and His disciples. [Fr. _cenacle_--L. _cenaculum_.]


CENOTAPH, sen'[=o]-taf, _n._ a sepulchral monument to one who is buried elsewhere. [Fr.,--L.--Gr. _kenotaphion_--_kenos_, empty, and _taphos_, a tomb.]

CENOZOIC, s[=e]-no-z[=o]'ik, _adj._ Same as CAINOZOIC.

CENSE, sens, _v.t._ to burn incense before: (_obs._) to think.--_n._ (_obs._) a public rate or tax: rank, condition. [See CENSUS.]

CENSER, sens'[.e]r, _n._ a pan in which incense is burned. [O. Fr.

_censier_, _encensier_ (mod. _encensoir_)--Low L. _incensorium_--L.

_incend[)e]re_, _incensum_, to burn.]

CENSOR, sen'sor, _n._ in ancient Rome, an officer who kept account of the property of the citizens, imposed taxes, and watched over their morals: an officer who examines books or newspapers before they are printed: one who censures or blames.--_adjs._ CENS[=O]'RIAL, belonging to a censor, or to the correction of public morals; CENS[=O]'RIOUS, expressing censure: fault-finding--also CENS[=O]'RIAN.--_adv._ CENS[=O]'RIOUSLY.--_ns._ CENS[=O]'RIOUSNESS; CEN'SORSHIP, office of censor: time during which he holds office.--CENSORSHIP OF THE PRESS, a regulation of certain governments, by which books and newspapers must be examined by officers, whose approval is necessary to their publication. [L.,--_cens[=e]re_, to weigh, to estimate.]

CENSURE, sen'sh[=u]r, _n._ an unfavourable judgment: blame: reproof: (_obs._) criticism, judgment generally.--_v.t._ to blame: to condemn as wrong.--_adj._ CEN'SURABLE, deserving of censure: blamable.--_n._ CEN'SURABLENESS.--_adv._ CEN'SURABLY. [L. _cens[=u]ra_, an opinion, a severe judgment--_cens[=e]re_, to estimate or judge.]

CENSUS, sen'sus, _n._ an official enumeration of the inhabitants of a country, and of statistics relating to them.--_adj._ CEN'SUAL, relating to or containing a census. [L. _census_, a register.]

CENT, sent, _n._ a hundred: an American coin--the hundredth part of a dollar.--_ns._ CENT'AGE, rate by the hundred; CENT'AL, a weight of 100 lb.

proposed for general adoption, legalised in 1878.--PER CENT., by the hundred. [L. _centum_, a hundred.]

CENTAUR, sen'tawr, _n._ a fabulous monster, half-man, half-horse.--_adj._ CENTAU'RIAN. [L.,--Gr. _kentauros_; ety. dub.]

CENTAURY, sen'taw-ri, _n._ an annual with pink or rose-coloured flowers, possessing the tonic and other medicinal virtues of gentian, esteemed in medicine since the days of Galen.

CENTENARY, sen'tin-ar-i (also sometimes sen-t[=e]n'ar-i and even sen-ten'ar-i), _n._ a hundred: a century or hundred years.--_adj._ pertaining to a hundred.--_ns._ CENTEN[=A]'RIAN, one a hundred years old; CENTEN[=A]'RIANISM; CENTENIER (sen'ten-[=e]r), a centurion: a police-officer in Jersey. [L.,--_centeni_, a hundred each--_centum_.]

CENTENNIAL, sen-ten'i-al, _adj._ happening once in a hundred years.--_n._ a hundredth anniversary. [Coined from L. _centum_, and _annus_, a year.]


CENTERING, sen't[.e]r-ing, _n._ (_archit._) the framework upon which an arch or vault of stone, brick, or iron is supported during its construction.

CENTESIMAL, sen-tes'i-mal, _adj._ hundredth.--_adv._ CENTES'IMALLY. [L.


CENTIFOLIOUS, sen-ti-f[=o]'li-us, _adj._ hundred-leaved.

CENTIGRADE, sen'ti-gr[=a]d, _adj._ having a hundred degrees: divided into a hundred degrees, as the centigrade thermometer constructed by Celsius (1701-44), in which freezing-point is zero and boiling-point is 100 (for its relation to the Fahrenheit scale, see THERMOMETER). [L. _centum_, and _gradus_, a step, a degree.]

