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CATHOLIC, kath'ol-ik, _adj._ universal: general, embracing the whole body of Christians: orthodox, as opposed to _heterodox_ and _sectarian_--applied esp. to the Christian Church before the great schism between the East and the West: liberal, the opposite of exclusive: relating to the name claimed by its adherents for the Church of Rome as the alleged sole visible representative of the church founded by Christ and His apostles--the characteristic marks of the Catholic Church being _universality_, _antiquity_, _unity_: relating to the Roman Catholics.--_n._ an adherent of the R.C. Church.--_v.t._ CATHOL'ICISE, to make Catholic.--_ns._ CATHOL'ICISM, CATHOLIC'ITY, universality: liberality or breadth of view: the tenets of the R.C. Church; CATHOL'ICON, a universal remedy or panacea; CATHOL'ICOS, the Patriarch of Armenia.--CATHOLIC CREDITOR (_law of Scot._), one whose debt is secured over several or the whole subjects belonging to the debtor--e.g. over two or more heritable estates; CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION, the relief of the Roman Catholics from certain vexatious penal regulations and restrictions, granted in 1829; CATHOLIC or GENERAL EPISTLES, the name given to certain epistles in the canon addressed not to particular churches or individuals, but either to the Church universal or to a large and indefinite circle of readers--originally only 1 John and 1 Peter, but, as early as the 3d century, also James, Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John; CATHOLIC KING, a title given specially to the king of Spain.--OLD CATHOLICS, the title assumed by a number of Catholics who at Munich protested against the new dogma of the personal infallibility of the pope in all _ex cathedra_ deliverances proclaimed by the Vatican Council in 1870--now a considerable communion or church in Germany and Switzerland. [Gr. _katholicos_, universal--_kata_, throughout, _holos_, the whole.]

CATILINE, kat'il-[=i]n, _n._ the type of a daring and reckless conspirator, from L. Sergius _Catilina_, whose plot to destroy Rome was foiled by Cicero, 63 B.C.--_adj._ CAT'ILIN[=A]RIAN.


CAT-LOG, kat'-log, _n._ (_Shak._). CATALOGUE.

CATONIAN, ka-t[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ resembling _Cato_, the Roman Censor (died 149 B.C.), or Cato Uticensis (95-46 B.C.), both remarkable for gravity of manners--hence grave, severe, unbending.

CATOPTRIC, kat-op'trik, _adj._ relating to catoptrics or vision by CATOP'TRICS, the part of optics which treats of reflected light. [Gr.; from _katoptron_, a mirror--_kata_, against, _optesthai_, to see.]


CATTLE, kat'l, beasts of pasture, esp. oxen, bulls, and cows: sometimes also horses, sheep, &c.--_ns._ CATT'LEMAN, one who tends cattle, or who rears them on a ranch; CATT'LE-PLAGUE, plague or disease among cattle, esp. that known as rinderpest or steppe murrain; CATT'LE-SHOW, an exhibition or show of cattle or other domestic animals in competition for prizes. [O. Fr. _catel_, _chatel_--Low L. _captale_, orig. capital, property in general, then esp. animals--L. _capitalis_, chief--_caput_, the head, beasts in early times forming the chief part of property.]

CATTY, kat'i, _n._ the Chinese kin or pound, usually a little over 1 lb.


CAUCASIAN, kaw-k[=a]'zhi-an, _adj._ pertaining to Mount _Caucasus_ or the country around it.--_n._ the name adopted by Blumenbach for one of his main ethnological divisions of mankind, by him made to include the two great groups, the Aryan and the Semitic; used by later anthropologists for the fair type of man as opposed to the Mongolic or yellow type.

CAUCUS, kaw'kus, _n._ a private meeting of political wire-pullers to agree upon candidates to be proposed for an ensuing election, or to fix the business to be laid before a general meeting of their party: applied loosely to any influential committee in a constituency. [Ety. dub.; perh.