CENTIGRAMME, sen'ti-gram, _n._ in the Metric System, the hundredth part of a gramme, or .1543248 of a gr. troy. [Fr.,--L. _centum_, a hundred, and GRAMME.]

CENTILITRE, sen'ti-l[=e]-tr, _n._ the hundredth part of a litre, a little more than 6/10ths of a cubic inch. [Fr.,--L. _centum_, a hundred, and LITRE.]

CENTIME, sen-t[=e]m', _n._ the hundredth part of anything, esp. a French coin, the hundredth part of a franc. [Fr.,--L. _centum_, a hundred.]

CENTIMETRE, sen'ti-m[=e]-tr, _n._ a lineal measure, the hundredth part of a metre--0.3937 inches. [Fr.,--L. _centum_, a hundred, _metrum_, Gr.

_metron_, a measure.]


CENTIPEDE, sen'ti-p[=e]d, _n._ a general name for the members of one of the orders of the class _Myriapoda_, being segmented animals bearing jointed appendages, having a well-defined head furnished with feelers and jaws, and breathing by means of air-tubes or tracheae. [L. _centum_, and _pes_, _pedis_, a foot.]

CENTNER, sent'ner, _n._ a common name on the Continent for a hundredweight.

CENTO, sen'to, _n._ a name applied to literary trivialities in the form of poems manufactured by putting together distinct verses or passages of one author, or of several authors, so as to make a new meaning: a composition formed by joining scraps from other authors: expressing contempt, a mere string of commonplace phrases and quotations:--_pl._ usually CEN'TOS.--_ns._ CEN'TOIST; CEN'TONISM, CEN'TOISM. [L. _cento_, Gr.

_kentr[=o]n_, patchwork.]

CENTRE, CENTER, sen't[.e]r, _n._ the middle point of anything, esp. a circle or sphere: the middle: the point toward which all things move or are drawn: the chief leader of an organisation--head-centre: the men of moderate political opinions in the French Chamber, sitting right in front of the president, with extreme men on the right and on the left--further subdivisions are RIGHT-CENTRE and LEFT-CENTRE: the Ultramontane party in Germany.--_v.t._ to place on or collect to a centre.--_v.i._ to be placed in the middle:--_pr.p._ cen'tring, cen'tering; _pa.p._ cen'tred, cen'tered.--_adj._ CEN'TRAL, belonging to the centre, principal, dominant: belonging to a nerve-centre, of affections caused by injury to the brain or spinal cord.--_ns._ CENTRALIS[=A]'TION, CEN'TRALISM, the tendency to administer by the sovereign or central government matters which would be otherwise under local management.--_v.t._ CEN'TRALISE, to draw to a centre.--_n._ CENTRAL'ITY, central position.--_advs._ CEN'TRALLY, CEN'TRICALLY.--_ns._ CEN'TRE-BIT, a joiner's tool, turning on a centre, for boring circular holes--one of the chief tools of the burglar; CEN'TRE-BOARD, a shifting keel, fitted to drop below and in line with the keel proper in order to increase or diminish the draught of a boat--much used in United States racing yachts; CEN'TRE-PIECE, an ornament for the middle of a table, ceiling, &c.--_adjs._ CEN'TRIC, CEN'TRICAL, relating to, placed in, or containing the centre.--_ns._ CEN'TRICALNESS, CENTRIC'ITY; CEN'TRUM, the body of a vertebra.--CENTRAL FIRE, said of a cartridge in which the fulminate is placed in the centre of the base, as opposed to _rim fire_; CENTRAL FORCES, forces whose action is to cause a moving body to tend towards a fixed point called the centre of force.--CENTRE OF ATTRACTION, the point to which bodies tend by the force of gravity; CENTRE OF BUOYANCY, or DISPLACEMENT, the point in an immersed body at which the resultant vertical pressure may be supposed to act; CENTRE OF GRAVITY, a certain point, invariably situated with regard to the body, through which the resultant of the attracting forces between the earth and its several molecules always passes; CENTRE OF INERTIA, or MASS, the centre of a set of parallel forces acting on all the particles of a body, each force being proportional to the mass of the particle on which it acts; CENTRE OF OSCILLATION, the point in a body occupied by that particle which is accelerated and retarded to an equal amount, and which therefore moves as if it were a single pendulum unconnected with the rest of the body; CENTRE OF PERCUSSION, the point in which the direction of a blow, given to a body, intersects the plane in which the fixed axis and the centre of inertia lie, making the body begin to rotate about a fixed axis, without causing any pressure on the axis; CENTRE OF PRESSURE, the point at which the direction of a single force, which is equivalent to the fluid pressure on the plane surface, meets the surface. [Fr.,--L. _centrum_--Gr. _kentron_, a sharp point.]