John Smith's Algonkin word _Caw-cawaassough_, an adviser; perh. a corr. of '_caulkers'_ meetings.']

CAUDAL, kaw'dal, _adj._ pertaining to the tail: having a tail or something like one.--_adj._ CAU'D[=A]TE, tailed. [L. _cauda_.]

CAUDEX, kaw'deks, _n._ (_bot._) the stem of a tree, esp. of a palm or tree-fern:--_pl._ CAUD'ICES, CAUD'EXES.--_n._ CAUDICLE, the stalk of the pollen-masses of certain orchids. [L.]

CAUDLE, kaw'dl, _n._ a warm drink, sweetened and spiced, given to the sick, esp. women in childbed.--_v.t._ to give a caudle to, to mix. [O. Fr.

_chaudel_--L. _calidus_, hot.]

CAUDRON, kaw'dron, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as CAULDRON.

CAUGHT, kawt, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of CATCH.

CAUK, kawk, _n._ chalk: sulphate of baryta or heavy spar. [A form of CHALK.]


CAUL, kawl, _n._ a net or covering for the head: the membrane covering the head of some infants at their birth. [O. Fr. _cale_, a little cap, prob.

Celt.; cf. Ir. _calla_, a veil, hood.]

CAULD, kawld, _n._ (_Scot._) a dam in a stream, a weir.

CAULDRIFE, kawld'-r[=i]f, _adj._ (_Scot._) cold, chilly, lifeless, without vigour.

CAULDRON, CALDRON, kawl'dron, _n._ a large kettle for boiling or heating liquids. [O. Fr. _caudron_--L. _caldarium_--_calidus_, hot--_cal[=e]re_, to be hot.]

CAULESCENT, kaw-les'ent, _adj._ (_bot._) having a stem rising above the ground--also CAULIF'EROUS.--_n._ CAU'LICLE, a rudimentary stem.--_adj._ CAULIC'OLOUS, growing on a CAULICUL[=A]'TA, the black or antipatharian corals.--_adj._ CAULIC'UL[=A]TE.--_n._ CAULIC'ULUS, one of the slender stems springing from the _caules_ or main stalks supporting the volutes in the Corinthian capital.--_adjs._ CAUL'IFORM, having the form of a stem; CAULIG'ENOUS, borne upon the stem; CAUL'INARY, CAU'LINE, belonging to a stem.--_n._ CAU'LIS, the stem of a plant: one of the main stems at the angles of the Corinthian capital. [L. _caulis_, a stalk.]

CAULIFLOWER, kaw'li-flow'[.e]r, _n._ a variety of cabbage, the eatable part of which is the deformed inflorescence or head. [Earlier _cole-florye_, _colie-florie_--Low L. _cauli-flora_--L. _caulis_, cabbage. See COLE and FLOWER.]

CAULK, CALK, kawk, _v.t._ to press oakum and untwisted rope into the seams of a ship to render it watertight.--_ns._ CAULK'ER, one who caulks: a dram: a big lie--also CAUK'ER; CAULK'ING; CAULK'ING-[=I]'RON, an instrument like a chisel used for pressing oakum into the seams of ships. [O. Fr.

_cauquer_, to press--L. _cacl[=a]re_, to tread--_calx_, heel.]

CAUSE, kawz, _n._ that which produces an effect: that by or through which anything happens: motive: inducement: a legal action between contending parties: sake, advantage: that side of a question which is taken up by an individual or party: (_Shak._) accusation: (_Shak._) matter, affair in general.--_v.t._ to produce: to make to exist: to bring about: (_Spens._) to give excuses.--_conj._ (_dial._) because.--_adj._ CAUS'AL, relating to a cause or causes.--_n._ CAUSAL'ITY, the working of a cause: (_phren._) the faculty of tracing effects to their causes.--_adv._ CAUS'ALLY, according to the order of causes.--_ns._ CAUS[=A]'TION, the act of causing: the bringing about of an effect; the relation of cause and effect; CAUS[=A]'TIONISM, the theory of causation; CAUS[=A]'TIONIST, a believer in the foregoing.--_adj._ CAUS'ATIVE, expressing causation.--_n._ a form of verb or noun expressing such.--_adv._ CAUS'ATIVELY.--_adj._ CAUSE'LESS, having no cause or occasion.--_adv._ CAUSE'LESSLY.--_ns._ CAUSE'LESSNESS; CAUS'ER, one who causes an effect to be produced.--CAUSE CeLeBRE, a convenient French term for a specially interesting and important legal trial, criminal or civil.--FINAL CAUSE, the end or object for which a thing is done, esp. the design of the universe; FIRST CAUSE, the original cause or creator of all.--HOUR OF CAUSE (_Scot._), hour or time of trial.--SECONDARY CAUSES, such as are derived from a primary or first cause.--HAVE or SHOW CAUSE, to have to give reasons for a certain line of action; MAKE COMMON CAUSE (_with_), to unite for a common object; SHOW CAUSE (_Eng. law_), to argue against the confirmation of a provisional order or judgment.--For OCCASIONAL CAUSES, see OCCASIONALISM. [Fr.,--L. _causa_.]

CAUSERIE, k[=o]z'ri, _n._ a talk or gossip: a paragraph of chat about literature or art; a short and informal essay on any subject in a newspaper or magazine--as in Sainte-Beuve's famous _Causeries du Lundi_. [Fr.]

CAUSEWAY, kawz'w[=a], CAUSEY, kawz'e, _n._ a raised way through a marsh: a pathway raised and paved with stone: a paved street.--_v.t._ to pave.--_p.adjs._ CAUSE'WAYED, CAUS'EYED. [CAUSEWAY is formed from CAUSEY and WAY. CAUSEY is in M. E. _causee_--O. Fr. _caucie_--Low L.

_calciata_--L. _calx_, heel.]

CAUSTIC, kaws'tik, _adj._ burning: (_fig._) bitter, severe, cutting: (_math._) noting an envelope of rays of light proceeding from a fixed point and reflected (_catacaustic_) or refracted (_diacaustic_) by a surface or a curve.--_n._ a substance that exerts a corroding or disintegrating action on the skin and flesh.--_adv._ CAUS'TICALLY.--_n._ CAUSTIC'ITY, quality of being caustic.--CAUSTIC ALKALI (_chem._), a name given to the hydrates of potassium and sodium, called caustic potash and caustic soda respectively; CAUSTIC AMMONIA, ammonia as a gas, or in solution; CAUSTIC LIME, quicklime.--COMMON CAUSTIC, potash; LUNAR CAUSTIC, nitrate of silver in sticks for surgical use. [L.,--Gr. _kaustikos_--_kai-ein_, _kaus-ein_, to burn.]

CAUTEL, kaw'tel, _n._ (_Shak._) craft: insidious purpose: caution: wariness: a traditionary caution or written direction about the proper manner of administering the sacraments.--_adj._ CAU'TELOUS (_Shak._), cautious: insidious: artful. [Fr. _cautele_--L. _cautela_--_cav[=e]re_, _cautum_, to guard against.]

CAUTERISE, kaw't[.e]r-[=i]z, _v.t._ to burn with a caustic or a hot iron: (_fig._) to sear.--_ns._ CAU'TER, CAU'TERY, a burning with caustics or a hot iron: a burning iron or caustic used for burning tissue; CAUTERIS[=A]'TION, CAU'TERISM. [Fr. _cauteriser_--Low L.

_cauteriz[=a]re_--Gr. _kaut[=e]r_, a hot iron--_kai-ein_, to burn.]