CENTRIFUGAL, sen-trif'[=u]-gal, _adj._ relating to the force directed towards the centre of curvature constantly required to keep a body moving in a curve instead of in its natural straight line: (_bot._) applied to an inflorescence when the development proceeds from the apex towards the base of the axis or leaf, as opposed to _centripetal_, when it is from the base upwards towards the apex.--_n._ CEN'TRIFUGE, a centrifugal machine. [L.

_centrum_, and _fug-[)e]re_, to flee from.]

CENTRIPETAL, sen-trip'et-al, _adj._ of a force impelling a body towards some point as a centre. [L. _centrum_, and _pet-[)e]re_, to seek.]

CENTROBARIC, sen-tro-bar'ik, _adj._ relating to the centre of gravity. [L.

_centrum_, and Gr. _baros_, weight.]

CENTRODE, sen'tr[=o]d, _n._ a locus traced out by the successive positions of an instantaneous centre of pure rotation.

CENTUMVIR, sen-tum'vir, _n._ one of the Roman judges chosen annually for civil suits, originally 105 in number (three from each of the thirty-five tribes):--_pl._ CENTUM'VIR[=I].--_n._ CENTUM'VIRATE. [L. _centum_, a hundred, and _vir_, a man.]

CENTUPLE, sen't[=u]-pl, _adj._ hundredfold.--_v.t._ CENT[=U]'PLICATE, to multiply a hundred times.--_n._ CENTUPLIC[=A]'TION. [L.

_centuplex_--_centum_, and _plic[=a]re_, to fold.]

CENTURY, sen't[=u]-ri, _n._ a hundred, or something consisting of a hundred in number, as sonnets, &c.: a hundred years.--_adj._ CENT[=U]'RIAL.--_ns._ CENT[=U]'RI[=A]TOR, the centuriators of Magdeburg were a group of Reformed divines who in the 16th century compiled a church history in 13 vols., each volume covering a century; CENT[=U]'RION, among the Romans, the commander of a hundred men.--CENTURY PLANT (see AGAVE). [L. _centuria_--_centum_.]

CEORL, churl, _n._ before the Norman Conquest an ordinary freeman not of noble birth. [A.S.]

CEPHALASPIS, sef-a-las'pis, _n._ a genus of fossil Ganoid fishes found in the Upper Silurian and Devonian measures. [Gr. _kephal[=e]_, the head, _aspis_, a shield.]

CEPHALIC, se-fal'ik, _adj._ belonging to the head--also CEPHALIS'TIC.--_ns._ CEPHALAG'RA, gout in the head; CEPHALAL'GIA, CEPH'ALGY, headache.--_adjs._ CEPHALAL'GIC; CEPH'ALATE, having a head, as a mollusc.--_n._ CEPHAL[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the brain.--_adjs._ CEPH'ALOID, in the form of the head: spherical.--_ns._ CEPH'ALO-TH[=O]'RAX, the anterior division of the body in arthropods; CEPHALOT'OMY, the dissection of the head.--_adj._ CEPH'ALOUS, having a head. [Gr.

_kephalikos_--_kephal[=e]_, the head.]

CEPHALOPODA, sef-al-op'od-a, the highest class of molluscs, usually large animals, exclusively marine, with well-developed head region, but having the ventral surface grown round the mouth and split up into arms bearing suckers--more commonly _cuttlefish_.--_adj._ CEPH'ALOPOD. [Gr.

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