CAUTION, kaw'shun, _n._ heedfulness: security: warning: a surety: (_Scot._) bail.--_v.t._ to warn to take care.--_adj._ CAU'TIONARY, containing caution: given as a pledge.--_ns._ CAU'TIONER, one who cautions or advises: (_Scots law_) a surety; CAU'TIONRY, the act of giving security for another.--_adj._ CAU'TIOUS, possessing or using caution: watchful: prudent.--_adv._ CAU'TIOUSLY.--_n._ CAU'TIOUSNESS.--CAUTION MONEY, money paid in advance as security for good behaviour. [Fr.,--L.

_caution-em_--_cav[=e]re_, to beware.]

CAVALCADE, kav-al-k[=a]d', _n._ a train or procession of persons on horseback.--_v.i._ to go in a cavalcade. [Fr., through It. and Low L. forms from L. _caballus_, a horse.]

CAVALIER, kav-al-[=e]r', _n._ a knight: a Royalist in the great Civil War: a swaggering fellow: a gallant or gentleman in attendance upon a lady, as her escort or partner in a dance or the like: in military fortification, a raised work so situated as to command the neighbouring country.--_adj._ like a cavalier: gay: war-like: haughty, supercilious, free-and-easy.--_v.i._ to act as cavalier.--_adj._ CAVALIER'ISH.--_n._ CAVALIER'ISM.--_adv._ CAVALIER'LY.--_n._ CAVALIER'O, a cavalier.--CAVALIERE-SERVENTE (It.), one who waits upon a lady, esp. a married lady, with fantastic devotion--a cicisbeo. [Fr.,--It. _cavallo_.


CAVALRY, kav'al-ri, _n._ horse-soldiers: a troop of horse or horsemen. [Fr.

_cavallerie_--It. _cavalleria_--L. _caballarius_, horseman.]


CAVATINA, kav-at-[=e]'na, _n._ a short form of operatic air, of a smooth and melodious character, differing from the ordinary aria in consisting only of one part, and frequently appearing as part of a grand scena. [It.]

CAVE, k[=a]v, _n._ a hollow place in the earth: a den: any small faction of seceders from a political party.--_v.t._ to hollow out.--_v.i._ to lodge in a cave.--_n._ CAVE'-BEAR (_Ursus spelaeus_), a fossil bear of the Quaternary CAVE'-DWELL'ERS, prehistoric men who lived in caves.--_n._ CAV'ING, yielding.--TO CAVE IN, of land, to slip, to fall into a hollow: to yield to outside pressure, to give way, collapse. [Fr.,--L. _cavus_, hollow.]

CAVEAT, k[=a]'ve-at, _n._ a notice or warning: a formal warning, entered in the books of a court or public office, that no step shall be taken in a particular matter without notice to the person lodging the caveat, so that he may appear and object. [L., 'let him take care'--_cav[=e]re_, to take care.]

CAVENDISH, kav'en-dish, _n._ tobacco moistened and pressed into quadrangular cakes. [Possibly from the name of the original manufacturer.]

CAVERN, kav'[.e]rn, _n._ a deep hollow place in the earth.--_v.t._ to put in a cavern: to hollow out, in the form of a cavern.--_adjs._ CAV'ERNED, full of caverns: dwelling in a cavern; CAV'ERNOUS, hollow: full of caverns.--_adv._ CAV'ERNOUSLY.--_adj._ CAVER'N[=U]LOUS, full of little cavities. [Fr.,--L. _caverna_--_cavus_, hollow.]

CAVESSON, kav'es-on, _n._ a nose-band for a horse. [Fr.,--It.--L.

_capitia_, _capitium_, a head-covering.]

CAVETTO, ka-vet'to, _n._ a hollowed moulding whose curvature is the quarter of a circle, used chiefly in cornices. [It.; dim. of _cavo_--L. _cavus_, hollow.]

CAVIARE, CAVIAR, kav-i-ar', or kav-i-[=a]r' (originally four syllables), _n._ an article of food made from the salted roes of the sturgeon, &c.: (_fig._) something whose flavour is too fine for the vulgar taste. [Prob.

the 16th-cent. It. _caviale_; the Turk, _kh[=a]vy[=a]r_ is prob. borrowed.]

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